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Lost Worlds -

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(generated from captions) LILY: I'm headed for Bellingen,
not far off the highway,

just south of Coffs Harbour.

Tourists have taken this detour
since the first dirt roads went in.

And it's pretty clear why.

But these days, there's even more
reason to turn off at Waterfall Way.

Inside this quaint
turn-of-the-century cottage,

you'll find some of the best food
in the region.

Ray and Toni Urquhart run
No 2 Oak Street.

Hello. You must be Ray. I'm Lily.
Nice to meet you.

- Hi. You must be Toni.
- Pleased to meet you.

Their food is so good,
they've won two Chef's Hats.

That's almost unheard of
out in the sticks.

Bellingen isn't a huge town.

- It's, what, 3000 population.
- Yeah.

To have a restaurant like us
in a small country town
is absolutely crazy, really.

Ray is a classically trained
French chef and Toni has won
a maitre d' Silver Service Award.

This has been our baby.

We bought this building
and re-did it from scratch

and designed all the inside out

and bought all the best crockery,
cutlery,the things we always
wanted at the end of our career

because this IS
the end of our career.

But not quite how they planned it.

A few years ago, Toni got cancer,

though right now
she's fighting back.

As for Ray,
he's just feeling his age.

You don't see a lot of very old
chefs around these days.

- Not that I'm that old.

But, uh...

..yes, it's time to slow down.

- The grey hair will give it away.
- It's working well.

But they did have a kind of
succession plan -

a talented son
and a spirited daughter.

For these kids,
their creche was the kitchen.

They were helping us in the kitchen,
mostly as our "dish pigs",

if we're allowed to say.

So now your kids are running
the restaurant?

Yes. Michael and Shani.

Michael is in the kitchen
and Shani's on the floor.

Does that make you proud?

- What would we do without them?
- Yeah.

How many years are there
between you two?

Just two. Just two.

- He's the young one.
- (LAUGHS) Yeah.

And do you always get along
in the restaurant?

Always. Always.
We never have a drama.

He's a good chef.
Doesn't throw things at me.

How do you think he's going?
I think he's doing a very good job.

- Yeah.
- Extremely. He's gonna make it.

Big-time. Yep. For sure.

If he does, Michael owes a fair bit
to his dad's brilliant training.

MICHAEL: His food has always been
big, bold, generous portions

which is really good,
but I've cut it down a little bit

and, you know, tried to use
a few different ingredients
that he hasn't used before,

that he doesn't necessarily
agree with all the time.

But, you know, I think
he likes what I'm doing.

From the moment Michael took over,
the pressure was on.

Ray held a single Chef's Hat award
for seven years running

and they desperately
wanted to keep it.

All our reviews were done
on my menu.

So I was always
just a bit worried

that I was gonna lose their...

..awards and the Chef's Hats
and things like that.

Quite the opposite happened.

The complete opposite happened
to what I was dreading -

losing our Chef's Hat.

Instead we gained an extra one,

which was, you know...
that was an amazing, amazing feat

for, you know, such a small place.

The food here really is sensational.

And here's one of Michael's
current favourites.

Rolled rabbit with smoky bacon,

creamed spinach
and roasted celeriac.

MICHAEL: With a dish like this,
we need a sauce,

so what we do, we get the bones,
we put them in the oven

and we roast them
at about 180-200 degrees

for about 10-15 minutes.

And we put them in a pot
with veal stock, thyme

and we'll let that reduce.

Once we've done that, we need
to heat up a bit of creamed spinach,

which I've made earlier,
and a bit of roasted celeriac.

Warm them separately.

And we'll lay streaky smoked bacon.

And then once that's done we'll fold
the rabbit up into a little log,

put that in the middle
of the streaky bacon

and then we'll just tie it up

and we'll cook that in a pot
of just lightly simmering water

for about 25 minutes.

It's got to sit in iced
water for at least half an hour.

You want it to cool
right down to the centre.

Once we've done that,
we'll take it out

and we'll slice it in
roughly about six portions.

What we do is heat up
a little, small, heavy-based pan.

A little bit of butter
and olive oil.

We'll seal it on one side,
get it nicely caramelised,

turn it over and put it in the oven
for probably about 5-10 minutes.

Then we take it out of the oven

and serve it with
a bit of creamed spinach,

roasted celeriac

and the beautiful rabbit jus.

DAN SNOW: 1487 -
a religious war is raging.

Christian is fighting Muslim

for control
of what is now southern Spain.

At the heart of this war
is the city of Malaga.

Muslim forces have
held this key port for centuries.

Now they must win the battle,

or risk losing their kingdom.

They're relying on
the walls of Gibralfaro Castle

to save their empire
from annihilation.

For 1,000 years,
castles have dominated the landscape

and everything around them.

I'm Dan Snow

and together
we're going to explore the sites

of some of the greatest sieges
of the Middle Ages -

the very moments when the fates
of empires hung on castle walls.

This is Battle Castle.

Malaga, Spain.

This port is
an historic and commercial hot spot

that sits near the entrance
to the Mediterranean -

at the crossroads
between Europe and Africa.

Today, it's one of Spain's
biggest cities and busiest ports.

And for the tourists
that flock here,

it's a place of sun, sea
and siesta.

But in the late 15th century,

this was the site
of a cruel and bloody siege.

Inside is a Muslim army of 9,000 -

but completely outnumbered.

Engineered to defend this realm,

Malaga's fortifications are designed
to guard this key trading post

against any attacker.

It has not one,
but two military strongholds

built of brick and stone

and united
by an ingenious passageway.

The mightier of the two,
Gibralfaro Castle,

dominates the landscape.

In 1487, a Christian army
more than 70,000-strong

sits outside the city walls,

ready to lay siege
by land and sea.

It serves two monarchs,
joined by marriage,

and intent on reclaiming what
they believe is rightfully theirs...

..the Muslim kingdom of Granada.

The fight for these fortifications

marks a defining moment
in a conflict that spans centuries.

The story
of Malaga's united defences

begins almost 150 years earlier
in 1344,

when Yusuf I, who rules
over the kingdom of Granada,

is fortifying his lands
against his Christian enemies.

His people poured into this region
during the 8th century

after conquering territories across
the Middle East and North Africa.

And Europeans have been
fighting to reclaim land ever since.

This offensive
is known as the 'Reconquista',

In the 14th century,

Christians from the neighbouring

kingdoms of Castile and Aragon

have closed in on Granada.

Now, they're moving
nearer to Malaga.

Malaga is a commercial hub,

through which Yusuf can bring
military reinforcements

from his allies in North Africa

and it's the gateway between
the east and west of his empire.

If Malaga falls,

then the Granadans will
be at the mercy of the Christians.

The Muslims have held this city
for more than 600 years.

It's surrounded by mountains
on three sides

and the Mediterranean on the fourth.

In the mid-14th century
when Yusuf rules Granada,

Malaga is encircled by walls

and guarded by a fortified palace
called the Alcazaba.

Its name comes
from the Arabic 'al-qasbah',

which means a walled fortification
within a city.

And defensively,
this place appears to have it all -

sturdy gates, multiple layers
of defensive walls and towers,

and also this crooked entranceway
designed to thwart any attacker.

It is believed the Muslims built
the Alcazaba in the 8th century

when they conquered the region.

As a fortified palace,

it's a place where the kingdom's
elite would have spent their days.

When Yusuf takes charge of Malaga,
he upgrades this fortification.

Details of the work are lost to us,

but considering
the importance of the city,

he almost certainly strengthens
its walls and towers.

But the Alcazaba has one
critical flaw that can't be changed.

It doesn't command the high ground.

Overlooking it is a hilltop
130m high.

This position is not well fortified,

which leaves Malaga vulnerable
to bombardment

by an emerging and powerful
new weapon...

..the cannon.

It is thought this technology
originated in China,

but by the 14th century, it's
arrived on European battlefields.

If Yusuf is to stand any chance
of maintaining this key port,

he must secure the hilltop.

So he decides to build a castle
above the Alcazaba.

Perched high above the city,
it will protect Malaga.

The design includes
two sets of walls...

..lofty battlements

and a dominant north-east tower.

The building begins.

The castle takes shape
under the threat of attack.

If the Christians reach Malaga,

they will almost certainly
target the hilltop first.

Yusuf's stronghold
must rise to the challenge

or his kingdom
may fall to the enemy.

In the mid-14th century,

a mission to protect the Muslim
kingdom of Granada is under way.

Granada's ruler, Yusuf I,

is building a new castle
up above the Mediterranean.

It's shaping up to be
an impressive defensive stronghold,

designed to house 5,000 men.

Its name is Gibralfaro,

and it's an Hispanic term derived

from the Arabic for 'mountain'
and the Greek for 'lighthouse'.

And it's a reminder of the beacon

that once would have stood
atop this lofty site.

But as Yusuf's vision evolves,
it's evident that there's a problem.

This castle is raised so high
around the surrounding countryside

that it's actually quite isolated.

It means that if it's besieged,

it's very hard to move men
and supplies up from the Alcazaba

without them being
terribly vulnerable to attack.

The Granadans need to
join these two castles together

to really increase the strength
and the flexibility of both.

And this is what they come up with.

It's called the 'Coracha'.

About 600m long, it stretches
from the Gibralfaro to the Alcazaba.

If the Granadans received news
of an attack up here, for example,

they could move troops
up from the Alcazaba to Gibralfaro

quickly and securely.

This defensive structure
is highly unusual.

Its name is believed to come
from the Portuguese word 'couraca',

used to describe walls
running from a tower or bastion.

It's about 14m wide

and it takes about 20 minutes
to walk from the bottom to the top.

You can see here how the Granadans

have used the geometry of the walls
to help with the defence

without building any towers.

Chris Wawn,
local historian and author,

explains the military benefits.

So here's another zigzag here.
Why are there so many of these?

Now, this is a really clever idea.

By putting the zigzag in,

I'm able to fire down
on the approaching enemy

and get them right in the flank.

So there's no blind spots.

I mean, you can see
all of the walls at all times.

That's correct.

Imagine they've
put a ladder up there,

they're climbing up that wall -
straight here, into their side.

The Coracha is unique,

not only in the way it is shaped,
but in the way it was built.

The top part of these walls
is not formed of brick or stone,

but of a sort of medieval concrete.

You can see down below

they started off building
with blocks of stone.

And what they did was

that they built on top
of the stone wall a box frame -

probably no more than
4ft, 5ft high -

and they poured
everything in they could.

Hence you'll see slate, stone,
Roman brick.

And then with a very weak
type of concrete.

Once that had hardened,

they then took away
their wooden frame - next stage up.

And it was probably, you know,
another 6ft above us.

The forms used to set the medieval
concrete were made of wood.

Back in medieval Malaga, this basic
material was much harder to come by.

By Yusuf's time,
wood is a scarce commodity.

It's an interesting example
of medieval deforestation.

The hillsides around Malaga
have been stripped of trees

as people used them
for building supplies and fuel.

If Yusuf wants high-quality wood,

he's likely
to have to get it from abroad.

Outside the city,

the Granadans devised a way to keep
a close eye on their enemies.

They built watchtowers.

And so what's the purpose of this?

Well, this is
one of 2,000 lookout towers

that dominate
the whole of Andalusia.

It is a highly integrated system,

allowing communication between
cities, ports and strongholds.

So there would have been
towers on these other hills.

Are any of them visible today?
That's right.

You can see one just over there
on its way to Antequera.

Oh, yeah, I can see the small...
So it's just like this.

Would this have been
much taller back in the day?

Yes, it would have been.

I mean, all we're seeing
at the moment is a 15ft stump.

And what they would have done is,
having built this solid stump,

you would, on top,
would have had a room

and on top of the room there would
have been some sort of platform

to actually have your beacon
or your signal station.

That's very sophisticated.

You would have been
able to communicate

across hundreds of miles
very quickly.

Well, that was the whole idea.

If you could imagine the troops
are coming down from Ronda,

they should have reached a message
here within about 20 minutes.

And from up here, of course, there's
the castle, there's Gibralfaro.

All you've got to do is light a fire
and they know instantly.

They know instantly
that trouble's brewing. Precisely.

When the Gibralfaro was being built,
cannon technology was also evolving.

To make early gunpowder, three
substances were mixed together.

Potassium nitrate
supplied the oxygen.

Sulphur lowered the temperature
required for ignition.

And charcoal fuelled the reaction.

their different densities

caused them to separate out.

So the powder
often had to be mixed again

after it was transported
to the battlefield.

It was noxious...

..and explosive.

By the end of the 15th century,

a new technique has made gunpowder
much more reliable.

It's called 'corning'.

The explosive ingredients
are mixed together as a slurry.

As the mixture dries,
the ingredients do not separate.

This increases
gunpowder's stability.

Breakthroughs like corning

mean the cannon has
evolved into a lethal siege engine.

Few inventions have had
as dramatic an impact as gunpowder.

Siege engines are no longer
limited by the muscles of men

or the laws of mechanics.

And it seems that the castle's
defences were modified to use them.

OK, well, welcome
to the north-east tower.

And I think you'll agree with me -
what a location.

Incredible. I mean, you could have
a field of fire the whole way round.

That's right.
I believe it's about 220 degrees.

Because, if you think about it,

you're flanking that wall and you're
flanking that wall over there.

So you really are dominating
this corner of the fortress.

And what's this embrasure over here?

This is where a gun portal
would have gone.

So if you were going to have
your modern cannon,

this is where you place it.

The most cutting-edge technology in
the castle would have been up here.

Would have been.

When cannon is used
by both the attackers and defenders,

medieval warfare is fought
with a new, explosive intensity.

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Gunpowder - the first
chemical explosive ever invented -

was the driving force behind cannons
used at fortifications like Malaga.

With its power,
a cannon could fire projectiles

faster and with greater force

than previous mechanically powered
siege engines

such as the trebuchet.

Today, the army uses
a different technique

to blast their way through walls -

military-grade plastic explosives.

They're more
effective than medieval gunpowder,

but the principle is the same.

I've come to this British Army
firing range in southern England

to find out just how powerful
explosives are.

So, what have we got here,
then, Snowy?

We've got a concrete pad
that we made about five weeks ago,

so it's not fully cured yet.

There's a little bit of reinforcing
in there

just to give it some strength.

Not a million miles away
from a castle wall, then, is it?

Not really, no.

The castle wall, I guess,
would be quite a bit thicker.

But generally,
that's a strong concrete pad there.

So, these are the explosives here,
I guess.

What we do is we
sort of separate the explosives

with a gap in the middle.

And what that does is
that'll blow a hole in the top,

a hole in the bottom,

and then potentially
use the colliding shock waves

to disrupt the wall
and weaken it in the middle,

which will make us
a nice, big hole there, basically.

You've put them halfway up.

Is it not better to get them
down there at the foundations?

Is that the best way
to bring down a wall?

I believe it is, yeah,

because if we go too low,
the foundations the other side

could be a metre higher
than what they are on our home side,

so we might
be actually blowing into earth,

which wouldn't achieve very much.

So what's happening now, Snowy?
You're connecting it all up?

Yeah, we're gonna connect this up.

The cable runs
1,000m under the ground there,

so we're now in a safe location.

Connect that up, connect
it to the Shrike, press the button.

Firing. Firing now!

Wow! Look at this. What a mess.

Very clinical, though.
Perfect, isn't it?

Just a great big hole there.

It's really cut it nicely,
to be honest with you.

The rubble's here,
the concrete's apart

and we'd have just come
straight in there, no problem.

And this rubble pile
would be a challenge,

but you could clamber over that.

But it would be a challenge
for an attacking force, wouldn't it?

Yeah, and that's another good reason

why we raise the explosives
off the ground when we blow in.

If the explosion was on the ground,

the rubble would be
directly next to the hole.

It'd be blocking it up, wouldn't it?

So, by raising it, you know -
straight over, straight through.

Harder to achieve this

with old-fashioned low explosives,
like gunpowder.

It would be, yeah.

And you would need considerably more
gunpowder to achieve the same.

You know, barrels of the stuff,

rather than just two-and-a-bit kilos
that we used

of the military-grade
plastic explosives.

Well, that was a tricky process,

but clearly the right combination
of explosives and technique

allow modern, elite soldiers

to blast their way
through nearly any obstacle.

Medieval siege engines
were long-range weapons

able to inflict serious damage
on castles,

so Yusuf's stronghold was raised
with bombardment in mind.

Gibralfaro's walls
are a superb military achievement,

but they are useless
without one key feature -

something as precious
as life itself.

The summers
here on the Mediterranean coast

are long and hot,

and it rarely rains
in July and August.

The garrisons risked
running out of water.

And that, when you're under siege,
is a death sentence.

To extract water from the ground
while building the castle,

the Gibralfaro's builders
dig a well.

40m deep,
it's cut through solid rock.

To exploit rainwater from the sky,

they carved
three giant underground chambers.

Fed by collection channels,

these cisterns store water
during the winter

for use during the long, dry summer.

Malaga's defences are being upgraded
to withstand a large-scale siege.

But in Yusuf's time,
minor raids were also common.

His Christian enemies
often launched border attacks.

they ventured near the city.

If they were captured,

they may have met their fate
in one of Malaga's prisons.

There are many chambers
under this castle

for food storage
and cisterns for rainwater capture.

But this one, we're told,
is where they kept the prisoners.

You go from being
in a very dry atmosphere up there

to being damp down here.

This is an unhealthy place -

particularly if it was packed full
of prisoners as it would have been,

with little concern
for their comfort.

And of course,
there's no chance of escape.

It would have been guarded
and blocked at the top

and this is impossible to climb
with this overhang.

The smell down here
would have been unimaginable.

People pressed together,
no proper sanitary facilities,

limited food and water.

I can't think of worse conditions
in which to be imprisoned.

By the latter parts
of the 15th century,

Malaga's military engineering
is unparalleled.

The Coracha is finished, joining
the Alcazaba to the Gibralfaro.

Though Yusuf dies
during its construction,

his vision is finally realised.

The addition of this hilltop castle

and a passageway
to connect it to the city

has formed
a seemingly impenetrable barrier.

The port of Malaga
is thoroughly protected.

It's a good thing,

because two powerful Christian
territories have united.

And they're going to put these
fortifications to the ultimate test.

It is the late 15th century.

A large Christian army

is determined to end Muslim control
of what is now southern Spain.

The marriage
of two Christian monarchs,

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella,

has given this Reconquista
new momentum.

Ferdinand rules
the Christian territory of Aragon

and his wife Isabella
reigns over neighbouring Castile.

Both countries have been fighting

to drive Muslims
out of south-west Europe

over the centuries.

Now, they've united.

But one huge obstacle in their way
is Malaga.

As long as the Muslims
hold this key port,

their kingdom, Granada,

can be easily resupplied with
provisions and soldiers from abroad.

So in the spring of 1487,

Ferdinand and Isabella
launch a massive campaign

to conquer the city.

Isabella's Castilian force,
now bolstered by troops from Aragon,

is stronger than ever.

The Christians also have the best
siege technology available -

the cannon.

Ferdinand's army uses
a class of cannon called a lombard.

They're 8ft long and they can shoot
projectiles as large as a football.

One account tells us

cannons pounded a nearby
Granadan fortification into dust

in only a couple of hours.

Once the cannons
had done their work,

the Castilian army rushed the walls
and slaughtered the defenders.

On May 7, the Castilians
are finally in reach of their goal.

They close in on Malaga by land
and by water.

A later historian describes
what it might have looked like.

It's an incredible sight.

The sea is said to gleam
with a thousand sails

and a seemingly endless
stream of men

are marching towards the city.

With the ships
controlling access to the harbour,

the Granadans can no longer
use the port to resupply.

Blockade is the first part
in Ferdinand's two-pronged approach.

While the blockade may take months,

he also plans
to launch a direct attack.

Bolstered by the cannon
and their successes so far,

he might expect Malaga
to fall easily.

But he may be underestimating
both the fortifications

and the men who defend them.

Centuries of work
have transformed this city of 10,000

into an extraordinary
military stronghold.

And as Ferdinand conquers
the surrounding lands and castles,

many of the Muslim soldiers
rally in Malaga.

And here, they're ready to make
one final, united stand.

All they need is a leader.

The man who takes charge
is Hamet el Zegri.

Hamet comes to Malaga

after being driven out of
the fortified town of Ronda in 1485.

He's desperate for revenge,

and determined that
this key port will not surrender.

He takes control of the castles
and the garrisons

and prepares to lead
the resistance to the invaders.

Hamet plans to use

this hilltop castle
and its surrounding fortifications

to make a stand.

Ferdinand and his army must know

that their best chance
of taking Malaga

is to seize Gibralfaro Castle.

Not only is Hamet based there,
it dominates the high ground.

If King Ferdinand
succeeds in taking the stronghold,

he can use his cannons

to bombard the Alcazaba and the city

He orders 30,000 of his men
to besiege the Gibralfaro.

But before they even arrive,

Hamet sends a force from the castle
to confront the attackers.

The Granadans are using
an interesting military tactic.

Rather than
sitting inside these walls

and waiting for them
to get obliterated by the cannon,

they're leaving the castle
and ambushing the Castilians.

For Hamet and his men,
attack is the best form of defence.

This tactic, used by the defenders,
is called a sortie.

The two armies clash on
the steep hills near the Gibralfaro.

It's a day of vicious
hand-to-hand combat -

knives and swords doing their worst.

One contemporary chronicler tells us

that Hamet's men seem to have
a greater desire to kill the enemy

than to preserve their own lives.

Ferdinand's soldiers
repel Hamet's men,

forcing them
to retreat back to the Gibralfaro.

The Castilian troops
can now advance on the castle

and prepare to lay siege.


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In Malaga,
one of Ferdinand's top commanders

is in charge of the mission
to take the Gibralfaro castle -

the Marquis of Cadiz.

The Marquis of Cadiz
has a reputation

for always demanding
the position of utmost danger,

and Malaga's no exception.

It's not the first time
he's fought Hamet.

He was the man who drive him
out of Ronda two years before.

Here at Malaga, he must have been
keen to finish what he'd started.

The Marquis positions
his men to the north.

His plan is to use the cannons
to bombard the castle

till the garrison either surrenders
or is killed.

Ferdinand most likely transports
these cutting-edge siege weapons

by ship.

Then they're transferred to carts,
taken to the battlefield,

and there assembled
on wooden cradles.

At the same time,

troops within the castle are ready
to use the cannon for defence.

The Castilian attackers
out in the open are exposed

and need to find a way
to protect themselves.

They build a structure
made from earth and wood.

With the cannons positioned
and this temporary fort built,

the Marquis is finally ready
to attack.

The artillery opens fire,
hammering on the walls.

The Granadans answer.


Hamet is outgunned.

Not only does his enemy have

more cannon than
the Muslims have within the castle,

they are also more powerful.

Days into the battle,

one of the Gibralfaro's walls
is breached.

Hamet's men are
desperately filling up the breach

with anything that comes to hand,

but once again he decides that
defence will not be enough,

and he uses Gibralfaro
to launch an attack.

Under the cover of darkness,

more than 2,000 men
emerge from the castle

and attack a group
of Castilian troops near the walls.

The defenders return
to the protection of Gibralfaro

before the Marquis
can launch a counterattack.

The Marquis has made a mistake.

He's underestimated
Hamet's skill at sortie.

Now, he's paid a terrible price -

his brother
and his son-in-law are wounded.

It must have been
a huge blow to morale.

The king's first assault has failed.

The Gibralfaro stands defiant.

Ferdinand will have to find
another way of conquering this city,

or his dreams of completing
the Reconquista will be dashed.

After days of attack,

a massive Christian army has failed
to take Malaga's strongest castle,

the Gibralfaro.

Ferdinand turns his attention
to the walls of the city.

This is not ideal.

Even if Ferdinand does
take the city itself,

he knows that Hamet will be able
to hold out up there in Gibralfaro

and Ferdinand will be vulnerable
to his artillery fire and sorties.

But if he wants to win,
he's got no choice.

The city is heavily fortified.

It's surrounded by walls
with 74 massive towers

manned by men loyal
to the Muslim leader Hamet el Zegri.

To lay siege to the city,

Ferdinand builds temporary forts
like the one at the Gibralfaro

to protect his troops.

And he prepares cannons
to attack the enemy.

Although this strategy
didn't work against the castle,

if the Castilians bombard
the city walls on a greater scale,

they may be able to breach a section
and take it

before the Granadans
can fill the gap.

Once again, Hamet responds.

Hamet doubles the guards
on the towers and the walls

and personally oversees everything

to make sure it's in the best
possible posture for defence.

He divides
his men into units of 100.

Some patrol the walls, others sortie
and skirmish with the enemy.

Hamet's troops also work
day and night,

filling the breaches as fast
as the cannons can create them.

Ferdinand is doing everything
in his power to take Malaga,

but the Muslims continue to resist.

What the king thought
would be a quick victory

is turning into
a battle of attrition.

The lombard cannon that the king
has put so much of his faith in

are failing him.

In fact,
his army are firing so many rounds

they have to bring in
more ordnance and cannonballs.

But still, Malaga is defying him.

As days turn to weeks, Ferdinand's
army suffers outside the city walls.

It's the height
of a Mediterranean summer,

and the temperatures can soar
on a sunny day like this.

Plague has broken out nearby,

and there's even a rumour

that Ferdinand
is running low on gunpowder.

Morale amongst the Castilians

Some defect and join
the defenders of this castle

rather than spend another day
sweltering outside

these seemingly impenetrable walls.

The king needs a way
to rally his beleaguered forces

or the chance to take
this crucial port city will be lost.

He calls on his queen...


Ferdinand's wife arrives
to bolster the weary men's spirits.

The appearance of Queen Isabella

is hugely important
for the Castilian soldiers.

SHE is the true ruler of Castile,

not her Aragonese husband
who commands the army.

It's said that the queen's presence

encouraged the men to forget
their past labours and persevere.

Her arrival has the desired effect.

Her religious devotion
is legendary and inspirational.

The Castilian troops
are given a vital boost.

But it may cost her
her life.

After many weeks,

King Ferdinand has been unable
to take the Muslim city of Malaga,

a key port
in the kingdom of Granada.

He has even resorted to bringing
his wife to the battlefield

to try and boost
the morale of his men.

After one skirmish, Ferdinand's
troops take a Muslim captive.

He's in enemy hands, but that's
exactly where he wants to be.

The prisoner tells the Castilians

that he has something of vital
importance for the king and queen.

Being a religious man, he is spared,

but it turns out that
'something important'

is in fact a concealed weapon.


He lashes out with his knife.

If he succeeds,
the war could be over.

But he has picked the wrong target.

He only manages
to wound a visiting noble,

and terrify his wife.

Outraged by this attempted attack
on their leaders,

the Castilians
decide to show no mercy.



They chop the would-be assassin's
body up into pieces,

and catapult them
over the city walls.

The attempt
on Isabella and Ferdinand's lives

has been thwarted.

But Malaga remains in Muslim hands.

If Ferdinand is going to take
this key port city,

he needs to come up
with a new strategy.

So he adapts his cannon.

They will attack a tower protecting
a bridge leading into the city.

Except this time,
his troops won't fire from afar -

they'll strike from underneath.

They dig a tunnel under the tower,

then they place a fully loaded
cannon at the end of it.

They're about to use
this bombardment weapon

in a very unusual way.

This may well be the first ever use
of underground explosives

to bring down a structure.

With a roar, the tower gives way
beneath their feet.

The earth is torn open,
smoke and flame billowing out.

The tower disappears.

The defenders are blown to pieces.

Thanks to this Castilian ingenuity,

the cannon has finally
delivered some success -

although still not
the decisive breakthrough they need.

But within the city walls,
the situation is dire.

It's August.

The Castilians have blockaded
the port for almost three months

and the people are starving.

The people of Malaga
and Hamet's garrison

are in a terrible condition.

Many have died, others
are eating horseflesh to survive.

It must have been a harrowing thing

to stand on these walls
with an empty belly

and watch the Castilians unloading
fresh produce, cattle and grain

from their ships at sea.

Hamet must know that Malaga
can't hold out much longer.

So he gathers the best of his forces
for one more sortie

in an attempt to break the siege -

a final bid to save this city
and the kingdom.

The men are to surge
out of the city,

taking the battle to the very heart
of the enemy's forces.

Without the protection
of Malaga's walls,

Hamet's men are engulfed
by a sea of Castilian troops.

The Granadans,
weakened and outnumbered,

are ripe for the slaughter.

It is the final defeat.

Three months
after the Castilian army arrives,

all hope for victory

has been starved, bombarded
and mined from the city.

Malaga surrenders.

The city is taken,
although Hamet refuses to accept it.

He spends days
brooding in his castle

force him to surrender.

When the garrison do march out,
it's said that

they were so worn down
by hunger, exhaustion and warfare,

that they looked more like fiends
than men.

Hamet is sentenced to life in prison

and his men
are condemned to slavery.

Ferdinand and Isabella
are triumphant.

Malaga is finally theirs.

The Granadans can no longer
use this key port

to bring in
supplies or reinforcements.

What remains of this Muslim empire
is isolated.

Within five years,

Ferdinand and Isabella conquer
the remaining Muslim territories

in south-west Europe.

And with that,
two legendary monarchs

accomplish a feat
that eluded the Christians

for more than seven centuries.

The Reconquista is complete.

And today, this incredible military
fortification still survives,

a testament to the might of Granada

and of the incredible siege
that led to its demise.

Supertext Captions by
Red Bee Media Australia
Captions copyright SBS 2012

NARRATOR: Is Earth the only planet
of its kind in the universe?

Or is there somewhere else
like this out there?

Is there life beyond Earth?

The search for alien life
is one of humankind's

greatest technological challenges...

..and scientists are seeking
new ways to find answers.

We're pushing the boundary of
information of where life can exist,

past the Earth and out
into the solar system.

Leading the search
are sophisticated telescopes

that scan the sky.

And an armada of robotic probes,

exploring the outer reaches
of our solar system.

All revealing the planets,
moons, asteroids,

and comets like never before.

We can go places and see things

that there's no other way
we could have ever seen.

The search reveals evidence
of strange and unexpected worlds.

Places with lakes, storms...

..and rain.

Violent places driven by
powerful forces deep underground.

Worlds that may have hidden oceans

hundreds of millions of miles
from the heat of the sun.

The pace of discovery,
just in the last couple of years,

is just mind-boggling.

New missions are helping
to unlock the mysteries

of what makes a planet habitable,

raising the question of whether
the building blocks of life

are more prevalent
than previously imagined,

not just in our own solar system,
but possibly throughout our galaxy.

We now have,
for the first time in human history,

definite planets, out there among
the stars, that remind us of home.

Finding life beyond Earth.

After a seven-year,
two-billion-mile voyage,

the spacecraft 'Cassini'
enters orbit around Saturn.

'Cassini' heads towards the largest
of Saturn's 62 moons...


Bigger than the planet Mercury,

Titan is hidden
by a thick orange haze.

No-one has ever seen its surface.

But a small probe named 'Huygens',
released by 'Cassini',

is about to change everything.

This mission will challenge
long-held notions

of where life could exist
beyond Earth.

These are the actual images
'Huygens' takes

as it breaks through
the clouds and haze.

Titan is a land of mountains
and valleys,

a place that looks
surprisingly like Earth.

Then images reveal
something no-one expects.

The surface is littered
with smooth rocks,

the type normally found
in riverbeds on Earth.

MAN: My response was shock.

We look out on the surface
and we see what looks like a desert,

and at the same time, the data
from the probe told us that

the ground around the site was wet.

Hundreds of miles overhead,
'Cassini's radar sweeps the surface.

The images show a landscape

covered with what appear to be
hundreds of lakes.

This one covers an area
of 6,000 square miles,

about the size of Lake Ontario,
one of the Great Lakes.