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Sixty Minutes -

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(generated from captions) some little wooden pegs that we're going to attach our
Christmas cards to the branches with and, finally,
some added Christmas decorations that will just add a little bit
of colour at the end. All that's left to do
is assemble it. First step,
add your branches to the vase.

You might need to force
some of the bigger ones in. Next step is to attach our cards...

..with our little wooden pegs. And what you've got enough cards,
the last thing to do is to add your Christmas decorations
for a last little pop of colour.

And there you have it - a beautiful
yet practical Christmas card tree.

Now, to make our evergreen stars,
we need a couple of items. Firstly, we've got
some wooden lengths - we're just using Paddle Pop sticks. We've got a hot glue gun, some scissors, some rosemary and some colourful ribbon, which we'll use to hang
our stars at the very end. So, first step is
to take two Paddle Pop sticks and glue them in a cross.

We then take another two and do exactly the same thing. Once they're dry, we're going to glue the two together
to make an 8-pointed star. Second bit, we keep adding our Paddle Pop sticks
around the perimeter. Press them down to dry. And continue all the way
around your star, overlapping as you go. And you just keep going
until you have... ..an 8-point star. Next step is we take our rosemary and glue it.

And once you've covered
your entire star with rosemary, then you can add some decorative
ribbon and it's ready for hanging.

I love the coloured sticks, but
if you're after a more classic look, you can use the plain ones instead. And that's our two projects -
simple but effective.

Thank you so much for enjoying all things Christmas
with us tonight. Remember that all the recipes
and ideas from the show are available in the December issue
of the Australian Women's Weekly, with our very own
Shelley Craft on the cover. All of us at Channel Nine
and the Weekly hope that Christmas
and the new year bring joy, peace and prosperity
to you and your family. Merry Christmas and goodnight.

This program is captioned live. I'm Allison Langdon.I'm Michael Usher.I'm Tara Brown.I'm Liam Bartlett.I'm Liz Hayes.And I'm Charles Wooley.Good evening, and welcome to 60 Minutes. Tonight - cashing in on the mining boom. Fly- in...Get there at 8:00, start work straightaway.Fly-out. Earn a fortune.Can I ask you what sort of money we're talking about?Over $150,000.Big mining companies... Very family-orientated camp.Doing whatever it takes to bring in workers.Cheers.That is not going on telly! (LAUGHS) Also - what a show - millions of animals in a life-and-death march across Africa's volcanic plains.We don't have migrations anymore this large. This is the one.Watch it now, before the curtain comes down forever.If the river were to dry up, we'd lose about 400,000 animals. And...It is showtime!Sweet success...Move it!How an Aussie farm girl...Can't talk to you now! Became America's 'Queen of Cakes'. I'm known as the Simon Cowell of cake. I just wish I made as much money! Plus - more valuable than gold... Just right there is $1,000?!And just as hard to find...Now you know why they're expensive.The dirty tricks of the truffle trade. Very dangerous for me.There's so much at stake, organised crime is muscling in.

We've all heard those doom-and- gloom predictions that the mining boom is over, but there's still mountains of money being made, and will be for a long time yet. A miner in the Aussie outback can pull a 6-figure salary with generous benefits and plenty of time off. And right now, there are thousands of new jobs up for grabs. The workers who take up these positions are known as FIFOs - they fly into small towns, put in crazy hours, then fly out a few weeks later with fists full of cash. But as Liam Bartlett discovered, those big pay packets come at a heavy social and personal cost.

They fly in droves, before the sun rises. An army of fluoro-coloured miners to share the bounty of the boom.

Every 90 seconds, they lift off, making Perth the busiest pre-dawn airport in the country. FIFOs - fly-in, fly-out workers. Ambitious, highly paid, hardworking people, like mine manager Julie Shuttleworth. So it's 5:15 in the morning, and you've got about an 800km flight ahead of you.Yep! Get there around 8:00, start work straightaway.

This crew has just flown into a goldmine near Kalgoorlie for the world's biggest producer, Barrick Gold.

They hurry to work above the ground and deep beneath it. Time is money. This deposit produces $2.5 million worth of gold a day, and the wages reflect that.

So what that drillser doing now - what's that called?That's a jumbo, and that's a jumbo operator.And if I did become one, what would you pay me - what sort of money?In general, on average in the mining industry, you'd get around $150,000 a year for that sort of job.Can you sign me up?!Well, you've got to start at the bottom, Liam!

When you think about it, these people really do have a double life. On any given morning, in the surrounds of any capital city in Australia, they're leading a very suburban existence - the alarm goes off, and four or five hours later, they can be in this, almost a kilometre underground, using the latest high-tech equipment, to dig for gold.

It's only for a certain type of person. Underground miners love what they do. They've got it in their blood, and they love it. Some people, it's not for them.

I'm going to be happy to get back to the surface.

Long-distance commuting is not exactly new - think shearers, fruit pickers, soldiers. But what is new is the size of the pay packets which lock workers into a long- distance lifestyle with a golden seatbelt. Now, the average wage at this goldmine is about $120,000 a year - roughly $720 a day. That's more than double the Australian average. So you can see why it's so very attractive.

Most people here, they live in Perth. Some of them commute from over east. Some people even live in Bali!Julie, you've been voted Australia's mine manager of the year. I mean, you could virtually write your own ticket, couldn't you?No, that's not true. (LAUGHS) Come on, Julie!(LAUGHS) That's not going on telly! (LAUGHS)

Most FIFOs are laughing all the way to the bank - 100,000 of them around Australia, sharing in the rivers of gold. Even now, the resources industry still has vacancies for at least another 4,000 skilled workers, offering free accommodation, free meals and, at this mine, a FIFO roster most of us would kill for.We do an 8-6 roster, which is eight days at site working, followed by six days off. And we travel in company time, which means that six days that we have off is fully ours.I used to work in Perth - on similar money, working six days a week. That's a bonus for me.Would any of you consider living here full-time if you couldn't fly in, fly out?No. No.I think it would be a hard decision.But the decisions can be just as hard for anyone who does want to settle near the mines. The cost of living is outrageous. In fact, the cost of everything is one of the things mining companies are deeply worried about.No-one can come here to live, because there's no accommodation. The pub over the road is $400 a night, plus. (LAUGHS) You could stay in a 5-star hotel in New York for less than $400! Des Moloney runs the general store in Western Australia's largest mining hub of Port Hedland. Here, mining companies have snapped up just about every room, house and caravan, and they've offered almost everyone a job. So Des must match mining-company wages if he's to hold onto staff.Thank you very much! Good help.Can I ask what sort of wages they are on?With tax and super, some of them are over $100,000.$100,000?Yeah. And I have to fly them in and out, one of them. And I have supply housing on top of that.And where do your workers stay, Des?They live at my house.(LAUGHS) So where do you stay?I'm living in the shop!

For Julie, there's no question where she wants to live. Her home in the Perth hinterland offers a welcome respite from the pressures of managing the goldmine, and there's plenty of time off with her partner Brett. You've got a fantastic life here, haven't you? Yeah. We surely like it. It's nice and relaxing, and we get away from the mine and chill out here. There's a nice little house, with some bush around. It's good.

For a monumental commute, it was hard to top Beau Seiffert's journey to work. Home is all the way across the country on the Gold Coast. But the long FIFO haul does bring rewards - whether it's boys' toys, or that next holiday, Beau can afford it all.Absolutely. I was in Bali on my last swing. I can enjoy myself, don't worry about that. It does pay for that.Can I be rude and ask you what sort of money we're talking about?Um... It's over $150,000.

But it all came at a considerable cost. He worked long stretches as a crane driver at Port Hedland, and recently switched to a job in outback Queensland, closer to home. And while he's much better paid than his last job in the navy, sometimes the working conditions in WA didn't seem that much different. So it's similar to the military, is it?It's very regimental. You've got set times, a uniform, times on, times off. My room is - it's not big.No.You're talking 4m by 5m room. You get your toilet and your shower and your TV, but I mean, so do most prisons in Australia as well.It might be frustrating for Beau, but for his mate, Scott Reilly, life as a FIFO has been devastating. Is all that money worthwhile?Well, if I've got to calculate what I've lost and what I've been through, I'd probably say no.What have you lost?Well, I've lost a relationship.Scott Reilly is a safety officer who commutes between Sydney and Port Hedland - all part of a 5-year plan to make money for his family. But the plan went sour three years in. The mother of his young twins, Turner and Heath, decided the pressures of a FIFO relationship were just too much. You can't replace that. Surely that's not worth the money. Well, you can't replace it, no. But how do I maintain a lifestyle for them with a wage that'd be half of what I can earn here?So the money has locked you into the job?Well, in a way it has.

Yeah, we're just coming around the back:.Most companies now know they need to keep workers happy if they're to hold onto them. One in three FIFOs give it away within the first year. The quality of these has been increasing, so that companies keep FIFOs and keep attracting new ones?Exactly.

This is Atlas Iron's Pardoo operation, north of Port Hedland. For mine manager Brad Turner, it's all about providing some comforts of home, and a family-friendly roster.No worries. Carry on. There are people in the industry working even-time rosters - 7 off, 7 off, whatever it might be.7-7 sounds great to me.Sounds great, Liam. Sounds great.A week on, a week off.Unfortunately, Australians keep wanting... We have expectations now that we look after our workers and, offer different rosters and offer different housing choices.

But despite the good money, comfy facilities and generous rosters, mining companies still reckon they just can't get enough workers. And it's why billionaire miners like Gina Rinehart are scrambling to import foreign FIFOs to fill job vacancies.It is very, very difficult to get good people. To get good people technically, and then to get good people that actually fit the culture you're trying to develop as well is, is very tough.

Earlier this year, after seven years living in the Pilbara, Brad became a FIFO himself. His wife Jeanna wanted to move to Perth to get a better education for their four kids.That's why most people leave the town, as well, once they hit high school - because there is only one choice of high school there, and it's not really an option that most people want to take. To keep him, Atlas Iron agreed to fly Brad home every weekend. Does it worry either of you that one day the mining company is going to say, "Look, this is too hard, too expensive. We're just going to employ somebody else from overseas," like Gina Rinehart is going to do?Yeah. We don't want to take jobs away from Australians. We want Australians to work in the mining industry. It's going too tough if they don't want to go there. Even if the mining bubble has burst, investment in this sector seems far from over. New projects over the next few years are worth $180 billion. So brace yourself for a blitz of job ads, as the big miners scramble to fill job vacancies.For me, work-life balance has been key in what I've done. So, great career and great lifestyle. It's worked really well for me, and I encourage everyone to consider it, because I think it's fabulous.

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It's one of the most amazing spectacles on earth - millions of wildebeest travelling hundreds of kilometres across Africa's vast Serengeti Plain. They go north in search of food and water, flanked by graceful zebra and gazelle. It's a treacherous journey. Cheetah and hyena shadow their every step, while hungry crocodiles lurk in the rivers they must cross. Predator and prey - life and death. It's as magnificent as it is horrific. But as Scott Pelley of American '60 Minutes' discovered, this great migration is under threat. And if we're not careful, it could disappear forever. There was a time when epic migrations were common. Millions of buffalo in North America, for example. But today, to see what that must have been like, you have to travel to East Africa. Here, in late summer, more than 1 million wildebeest cross the volcanic plain of the Maasai Mara in Kenya, pushing through one of the most awe-inspiring wildlife habitats on earth. Nearly everything Africa has to offer, all in one place.

The dry season is moving the herds, concentrating them where there's still grass and water. It's a march of 350 miles, up from the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania to the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya, and back again.Wildebeest calves...American scientist Robin Reid was hooked the very first time she saw it as a student. She's on the faculty at Colorado State University, and has spent decades studying the animals - and the Maasai people who share the land with the Mara migration.We don't have migrations anymore this large, as far as big animals that are walking long distance. This is the one.This is the last one on earth? Yes, the last one on earth that is this large.Wildebeest is Dutch for "wild beast", which may refer more to its appearance than any ferocity. I think they look insane. The horns are kind of this way and that, then they have these big shoulders, and why in the heck is that - they're a funny colour, they're not pretty, and they've got a long tail. They're put together in pieces. Well, somebody once said it looks like an animal that's made out of spare parts.And that's very apt. Along with the wildebeest, there are hundreds of thousands of zebra, nearly 500,000 gazelles, and all of them crossing the territory of predators. Including lion... Hyena... This cheetah, that we found with her three newborn cubs...

And the biggest predator of them all, crocodiles that patrol the Mara River, which cuts right through the migration route. This is easily the most dramatic point in the entire year-long migration. There comes a time that the wildebeest and their calves have to cross the Mara River. You can't believe how big these crocodiles are - one of them is at least 15 feet long. But the wildebeest have to come over in order to feed, and the crocodiles know that.

A wildebeest may go through 10 migrations in its lifetime. To see them hesitate at the bank, it's as though many of them knew what was coming.

First, two wildebeest scramble across.

The next group takes the plunge right into the waiting crocs. The big croc strikes, and has the wildebeest's horns between its jaws. A second crocodile attacks...

Then a third... A fourth... And a fifth...

Now it's a struggle to find enough water to pull the wildebeest down to drown.

In the few days that it takes the herds to cross the river, the crocs will bring down enough food to last for months.

Once the wildebeest see where the crocs are, the herd runs upstream and surges across by the hundreds.

crocs are, the herd runs upstream
and surges across by the hundreds. No-one can say how long this migration has thrived, but on the Mara River, we began to see evidence that its future is not a sure thing. Usually, the wildebeest swim across, but now, the river is very low. Could what has happened to other migrations in the world happen here? Is it possible?Of course. Of course. Absolutely. The thing I'll most worried about for the future is the Mara River and the amount of water in it. It's just the main artery of the ecosystem - it's very important.If the Mara River went away, what impact would it have on all this? We're not sure. In the dry season, it's the only thing that flows. If that went away, the wildebeest population would collapse.What do you mean by "collapse"?I don't actually know if there would be very many left, actually.

Not just the wildebeest - it would be many of the other species that require water.You would lose hundreds of thousands of these animals?Yes, absolutely. Absolutely. In fact, the estimates are - this is a guess - if the river were to dry up completely, in the very first week after it dried up, we'd lose about 400,000 animals that would die.In a week?!In a week, yes. And maybe that's an overestimate, but even if it's in a month, that's a lot.

We wanted to find out why the Mara River seems to be drying up, so we headed north to its source, the Mau Forest. The first thing you notice is wheat fields where the trees used to be. Beyond the expanding farms, we headed towards smoke on the horizon. The trip brought us here. We're about five miles from the Mara River. This isn't a wheatfield yet, but it soon will be. What happens before the forest becomes a wheatfield is that charcoalers move to the area and cut down the trees to make one of the principal fuels for cooking. The Mau foricistphologying to a growing population that's trying to make a living off the -- Mau Forest is falling to a growing population that's trying to make a living off the land. For centuries, it's been a sponge. To scientists, the esqaision simple - if there's no Mau Forest, there's no Mara River - and that means no migration. Now, saving the Mau Forest has become a crisis in Kenya, pitting the government against its own people. The government has forcibly evicted as many as 50,000 settlers from the Mau. We saw it in the village of crony, which was -- Nkaroni. In 2005, the government sent security forces to burn homes, schools and churches. But still, the people refused to leave.

TRANSLATION: We will stay. We will not go anywhere. If they want to kill us, they kill us.You'd die right here? ALL: Yes.(APPLAUSE) The villagers in the forest don't see why their families should be uprooted for a wildlife refuge they'd never seen. But we found a different story downriver, in the Mara itself, where the growing population of Maasai has been willing to compromise.The population is a wild problem. It's growing, and it's growing everywhere.Dickson works for a nonprofit foundation that's paying the Maasai to turn over management of their land to a wildlife conservancy.Many of the families before the conservancy started were very poor, and quite a number of them are able now to survive, and they've survived from just keeping cat.The Maasai have been expanding their farms and grazing cattle near the migration routes. Now, the conservancy manages their land. Tourists pay to see the wildlife, and the Maasai get a cut of the profits. Families we talked to say they bring in another $200 a month, enough to send kids to school. He's bought nearly 300 square miles under the management, and that's growing.I think the children, and the children of our children, would like to be experience the migration. It doesn't matter whether they are living in China or in the Far East or in America, they would like to know that the migration is still continuing.As the wildebeest move out of the Maasai Mara, we could see the beginnings of next year's spectacle. The elephants were raising their calves. And that cheetah was feeding her cubs on a gazelle she'd killed. Cheetah cubs chirp like birds. And if they survive, they will still be with their mother when the wildebeest come 'round again. This perpetual cycle is a robust force of nature, but with the Mara River running low, and man crowding the route, no-one can be certain how many turns are left for this, the last spectacle of it kind. -- of its kind.

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Whoever would have thought that cakes could be so cool, or that baking and decorating them could lead to international stardom? Aussie Kerry Vincent is a household name in the US as a tough judge on a reality cake show. She has quite a story to tell - from her early days growing up on a farm in Western Australia, to her new home on the plains of Oklahoma. Along the way, Kerry has won hundreds of awards, and created America's biggest cake show. Little wonder she's known as the 'Queen of Cakes'.

Deep in America's heartland, one of the country's great traditions... It's the Tulsa State Fair in Oklahoma.

But it's not just the cowboys that attract the crowds.

It's cakes. The big, the fancy, and the ostentatious.Cake onboard, cake onboard.And to meet all the icing on these cakes, Australian Kerry Vincent is the star of the show.The cake, the cake. Move it. You're a celebrity in the US!In the cake niche, yes. I'm not up there with Nicole Kidman or any of those, but I certainly have my followers.They love you so much here, they've even named a day after you!(LAUGHS) Yes, they did.October 6 is Vincent vips Day.It is. It's not bad, having your own day, is it?From Tulsa, Oklahoma, Kerry Vincent. Kerry Vincent has the unlikely title of Queen of the Cakes.All I can say is get it right, or don't do it at all.At 67, she is America's most famous cake judge, a fixture on the popular cooking show 'Challenge', as the acid-tongued, tough-talking Aussie.I could hit you, marina. What could you have been thinking? I'm not as bad as people think. I'm known by many names. The Simon Cowell of cake. The dominatrix of decorating. Sugar tsar. The queen of cakes. You name it. And mamma cake. We need the sound set up there. It should be set up.When she's not slicing and dicing contestants on the small screen, Kerry reigns supreme as queen Bea at the cake show that she founded 19 years ago.

I do have one gripe. I'm surrounded by cake, yet there's nothing I can eat.Yes, because they're like styrofoam inside. The reason for that is because we are about decoration, circus decoration, not about cake. Welcome to styrofoam heaven! (LAUGHS)

It's grown into the biggest, and the richest, cake competition in the land.I can't talk to you now. Thanks to Kerry's trademark force of personality.OK, and then just roll it over there behind the scenes out of my sight. What's going on here? There's no mike? I'm back! Somebody said to me once that there's a whole bunch of people like me stacked away in Australian schools - the headmistress, one of the good old days - a whack on the fingers. If I would be living at home, this would never have happened to me, because there's too many like me there. (LAUGHS) I don't think there's too many Kerry Vincents in the world, Kerry. I think there's only one.

That one's actually quite nice- looking, there.How Kerry ended up in America's Midwest is really a love story.There's cute little ones. I like those.Oil businessman Doug Vincent met the beautiful young model 38 years ago, and brought her home to Oklahoma. What do you love most about her?Just her. Everything.Good answer, Doug. If I answer the wrong way, you get a big fight right here on camera! That wouldn't be very good.Not going to happen.No.

A dear little fellow.It's all a long way from the sheepstation in Western Australia where she grew up baking sponge cakes for the shearers.I was cracking eggs into basins and mixing sugar and soap. I was five. We made vanilla slices. We made all sorts of lamingtons. Coconut ice, all the old-fashioned staples that are really the backbone of Australian cooking.Do you still consider Australia home? Yes. I'm a card-carrying Australian. I haven't taken dual citizenship. And if I would have a tattoo, it would be a kangaroo on my backside.

This is just like Play-Doh.It is. At home, in Kerry's kitchen, is where she's always honed her exceptional skills.This is not something that you're going to sit and make 300, otherwise you'd be here until the Second Coming.You'd never get out of your kitchen.No. Whether it's cupcakes or the exquisite wedding cakes that made her famous, this is where you appreciate just what a gifted artist she is. Do you say I'm the most talented amateur cake decorator you've ever dealt with?I suppose, probably if I want to suck up. (LAUGHS) You are a successful cupcake-maker. Not bad for 30 minutes work!

And in kitchens across America, Kerry Vincent wannabes are sweating over their own works of art.

In Springdale, Arkansas, Jennifer Matsubara is beavering away on her entry for the Tulsa Fair.Alright! It's ready.She's clocked up 200 hours, and is on her fourth attempt. To win this is like becoming Miss America. It is the best experience that any cake decorator could ever hope or dream for.Mmm. And it could be you this year.(LAUGHS) You could be the Miss America of Cakes.I could!Do you get a tiara? I hope so! Maybe a headband from Kerry.(LAUGHS) But Jennifer won't be taking home the top prize if defending champion Gary Silverthorn has anything to do with it. For Gary, decorating the cake is the easy part. It's the 19- hour drive from Michigan that he's dreading, with his precious cargo onboard. Many bumps along the way? Many bumps. Ahhh. OK. We had some damage. We lost our tapper. But I do have some spare parts, so hopefully we can put it together to look good. I've been doing cakes since I was 10 years old. I'm passionate about it. I dream about it. I live it every day. So this is just an outlet. Cakes are my life. Always have been. Kind of sad, sometimes. But that's who I am.

The stakes couldn't be higher, so Kerry is exacting, if not, well, a little brutal.A lot of work into the birds. The only thing I see - this bird looks good. I'm a bit worried about his neck. He looks like he's a bit sad and dress depresed, that bird.Come on! That is way too harsh.Oh, dear.It is! We can't ever let you on a judging panel. Never, never, never, never. All this placating people for their sensibilities and making them feel good - if you're not up to it, there's always next year.That's the acid tongue I was talking about. I knew it was in there.It's in there somewhere.You were being way too nice earlier! Nice, or nasty, these people simply can't get enough of her. You get the sense that Kerry can't quite believe that fame has found her at all, let alone at this stage in her life. I'm a cake lady. I can go out and meet fans all over the place. I can find them in the grocery store. They hear my voice two aisles away, and the next minute, somebody says, "Mrs Vincent is there."You're liking this fame, aren't you?I had a really good time at the Golden Globes, running around with Kate Winslet and John Travolta. Suddenly around the corner, there was this avalanche of cameras and stuff going off, and I said, "Well, what can do I do now?" The woman said, "Haven't your people told you what to do?" I said, "I don't have any people!" (LAUGHS) I am my people!

Two days, 600 cakes, and it all comes down to that defining moment all contestants both dread and anticipate.Silverthorn - silver, 922.But for Gary and Jennifer, all those hours - all that sugar - couldn't compete with this show- stopper.

(APPLAUSE)

(CHEERING AND APPLAUSE)

It may be over for them, but it's not over for me. They're still packing up. There's a long road ahead tonight.Are you exhausted?I actually am pretty good. I just go like the Eveready buny and keep on rolling and rolling and rolling. So far as I'm concerned, it's like, "Keep on keeping on, until it's over." And the cake lady sang! # You are the dancing queen # Young and sweet # Only 17 Kerry Vincent is certainly a surprise. This queen of cakes is irrepressible - a girl from the bush who was teaching the world how to enjoy the sweeter things in life. I can't see myself sitting on a couch and waiting to die, so I will probably go a little slower as the years pass, but I still will have my skates on, and I can beat you. On my feet! (LAUGHS)

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It's the most expensive food in the world, and one of the trickiest to find. I'm talking about the humble truffle, that ugly lump of underground fungus that is revered by chefs everywhere. A perfect 1kg specimen can fetch as much as $300,000. With that kind of money around, no wonder organised crime is muscling in on the action. Back- alley deals, brazen thefts, counterfeiting rings - such is the shadowy underbelly of the international truffle trade. Lesley Stahl of American '60 Minutes' digs up the dirt on these culinary diamonds. He found one already? Where? Where?. He found one? Oh, my God. Smell that! In the beautiful Italian province of Perugia, truffle hunters roam the frosty hills with their trained dogs, who sniff out these lumpy mushrooms when they're ripe, one at a time, as they have for centuries. Truffles grow wild underground, usually at the base of an oak tree. They used to use pigs, but they ate the truffles.

Very rich American people - they only see truffles on the table of a very elegant restaurant. They don't see this. Now you know why they are expensive, right?Olga Urbani may be the only person in the world who goes truffle-hunting in a full- length fur coat and a Caribbean tan. But in the truffle business, she can pretty much do what she wants. Olga!Her company, Urbani, controls 70% of the world's truffle trade. When you find a truffle, it's like having a miracle.Other countries, including the US, have tried cultivating truffles, with only limited success. It's the combination of European-rid soil and rainy summers that produce an especially rich, earthy flavour. The price these truffles command make hunters act like they're mining for gold. So this is $1,000? Just right there is $1,000?! These truffles will go right to the Urbani factory, where they're washed, sorted, and either frozen or canned, or flown fresh to fancy restaurants like New York's DB Bistro Moderne, home of the $150 hamburger smothered with truffles. A few shavings on pasta can run you even more. At an auction in Macau in 2010, this 2-pound white truffle sold for $330,000 - a record amount. It's not like agriculture. People don't put a seed in the ground.No. And they're a fungus.Yes, they're underground fungus.The farmer really can't make it happen.No. They can't do anything.

really can't make it happen.No.
They can't do anything. We can't do anything. We are always on the phone, saying, "Sorry, sorry, I don't have, I don't have. I wish I had 100 tons a day to make everybody happy."In France, the truffle is so revered that, in the village of Uzes, a special mass is held in its honour. Churchgoers not only put money in the collection plate, they also add truffles.

only put money in the collection
plate, they also add truffles.

only put money in the collection
plate, they also add truffles. There's a reason for the special prayers - because of climate change, the harvests are down from an annual haul of 2,000 tons of truffles 100 years ago, to just 30 tons today. The scarcity and high prices have attracted elements of organised crime, who've turned the truffle trade into something resembling the drug trade. TRANSLATION: The reality is, behind the popularity of the truffle lies a dangerous world. My house is your house!One of Europe's most famous truffle connoisseurs is the-than-life French chef and restaurateur, known simply as Bruno. Is it like the Mafia?Yes!Really?It's good. Good name.Well, explain.It's very difficult to explain, because... Very dangerous for me.At Bruno's restaurant in the heart of Provence, wealthy Europeans helicopter in from Paris and Monaco just to eat lunch. Bruno goes through about five tons of truffles a year, which his chefs shave on everything from potatos to this amazing lobster dish. But Bruno says the growing black market has led to people coming to his place not just to eat truffles, but to steal them. The robbers came and got your truffles? TRANSLATION: Yes, they stole 200kg of truffles.200kg from you?They didn't steal my money. They stole my truffles.Some of the stolen truffles, we were told, are brought to markets like this one, where middlemen sell out of the backs of cars or trucks. But large quantities change hands in back alleys. We witnessed this transaction, where the buyers and sellers wanted their identities hidden. In less than a minute, 50 pounds of truffles were exchanged for 30,000 euro - about $40,000 - with no questions asked about where the truffles came from. TRANSLATION: There's a problem of confidentiality and secrecy, and that encourages a Mafia-like attitude.Michel Tournayre, a third-generation truffle farmer, says that local trufflers have been car-jacked, beaten with baseball bats, and even killed. Thieves came and stole his truffles, his trees and, worse, his dogs. When they took your dogs, what did you do? TRANSLATION: I looked for them all over Europe. I found a world I didn't know about. It's a world that's roten to the core.Did you find your dogs?Never. But it's not criminals or climate change that worry the trufflers the most - it's China. For years, Chinese farmers used truffles as feed for their pigs. That was until a businessman supposedly said, "The hell with the pigs, let's feed the French!" Even if the taste of a Chinese truffle leaves something to be desired. Let's talk about the Chinese truffle.Catastrophic! Catastrophic? TRANSLATION: The Chinese truffle is worthless.No perfume? You couldn't smell it? Nothing?No taste? No. Is If I went to China and took it out of the ground, it still wouldn't taste as good?No, it's like eating wood.She says that's because of the way truffles in China are farmed. Unlike in France, where dogs smell when a truffle is ripe, the Chinese rake at the earth with no dogs, and harvest the truffles the minute they find them, which explains why, while the two truffles look the same, the price is drastically different.Price of Black Winter Truffles is about $1,000 a pound. A pound of Chinese, maybe $20 or $30. There are many people - bad people - who mix them. So maybe they put a 30% of Chinese, 70% of...And they think you won't see it?. On the day we were at the Urbani factory, sorters found a number of Chinese truffles mick mixed in with that day's purchases. They were separated out into specially marked red baskets. More and more Chinese truffles are slipped in with the good French or Italian strains. Experts say it's like cutting flour into cocaine. But look, your own farmers and middlemen are putting the Chinese in with your truffles. Yes.Food importers and middlemen are bringing 28 tons of Chinese truffles into France a year. And many are being passed off as the real thing in some French restaurants. Michel Tournayre says he's brought home some slices from his dinners out, and studied them under a microscope in his lab at home to check their origins. It does look different. Tournayre has tried to blow the whistle on the restaurants that sell Chinese truffles at French prices, but the police have more important matters on their plate, and rarely do anything about it. 28 tons of Chinese truffles come into France every year. Where do they go? TRANSLATION: I think I know where they go, but I'm not going to tell you.If you tell me, you're in trouble, is what you're saying? They'll hurt you? TRANSLATION: Everybody is in danger in this business.

So owe began to look for Chinese truffles ourselves. We found this product, that is exported to the US. On the front of the can, it says "Black Winter Truffles, product of France." On the back, in small print, it says "tuber indicum," the Latin name for "Chinese truffles." The owner of this brand is George Peponis. So this says -- It's Chinese?It's Chinese, yes. This is a French product. The truffles - if I mixed in, in China, it's a Chinese truffles.I'm stunned. He was saying that, since the truffles are packaged here, he can legally write "product of France" on the label. TRANSLATION: They're putting into danger the crown jewel of French gastronomy.The great fear for Michel Tournayre and the other trufflers in France is that the Chinese will do to their precious delicacy what they have done to Louis Vuitton bags - produce a knock-off that looks the same, but is of lower quality. But in this case, it could just put them out of business.

This program is not captioned. DRIVER: Oh, move your rumps!
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This program is not captioned. What does a long bar have to do
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What does a Parisian artist have in common with a touring cricket team?

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This program is not captioned. If you want great deals
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This program is not captioned. It's time for us to go, but don't forget, you can find more on any of our stories, including behind-the- scenes photos and extended interviews, by going to our website. You'll also find us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter. Well, that's our program for tonight. We'll be back next time with another edition of 60 Minutes. I'm Charles Wooley. Thanks for your company. See you then. Supertext captions by Red Bee Media - www.redbeemedia.com.au.

This program is not captioned.

(SIREN WHOOPS)
I COULD SEE THE GLOW
FROM AROUND THE CORNER. I THOUGHT
THE WHOLE ALLEY WAS ON FIRE. WHAT WERE YOU DOING OUT HERE? DELIVERING PIZZAS. I LIKE TO USE THIS ALLEY
AS A SHORTCUT. AND DID YOU SEE ANYBODY
WHEN YOU WERE OUT? NO, JUST, UH, YOU KNOW,
THE GUY IN THE CAR, AND--AND I DIDN'T EVEN SEE HIM
AT FIRST. TOO MUCH SMOKE. WAS HE STILL ALIVE? I DON'T THINK SO, NO. I MEAN, HOW COULD HE BE,
HANDCUFFED INSIDE A BURNING CAR? WHO IS HE, ANYWAY? (SIGHS)
WE'RE STILL WORKING ON THAT. POOR BASTARD. BURNED ALIVE?
THAT'S NO WAY TO TO GO.

(INDISTINCT CONVERSATIONS,
POLICE RADIO CHATTER) (HELICOPTER BLADES WHIRRING)

(CLANK) OH, HEY, CHO.
SCARED THE HELL OUT OF ME. (SIGHS) I JUST FOUND THESE. THAT'S VERY CARELESS
OF SOMEONE... OR PERHAPS CAREFUL.

(ELECTRICITY CRACKLES)

(CRACKLE)

WHAT'D YOU FIND? NOT SURE YET.

COVER ME.

(SNIFFLES)

# # (INDISTINCT CONVERSATION)

# # (GASPS, FEMININE VOICE) OH!
UH... (SIGHS) WE'LL BE OUT SOON. OH, WE'RE NOT HERE
FOR WHAT YOU'RE HERE FOR. DOES THIS BELONG TO ANYONE? (MURMURING) I GUESS IT'S TRUE
WHAT THEY SAY-- "TIME WOUNDS ALL HEELS."
THESE ARE MY FAVORITE. I'M AGENT LISBON WITH THE CBI.
WHAT'S YOUR NAME? GLENNDA SNOW.
I'M THE EMCEE OF OUR TROUPE. WE DO A CABARET. WE FOUND YOUR HEEL
IN THE ALLEYWAY, ALONG WITH A DEAD MAN. HE'D BEEN SET ON FIRE. OH, WE HEARD THE SIRENS OUTSIDE,
BUT WE HAD NO IDEA. WHAT WERE YOU DOING
IN THE ALLEY? ENJOYING AN ULTRA SLIM. I ALWAYS SMOKE A CIGARETTE
BEFORE THE FIRST SHOW. AND WHAT TIME WERE YOU
OUT THERE? I DON'T KNOW EXACTLY. 8:30? THE ARSON INVESTIGATOR
SAYS THE FIRE WAS SET SOMETIME
BETWEEN 8:45 AND 9:00. OH, WELL, GLENNDA WAS WITH US
BY THEN. YEAH, THAT'S RIGHT. SHE HELPED ME
INTO MY COMPRESSION GARMENTS. I WAS. WHO DIED? WHO WAS IT? WE DON'T KNOW.
TWO MINUTES TO CURTAIN, GIRLS. WHOO! IF YOU'LL EXCUSE ME,
THE STAGE IS CALLING. HANG ON A MINUTE. DID YOU SEE
ANYBODY IN THE ALLEY? AS A MATTER OF FACT,
THERE WAS A MAN IN A PARKED CAR,
WATCHING ME. WHAT DID HE LOOK LIKE?
I COULDN'T SEE HIS FACE. IT WAS DARK,
BUT I FELT VULNERABLE, SO I HIGHTAILED IT BACK
INTO THE CLUB, AND THAT'S WHEN I FELT
MY HEEL BREAK. WHY DIDN'T YOU PICK UP
YOUR HEEL?

IN THIS DRESS, DARLING? (MAN, VOICE AMPLIFIED)
TIME TO WELCOME THE SACRAMENTO PRINCESS
YOU'RE DYING TO POSSESS-- THE DELECTABLE GLENNDA SNOW! (CHEERING) # # I THINK HE'S TELLING
THE TRUTH. I DON'T KNOW. THE OTHER DRAG QUEENS COULD
HAVE BEEN COVERING FOR HIM. WELL, I FIND IT UNLIKELY THAT A MAN IN HEELS, SEQUINS,
AND, UH, AN ELABORATE HAIRSTYLE WOULD SUBDUE AND HANDCUFF
ANOTHER MAN AND THEN SET HIM ON FIRE. OH, NO. OH, PLEASE DON'T. PLEASE. THEN AGAIN,
HE'S VERY FORCEFUL. (APPLAUSE) OH, AND EXTREMELY LIMBER. # # CAPTIONED BY
CLOSED CAPTIONING SERVICES, INC.

CAR WAS REGISTERED
TO ARCHIE BLOOM. LOCAL BOY, 19 YEARS OLD. FORENSICS REQUESTED
DENTAL RECORDS TO CONFIRM
HE'S THE VICTIM. HAVE WE CONTACTED
THE PARENTS? SACRAMENTO P.D. SPOKE
WITH HIS FATHER LAST NIGHT-- ARCHIE BLOOM SR. HE'S A LOCAL SUPERINTENDENT
OF SCHOOLS. UH, WELL, WHAT DO WE KNOW
ABOUT THE CAUSE OF DEATH? NOTHING TILL THE AUTOPSY,
BUT THE CORONER FOUND NO CAUSE TO CONTRADICT THE THEORY THAT
HE WAS BURNED ALIVE. THEN THAT'S
HOW WE'LL PROCEED. WHAT WAS THE VICTIM DOING
IN THAT ALLEY? WE DON'T KNOW. UH, THE FIRE WAS SET OUTSIDE
A DRAG QUEEN VENUE, BUT THERE'S
A DOZEN BUSINESSES THAT OPEN UP
ONTO THAT ALLEY. ARCHIE COULD HAVE BEEN TIED
TO ANY ONE OF 'EM. SAC P.D. WANTS TO HELP
ON THIS ONE. I'LL ASK THEM TO SHOW
THE VICTIM'S PHOTO AROUND. ONE THING I DO KNOW
IS WE'VE GOT A LOT OF FINGERPRINTS
TO WORK WITH-- ON THE CAR, ON THE GAS CAN. THEY EVEN FOUND A PARTIAL
ON THE HANDCUFFS. I CHECKED THE BAR CODE
ON ONE OF THOSE GAS CANS. IT CAME
FROM A LOCAL DISCOUNT STORE-- BARGAIN EMPORIUM. YOU AND RIGSBY GO
AND CHECK IT OUT. ALL RIGHT.
OKAY. I WANT YOU AND JANE TO GO
TALK TO ARCHIE SR. HE'S GONNA WANT TO BELIEVE
HIS SON'S ALIVE. CAREFUL NOT TO BUILD UP
HIS HOPE. ALL RIGHT.

HE'S DEAD, ISN'T HE? I KNOW HE'S DEAD. IT WAS HIS CAR, RIGHT? WE'RE STILL WAITING
FOR A POSITIVE I.D. BUT YOU'RE MOVING FORWARD
ON THE PREMISE THAT IT WAS HIM, AM I RIGHT? YES. THANK YOU.

YOU DON'T SEEM SURPRISED. I'M NOT. M-MY SON WAS A VICTIM
HIS WHOLE LIFE. NEVER A MURDER VICTIM. NO, BUT IT WAS
MY DEEPEST FEAR... (SIGHS) THAT ARCHIE WOULD GET HIMSELF
INTO A DANGEROUS SITUATION. HE WAS A TROUBLEMAKER? EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE. HE WAS
THE TARGET OF TROUBLEMAKERS. SOFT, I SUPPOSE YOU COULD SAY. THAT'S WHY IT WAS SO HARD
ASKING HIM TO MOVE OUT. ARCHIE HADN'T BEEN
LIVING HERE? WE HAD A DEAL. I WOULD
PROVIDE ROOM AND BOARD WHILE HE EARNED
A COLLEGE DEGREE, BUT SIX MONTHS AGO...
(CHUCKLES) ARCHIE DECIDED THAT COLLEGE
WASN'T HIS THING. SO YOU INVITED HIM TO LEAVE? IT WAS A TEACHING MOMENT.

(SNIFFLES)
PAINFUL, BUT NECESSARY. HOW'D YOUR WIFE FEEL
ABOUT THAT? MY WIFE DIED
WHEN HE WAS 6 YEARS OLD. IT'S BEEN THE ARCHIES
EVER SINCE. THE BOY WAS NOTHING
LIKE ME. WHY, BECAUSE HE'S GAY?

I DON'T...

WAS HE? IS THAT WHAT IT SAYS
IN YOUR FILES?

WE DON'T KEEP FILES
ON GAY PEOPLE. I MEAN, IT'S OKAY
IF HE WAS. I WOULD NEVER JUDGE ANYONE
BASED ON SUCH CRITERIA. BUT IF HE WAS, HE--HE NEVER TALKED
TO ME ABOUT IT. I HAVE TO ASK.
PROCEDURE AND ALL. WHERE WERE YOU LAST NIGHT
AT 8:45? HOME ALONE. WORKING. I'M WRITING A BOOK
ON EDUCATIONAL THEORY. I'D LIKE TO TAKE A LOOK
AT YOUR SON'S BEDROOM, IF YOU DON'T MIND.

DOWN THE HALL
ON YOUR RIGHT.

HOW DID YOU KNOW
ARCHIE WAS GAY? WELL, ARCHIE SR. NAMED HIS SON
AFTER HIMSELF, LIKE A KING. HE WAS HOPING FOR AN HEIR, YET THERE'S NOT ONE PHOTO
OF JUNIOR IN THE HOUSE. YOU THINK
HE'S ASHAMED OF HIM. I MEAN,
WELL, LOOK AT THIS ROOM. TRADITIONAL MASCULINE DECOR. BOLD NAUTICAL THEMES. IT'S LIKE A FURNITURE CATALOG
THREW UP IN HERE. YES. (CHUCKLES) THESE ARE NOT THE CHOICES
OF A TEENAGER. I THINK ARCHIE SR. PERSONALLY
DECORATED THIS ROOM IN THE ATTEMPT
TO BUTCH-UP HIS GAY SON. SHOULD'VE SEEN
MY ROOM BACK HOME. POSTERS EVERYWHERE. LET ME GUESS. HANSON? THEY WROTE THEIR OWN MUSIC. AH. LOOKS LIKE ARCHIE DID HANG
SOMETHING ON THE WALL. I'M GUESSING THAT WAS A PHOTO
OF HIM AND HIS MOTHER. WHAT'S ON HIS COMPUTER? IT'S PASSWORD-PROTECTED. I'LL HAVE TO TAKE
THE HARD DRIVE BACK TO CBI AND RUN
SOME RECOVERY SOFTWARE. OH, OKAY. YOU DO THAT.

(INDISTINCT CONVERSATIONS,
TELEPHONE RINGING IN DISTANCE)

THANK YOU FOR COMING. THE WOMAN ON THE PHONE SAID THAT YOU'D LIKE ME TO HELP
WITH YOUR INVESTIGATION. YES. WE NEED TO SEE
IF YOUR FINGERPRINTS MATCH THE PRINTS WE FOUND
AT THE CRIME SCENE. OH, SO I'M
A PERSON OF INTEREST? YEAH, YOU ARE. HMM. CAN I ASK YOU SOMETHING? DO YOU ALWAYS GO OUT
LIKE THIS? IN DRAG, I MEAN. WHENEVER I GET DRESSED,
I TRY TO CONSIDER WHERE I'M GOING,
WHO I'M GOING TO SEE, AND HOW I CAN
BLOW THEM AWAY. LET ME ESCORT YOU
TO FINGERPRINTING. A POLICE ESCORT.
HOW COULD I REFUSE?

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