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Dirty Business -

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(generated from captions) Beneath our feet is a treasure
trove of unimaginable riches.

than precious minerals
and dusty mine shafts.

For 150 years, mining has changed in unexpected
and extraordinary ways. It sparked waves of mass immigration
and ignited political revolt.

The stockade is taken and thirty
people are lying dead. They were the shock troops
of Australian democracy.

But mining has also

Their only job
is to deliver a profit

and if that means that they bring
the whole world down with them,

It's wrenched

that offers
the First Australians hope.

is the transformation of the mining

to the major investors
in the indigenous world. It's saved Australia from
financial ruin

and made people rich
in the most unpredictable ways.

There's always been a link between

as the promise for the men:

But this boom and bust business

The police came and they told "They're going to come and they're
going to burn houses."

Mining's rich history is a
battleground that has divided,

It has an effect upon every
aspect of our lives.

So the story of mining
is Australia's story.

and power.

1854, and there's a whiff
of revolution in the air. The goldfields around

are a magnet to radicals

The hundreds of thousands of people

to the south-eastern states of

social opportunity
and social reform.

These people are also after gold.

They want gold.
They want gold, and politics too.

immediately clash

The first power struggle between

Every digger had to take out
a licence to mine for gold.

It was thirty shillings.

and they had to pay it
whether they got gold or not. So it really represented a kind of
poll tax just for being there.

In an act of rebellion, the diggers
gather and burn their licences. But this revolt is about
much more than money.

They rallied under the catch cry of

"taxation without representation and then finally with the headiness
of the time

into an assertion for a whole

At a time when only a privileged these politically inspired miners
demand that same right. With tensions reaching fever pitch,
a hardcore rump of miners, from the Eureka goldfields
in Ballarat, gather. They swear an oath to defend
their rights and liberties

against the authorities.

One man steps forward
from the crowd.

His name is Peter Lalor and He then asks everybody who was there
to drop to their knees.

It's the first time that they gather

and swear an allegiance to a flag December the 3rd, 1854.

The mutineers have built a stockade

150 of them now face hundreds of

who demand to see their licences.

The military know exactly
what they're doing.

They're absolutely baying for blood,

And suddenly, all hell breaks loose. This is hand to hand combat
in really close quarters.

One man had a mouthful

and essentially had

The whole thing

and 30 people, at least,

but the brutal crackdown sends

It recommends a new licensing system,

The Miner's Right that was

was not simply a right
for an individual to dig for gold.

It allowed them to vote,

so it created an extraordinarily that far outstripped
equivalent constituencies

in Europe and Britain.

with the Eureka rebels winning
a fundamental freedom:

the right to vote.

And suffrage for the vast majority is now quickly granted throughout
the continent.

The Eureka Stockade was an
outbreak of anger and violence

that demonstrated what could happen
if legitimate demands weren't met. In that sense, they were the shock
troops of Australian democracy.

Mining has been a catalyst

one of the most democratic
and egalitarian places on earth. But the Eureka Rebellion
is just the beginning

of the tempestuous relationship
between mining and government.

It's a union that,
for better or for worse,

will forge the future of the
nation for the next 150 years.

1893, and a new power struggle
between miners and government

is on the horizon.

Gold has been found in WA
and diggers from the east

bring their shovels and their

The ideas that the men brought

like Victoria and South Australia
were, first of all, political.

The people who had grown up
on the Ballarat goldfields or in Queensland even,
they were used to the idea

of participating in a democracy.

So that this rather woke the The miners are dubbed
'the T'othersiders', because they come from
the far away eastern colonies.

These newcomers, fuelled

will soon challenge the authority

The Forrest government
had done a fairly good job of keeping the miners onside
for the first few years.

But in January 1898, they introduced

to search more than 10 feet
underground for alluvial gold. In an echo of the Eureka struggle,

that this regulation of
the goldfields is grossly unfair.

And so when Forrest arrives in an angry mob of 10,000 miners
are waiting for him.

Some of the people in the crowd
were probably

old Eureka diggers from
the Eureka Stockade.

He was poked and jeered
and of course jostling and pushing

with that amount of miners

He would have been quite fearful
for his life at the time, because he knew just
how many people were around him.

The riot at Kalgoorlie

A mining dispute in the West
quickly escalates into a battle

over the future
of the entire nation.

The other five colonies
are proposing that they join together

The T'othersiders
want WA to be part of the plan,

but this sets them squarely
against most of the locals.

The majority of West Australians

are not interested in Federation
and they believe they're better off

without being part But the T'othersiders,
because they come from the east,

their allegiances are to the east,
they do want to federate.

In 1895-96, if someone
was putting money on what an Australian
federation would look like,

you'd probably have a tick
against New Zealand as joining, and have a question mark
against Western Australia.

But the T'othersider rebels to make their vision of
Federation a reality. They establish the Goldfields
Reform League and then propose

an audacious
and extraordinary plan.

The T'othersiders decided
that if Western Australia

wasn't going to join
Federation as a whole,

they'd carve out their
own little territory

They would carve out Auralia,
meaning 'golden',

and that this would be
a separate state within a state, and that would then join forces
with the other states of Australia.

Auralia would span almost
one million square kilometres.

it would swallow up all
the goldfields of Western Australia.

the colony would then join
a new Federated nation, leaving the rest of WA abandoned.

By the end of 1899, there's

urging that a petition be sent allowing them to separate to join
the Australian Commonwealth.

HARTCHER:
The T'othersiders form a petition
with 30,000 signatures,

that ran to more

Queen Victoria didn't
act on the petition, but it was very embarrassing for
the Premier of Western Australia,

and finally he agreed to hold

that he'd been trying to avoid.

but he makes

to curtail the T'othersiders' power. In an unexpected twist, he comes up
with an historic plan

He grants the vast majority
of women the vote.

Forrest gave women the vote

in the old settled parts
of Western Australia

than there were in the goldfields.

And by enfranchising the women,
he improved the numbers

that were on the side

The 31st of July, 1900.
Nightfall in Kalgoorlie.

The referendum votes are counted.

The future of the state,

The result is overwhelming.
69 per cent vote to join Federation.

Remarkably, Australia's turbulent
marriage with mining

has had two profound

It not only

but sealed The T'othersiders were the people decided to join the Federation.
If it hadn't been for their vote, Western Australia wouldn't have
been part of the federated Australia
in 1901,

and the history of Australia could

Rebellious lone diggers have helped

but times are changing. The 20th century would
be an era of big company mining.

And as the miners are forced
underground, the stage is set for a different power
struggle to explode.

we're no stranger to hard work. You know the value of a dollar. You do more with what you've got. You've earned it. we've been developing easier ways to do your banking, more affordable ways and keeping the banks

Deep in the New South Wales outback,
the mines of Broken Hill

These are some of the most powerful
companies in all of Australia.

But as they dig deeper in search
of ever greater profits, a new radicalism is unearthed amongst
their underground workers. At the time there was a movement
around the world for the workers

and Broken Hill was really
the epitome of the conflict

And so it was a perfect place to see
that cauldron of conflict at work.

of political activism at the same
time, it's the single richest source

By 1908, the biggest and richest

But its workers are
paid a pittance to dig in the deadly underground conditions
in the silver and lead mines.

Eddie Butcher's grandfather
was one of those workers. Down there you've always got

they'd get you up So if you died at home,
it wasn't a fatality.

We've got a mining company that is kind of making it up
as it goes along.

It really doesn't know
how to handle it. It doesn't know how
to build shafts

that are, that are
safe for its workers.

According to official records,
121 miners die at BHP

To protect themselves from this
perilous existence,

the workers look An unshakeable bond is forged,

for years of struggle

What we are dealing with
in Broken Hill is an extraordinarily rich
mining town.

It was proud of its reputation as a

December 1908, and as metal prices But the united miners are now ready They actually set the picket lines They'd have the plans
drawn up for it

and where they were going to be
and how they'd picket,

which streets they'd do. It would
have been a real big organisation.

And when they brought all
the police in,

they used to just charge the picket

CROWD HUBBUB AND WHISTLES

The stand off stretches
from weeks into months.

And backed by their union, the militant miners adopt
increasingly aggressive tactics.

Must have been pretty bad because
they used to build mock graves
for the scabs and mine managers.

They'd actually

and they had like Packard,

they had effigies of him
hanging in the streets.

They'd run a scab out of town

and they'd build a mock grave
to him and say

There were even intimations

and were it not for the tremendous
number of policemen,

then I have no doubt whatever

that the bloodshed would

After five long months, finally intervenes and rules
in favour of the workers. But the raging battle between

In the decades to come this fault
line will spread and deepen.

1914, and from their headquarters
in Melbourne

the captains of Australian mining
are more powerful than ever.

But as World War One erupts, Their main trading partner, Germany,
is suddenly a sworn enemy,

and Attorney General, Billy Hughes,
has a crisis on his hands. The main problem
that Billy Hughes faced when he looked at the metals
industry was that almost the entire
production before the war

had been sent to Germany were vital for munitions
manufacture, so not only he didn't want those
companies trading with the enemy, he certainly didn't want them
sending the Germans

Hughes bans all
trade with Germany.

he's convinced that the miners
in Melbourne are the enemy within,

and are secretly doing
deals with the Germans. Suspicion falls on
the Collins House Group,

Australia's most powerful

the battle between mining and
government turns physical. Billy Hughes suspected
the Collins House Group

of continuing to

and so he launched a raid

The investigators were led in there
by a squad of soldiers

They marched down Collins Street,

boots clattering
on a very still Sunday morning,

banged on the gates, rang the bell,

some of the soldiers began

so that the officials could search

to see if there were any

They find nothing, but behind his
bullish actions,

Hughes has his own

You've got to remember that
Billy Hughes was a politician and so what he was saying
wasn't always the same as what he was doing
and while he was railing

against the Collins House Group
as being virtual traitors

to the nation, at the same time He was secretly negotiating
with them to try and develop

A deal is struck between Hughes,

The power and wealth of the
mining industry extends yet further.

Now they don't just control
the mines,

but the lucrative business of
processing the minerals. And their biggest client is none
other than the government itself.

but one that gives birth to

The deal was done. A cartel, yes, probably obnoxious
by today's standards

but they formed the backbone of an

vital to the growth of Business is booming. And remarkably,

will now use some

to infiltrate the corridors of power

and secretly dictate
who runs the country. The Collins House mining companies
offered financial support,

obviously very quietly,
very behind the scenes,

Collins House hoped to take advantage
of a Labor government

bitterly divided over the most
contentious issue of the day:

They're willing to give money to MPs pro-conscription leader Billy Hughes
and form a new party. The Collins House leaders saw the

and get Billy Hughes to come over

as the leader
of a conservative coalition.

The plot works. Hughes abandons Labor

but is supported by the mining funded He becomes leader of
an entirely new party,

the Nationalists, and stays

that mining bosses use their
extraordinary power and wealth

By the early 1920s,

the most powerful company

They've moved beyond mining
operations at Broken Hill

and are running the country's
biggest steel works in Newcastle.

And they have a new leader
at the helm, Essington Lewis.

Nicknamed the man of steel,

will forge a marriage with government

I regard Essington Lewis as
one of the two greatest businessmen Australia has ever produced,
the other being Rupert Murdoch.

Lewis was the most powerful

He could probably intimidate

1935, and Lewis visits Japan.

and called it "a gunpowder magazine
ready to explode"

and the people as fanatics. And he warned
the Australian government

that they should be

fully supported by
Attorney General Robert Menzies,

continues to export BHP's
metals to Japan.

They both argue that
a strong steel industry

will be crucial should war come.

It's a gamble that will
see Australia pay a heavy price.

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(LAUGHS LOUDLY) (MYSTICAL CHIMES)

(WOLF HOWLS) (FANFARE) (MAN LAUGHS WILDLY) VOICEOVER: Some plan B's

1940 and war rages in Europe.

Now Prime Minister, Robert Menzies

He looks no further than Australian
mining and BHP's charismatic leader,

Essington Lewis. Menzies decided

to run Australia's industry,
he had to be the man who was,

as it were, the tsar of
Australia's industry at that time, with control over our entire
industrial output, with a charter as wide as the seas
and as high as the sky.

Menzies awards Lewis
the post of Director of Munitions

and gives him unfettered access Lewis has the power to write cheques
of a quarter of a million pounds,

and soon employs 150,000 workers

to build ships,
aircraft and ammunition.

Once secretive, the marriage

is now out and proud.
It's also mutually beneficial.

Australia is prepared for war,
and BHP's power and wealth soar.

There's nothing more important
to a nation's struggle

in a war than to have
the wherewithal,

the ammunition, the rifles,

the planes, and Lewis was
at the very peak of that.

His power in Australia was, then it was right up there
with the Prime Minister himself.

but we needed one. Remember, we were

and our supplies from just about

It was very lonely down here,
and we had to rely on ourselves

for our defence equipment.

But on the 19th of February, 1942,

Four months later, BHP's
Newcastle steel works is shelled.

The company's valuable cargo ships
are also sunk.

In a deep irony, mining has not only

Australian minerals have

But the rollercoaster relationship

is set for another
explosive and unexpected twist.

Forty years after the workers
took on the bosses at Broken Hill,

the unionised
coal mines of Australia

become the breeding ground
for a new and radical ideology.

Communism was extremely

to the coal mining industry. In many respects, coal miners
were primitive Communists. They knew acutely,
and in a raw sense,

the meaning of that Communist

So it was quite natural, therefore,
that coal miners would elect to their officials,
Communist leaders in their union.

23,000 coal miners strike over
pay and conditions.

But their Communist leaders
have another agenda. It appears they want to destabilise
Ben Chifley's Labor government.

certainly from the Chifley
government's point of view,

was who would lead the country,
it or the Communist Party.

The Communist Party certainly hoped

to be in a position to

the hold of social democracy
over the working class. So an enormous amount
was at stake.

and the government They freeze trade union funds

Teenager Bill Chapman
is one of thousands

Our job was to go out
and trap rabbits.

I was with a group of teenagers

who was taken Every couple of days
some of the seniors

would come along in a car

and throw in a couple of loaves and them rabbits would be taken
to the area committee

where the women would see
that they would come to good use.

who was found to be supplying credit
to striking miners,

they were liable to be jailed.

I don't know of any

The impact of the strike on everyday
Australians is unprecedented.

industry was grinding to a halt,

Within two weeks,
the blast furnaces of BHP were shut down in Newcastle,
for the first time in its history. Sydney was very much plunged into
darkness during the strike.

I don't think there'd been
another period

and therefore on the lives had been so profound,
so swift and so dramatic. After five long weeks,
half a million are out of work.

The Communist-led unions are not only

but the fortunes NEWSREEL:
Operation Open Cut begins,

so embattled Prime Minister
Chifley raises the stakes.

NEWSREEL: official name for
the Northern Coalfield Army.

Each has been specially trained

At one minute past midnight
on the 1st of August, 1949,

about 20,000 troops who
have been armed, they have bayonets,

They start bringing
coal almost immediately to Sydney.

In a repeat of the Eureka uprising,
the Australian government resorts

to military force to quash After seven weeks, the strikers

There was a complete
feeling of betrayal.

people ever had faith in that

But this

The Communist leadership is crushed
and despite his show of strength,

Chifley's position
is fatally weakened. I don't think the Chifley government
ever recovered from this strike, even though it had demonstrated,
very firmly, its anti-Communist credentials
to a very anxious electorate.

Five months after the strike, the Australian people dump Chifley
as their Prime Minister. Mining may have just helped

but it will now work hand
in hand with the new government.

Robert Menzies returns to the Lodge

and immediately renews close links

Together, they super charge
one of the most significant

immigration schemes ADVERTISEMENT: Oh, go on!
A city means industry, girl,

A country can't go ahead without it.

But with migrants on the job, More than one million migrants arrive
in a single decade. The fabric of society Modern multicultural

We could not have had a mass

if we didn't have
the steel industry provided by BHP

to develop manufacturing

So BHP was absolutely central

the beginning of an industrialised
economy which we have now become.

Two of the biggest population shifts

have been driven by mining, the 1850s and the post
Second World War migration. Now the thing that connects
these two thoughts is the idea

that there is this
bounty to be exploited

and if Australia can get

ready to dig at the same time,

not only do you exploit the bounty,
but you can trade off the bounty

to start building

Together, mining and government have
helped build a new Australia

not everybody wants to be part of

Lang Hancock is a new breed
of mining magnate.

A maverick who doesn't care much Lang Hancock believed explicitly
in the right of the miner

to develop his finds
in the way that he saw fit

and certainly without interference
from government.

Well, Hancock wasn't used to people
saying no to him,

and he grew up on his own
out in that vast, empty Pilbara, you know, on lots of land, and
he was used to doing his own thing. He was not a man of the boardroom.
He was a man of action.

And if you come out here

at this mixed ore zone
that we've got here,

we've got 4,000 million
tonnes here. We've got a thousand million tonnes
of hematite on this loch area,

which is where we're

1952, and Hancock discovers vast
untapped reserves of iron ore

in the Pilbara region of
Western Australia.

The find has the potential to drive

But a bitter power struggle soon

and the WA government over how

Hancock had a nemesis.

he was later knighted, and he became Hancock was the 'rogue bull'.
That was his nickname.

Court wanted to open up the Pilbara
for expansion, as Hancock did.

He wanted companies with esteem
to have the claims.

Hancock just wanted to bowl
everybody over

Court believed that the investing

a lot towards the infrastructure
to build the railways,

to help to pay for the improvement
to the roads

to build company towns where
the workforce could live.

With Court demanding to local communities
as part of a longterm plan,

and Hancock wanting to

the two men lock horns. Your critics on the Western
Australia government say

you're very difficult to deal

Would you agree with this? Yes, I certainly would
agree with it.

And you'd be difficult too
if somebody came along

and tried to take

Hancock now uses his immense wealth He takes over the
'Independent' newspaper in Perth to use as a mouthpiece to
attack the government. The powerful tentacles
of mining are spreading. But Court and the state government
will not back down.

It became a battle that Hancock,

Court stopped Hancock

and the future of one of the richest
mining areas in the world is changed.

If he'd been able to
dictate policy,

I think Western Australia would
just have been a great quarry.

the royalties would have come in
to the shippers,

But there would not have
been the infrastructure

built into the Pilbara
that made it transformed.

This time, government has won

But soon, a Prime Minister's desire to bring this rebellious industry
under control

will spark one of Australia's
greatest political crises.

(LAUGHS LOUDLY) (MYSTICAL CHIMES)

(WOLF HOWLS) (FANFARE) (MAN LAUGHS WILDLY) VOICEOVER: Some plan B's

By the late 1960s, around half are in the hands of
foreign owners. But in Canberra, the new opposition

to wrestle back control and make

Remarkably, it's a plan
that paves the way

for his unexpected

There'd be no developed country,

the things which we can develop
with the greatest skill and speed and profit are passing
so rapidly into foreign hands.

The very first thing
Gough Whitlam said

in his very first press

was not "I want to
reform education or health,

"or even bring sewerage

"What I want is to buy
back the farm". Whitlam favoured resource
nationalism.

He wanted Australia to He didn't like foreign
multinationals owning
Australian resources. He favoured majority
Australian ownership

in as many mining and other

Whitlam appoints Rex Connor as his
Minister for Minerals and Energy.

The mission to buy back
Australian mining can begin. But there's a problem.
The government doesn't have the cash.

So Connor comes up with a plan. Rex Connor's big idea
is to go to the Arabs and ask for four billion dollars.
They're sitting on a pile of cash,

because they've just quadrupled
the price of oil

and Australia, has pretty good relations
with the Arab states. Connor thought "Well, they've
got a spare four billion to lend.

He appoints a guy called
Tirath Khemlani, a Pakistani born, London
based commodities trader

that no one in the city

who told him
he would get the money. It was only a couple of weeks
it took for people to realise

within the government
that Khemlani didn't have the money.

So Rex Connor was told to

ie to stop using Khemlani

and try to raise the funds
through more traditional channels.

He was supposed to stop negotiating, and that then entangled him in
all sorts of deceptions, lies. By the time the story became

not only did we not have the money, and just the idea of the double
dealing with this guy Khemlani

made the Whitlam government stink.

and if it wasn't corrupt,
it was incompetent.

Opposition leader, Malcolm Fraser, to use his majority in
the Senate to block supply.

in one of the most dramatic days
in Australia's history, the Governor General
dismisses the Whitlam government.

Not for the first,
or the last time, a mining scandal

has sown the seeds for the unexpected

The proclamation by the Governor-General's
official secretary

The mining companies had
next to nothing to do

with the demise of

The Loans Affair
was the transaction that the Whitlam government thought
would win them another election.

It turned out to be
the transaction that gave the Coalition, the excuse to bring
down Gough Whitlam.

from striking workers
to a nation building industry, mining's tempestuous
relationship with authority

has forged Australia in unexpected
and extraordinary ways.

is about to spark
the greatest showdown of all.

150 years after
the Eureka rebellion, a very different bunch
of mining radicals

from being a few scruffy
outsiders defying the law to being some of the behemoths
of the international economy demanding their say with This time, the mutinous miners

of idealistic diggers,
but multi-billionaires.

And yet the fight is over

Kevin Rudd announces
a Resource Super Profits Tax,

a 40 per cent tax on the profits
of mining companies,

and the miners are up in arms.

Here's a message to Canberra. The half a million jobs
that rely on mining... The Minerals Council of Australia
and the nation's mining giants

in an advertising

..do so much for this country.

Hurt mining and you're hurting
the whole of Australia.

The campaign runs for six weeks
and Rudd's popularity plummets. It succeeded because

Australians had come to believe
that mining was endemic,

was in our DNA. And so it had a tremendous
credibility to begin with. NEWS VOICE: It's the first time

been dumped by an Australian
political party.

The Eureka miners were seen
as heroes

who helped spark democracy
in Australia.

The miners of today
are accused of self-interest

and toppling

to a very large degree,
to the whole mining industry.

They got the result In fact, for the investment of
that 22 million dollars,

they saved themselves 60
billion over the next 10 years.

The first and last person
who brought down Kevin Rudd

but the mining industry They were the catalyst
for his demise.

Today, I am throwing open

to the mining industry, the mining industry
throws open its mind. I have no doubt whatever that the
mining industry is more powerful

It's more powerful
than most governments.

These great mining companies have
become like states within a nation,

and they have no electorate
to answer to. Their only job is to deliver
a profit to the shareholders.

they bring the whole world down with

Whatever the power and influence 150 years of history
has proved

that its rocky relationship
with government

will forge the future of Australia

after years of destruction, could
mining, somehow, be the great hope

is the transformation from the pillagers to the major
investors in the indigenous world.

MAN: The way we eat

But the image that's used
to sell the food, it is still the imagery
of agrarian America.

You go into the supermarket
and you see pictures of farmers...

and the green grass.

It's the spinning

The modern American supermarket
has on average 47,000 products. There are no seasons

Now there are tomatoes
all year round,

grown halfway around the world, and ripened
with ethylene gas.

In the meat aisle,
there are no bones anymore.

MAN: There is this

this curtain,

and where our food

The industry doesn't want

because if you knew,
you might not want to eat it.

If you follow
the food chain back

from those shrink-wrapped
packages of meat,

The reality is a factory.
It's not a farm. It's a factory.

That meat is
being processed

by huge multinational
corporations

that have very little to do
with ranches and farmers. Now our food is coming
from enormous assembly lines

where the animals and the workers

And the food has become

in ways that are being

You've got a small group
of multinational corporations

From seed to the supermarket,
they're gaining control of food.

This isn't just about
what we're eating. This is about what
we're allowed to say,

It's not just our health
that's at risk. WOMAN: The companies don't
want farmers talking.

How about a chicken club sandwich
made with fresh-cooked chicken? You know,
that's a nice idea,

but I think

is a burger.

SCHLOSSER:

remains a hamburger