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Anzac Day March 2007: ACT -

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Good morning and welcome

to the Australian War

Memorial in Canberra. I'm

Virginia Haussegger. Anzac

Day is to most Australians

our most sacred national day.

Across the country right now

thousands are lining main

streets or standing quietly

at memorials to remember

those who gave their lives in

service of their country.

Perhaps most of all today is

a day of gratitude for the

gift of freedom that we enjoy

every day, mostly without

question. Our location here

at the Australian War

Memorial in the nation's

capital and the size of

today's crowd is a reminder

that Anzac Day is indeed an

event of national

significance but one that

touches us individually.

Joining me today is doctor

Peter Stanley who until

recently was principal

historian at the Australian

War Memorial and director of

the centre of historical research of the National

Museum of Australia. Lovely

to have you with us this

morning. What does Anzac Day

mean to you? Like most

Australians it is the one-day

of the year when we reflect

and remember what war means

and remember those who have

died in war. Indeed. Right

now the New Zealand High Commissioner, His Excellency

Dr John Larkindale and Mrs

Philippa Larkindale have

arrived followed by John

Howard t Prime Minister of

Australia. Their Excellencies

Governor-General Michael

Jeffrey Governor-General of

the Commonwealth of Australia

and Marlena Jeffrey will

arrive. You have been to more

than a handful of

commemorations. What makes

this day uniquely Australian?

Apart from the setting we

see gum trees in front of us

and we could hear the Magpies

before the crowd frightened

them away. The mix of in formality and great good

humour in the crowds which is

a very Australian way to

behave. The first part of our

program covers the march past

the Casey Stoner. Over time

and quite naturally the size,

tone and complexion of the

march has changed and will

continue to change. To find

out a little more about that

and what we can expect from

the today's march, a short

time ago ABC journalist spoke

to the RSL's march

coordinator Derek Rowlands.

We saw strong crowds this

morning despite the rain. Are

you expecting a similar turn

out for this march? One

would expect so. The crowds

at the Dawn Service and the

march are always pretty

similar. I would think and

looking at the way people are

arriving I would think we on

would get a strong turn out

despite the weather. We are

seeing more and more crowds

gather every Anzac Day the

numbers tend to swell. Why do

you think that is? I think Anzac Day has become

enshrined as Australia's de

facto national day, if you

like, and people are taking a

greater interest in it. I do

not know the exact reason. It

could be because of more

awareness of our history,

maybe because we have troops

serving overseas now but it

certainly has been growing as

you say. There are also more

and more younger people both

participateing in the mar

much and attending. Why do

you think that is? I guess it is the natural progression as

the old soldiers as it were

fade away. I think that the younger people have to keep

it going otherwise it will

just die out. You said

earlier there is a lot of

interstate difference, even

driving around you see

interstate number-plates. It

really does draw a crowd from

right across Australia A lot

of people from interstate

come to Canberra at least

once for Anzac Day. Various

groups from interstate march

on Canberra on Anzac Day. We

have a group marching today

from the RSL in Victoria

which is made up purely of

Korean war veterans and they

have decided to come to

Canberra perhaps just in the

once to march on Anzac

Day. Thank you for your time.

Derek Rowlands the march

coordinator here at the Anzac

Day service in Canberra. We

are just seeing the arrival

of the Governor-General,

Their Excellencies

Governor-General Michael

Jeffrey Governor-General of

the Commonwealth of Australia

and Marlena Jeffrey. Peter Stanley, the Federation guard

has already marched on the

the parade ground. Tell us

about them. That is a

special unit of the

compriseing members of the Australian Defence Force

Army, Navy and Air Force. It

is there to provide a

ceremonial guard on occasions sufficient as this and also

to mount at special

ceremonies inviting

dignitaries and so on. We

just heard Derek Rowlands

make the point about Anzac

Day becoming our de facto

national day. What do you

think that means? Partly

because Anzac Day has always

been connected with the

settlement of Australia.

Anzac Day ever since 1915 has

been connected with the idea

of an Australian nation. As

we see around crowds here and

Anzac Day services around the

country people use it as a

opportunity to express their

Australian-ness by waving

flags but by expressing a sense of national identity. We certainly saw

that here at the Dawn Service

with crowds of up to 28,000

despite the cold and indeed

the rain. We have not seen

rain here in Canberra for a

long time but it rained and

rained this morning.

Yes, it is a sign of people's

commitment the Anzac Day this

a wet day does not put people

off. They are prepared to

turn out early and come in

some discomfort interest a

ceremony so meaningful to so many people. The

Governor-General has indeed arrived. Earler both the

Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition Kevin Rudd

are also present today. Along

with other parliamentarians,

Garry Humphrey, Bob McMullen,

Senator Kate Lundy and Mrs

Helen Liddell with the Chairman of the council of

Major General Adrian the Australian War Memorial,

Clunies-Ross. Who will lead

the parade today, Peter? I

know this changes each year,

but we always get a lot of

focus on Rusty the Horse.

Yes, he is back again and we

will see the riderless

Khanner leading the parade in

a very symbolic way. The

Commander is Garry Brody a

Federal Police

peacekeeper. It is always

such a beautifully organised

presentation at the beginning

of the march here. Does a lot

of rehearsal go into this?

Yes, indeed. One of the

pleasures of working at the

memorial is to watch the Federation guarding through

its paces. There is a great deal of organisation and I

think the dance term is

appropriate. These movements

are very exactly planned and

executed. There are hundreds

of people out here on the

parade ground all of whom

have a particular job. The

fact that it works is a reflection of their

dedication in making this day

what it is. We have heard a lot of talk of peace keepers

over the last several years. Are peacekeepers eligible to

march in today's march?

Yes, indeed. We will see lots

of peace keepers both in peacekeeper contingents on

the Anzac Day march and also

in other units sometimes

distinguished by bay Yeas of

different colours and the

medals they wear and they

will be both members of the Australian Defence Force and of various State and Federal

police forces. The police

forces involve peacekeeping

since the early 1960s and we

will see more of those

because peacekeeping is such

a important part of the ADF's

operations today and those

are mostly younger veterans

which is a great change to

when we were growing up and

we will see more peacekeepers

as the years go by. Certainly

as the years go by here in Canberra I've noticed the

crowds get bigger and bigger

at our Anzac Day marches which is extraordinary really

as our diggers are getting

older and older. Why do you

think that is? I can

remember in the 1970s coming

to services here and seeing

very, very small crowds.

Clearly Anzac Day goes through cycles and it has changed a great deal over the

years. It has increased in

the last decade and each year

I see more and more chairs

put out on the slopes of the

memorial but clearly people

are using Anzac Day as a opportunity to gather

together as a community to express things Tasmania are

important to them. People do

not come because they have a

job to do. Most people here

this morning have come because they have a feeling

and that feeling can be

expressed by simply being

part of this great

occasion. Certainly I would

say the feeling at this

morning's Dawn Service was quite extraordinary. Because

it is dark and you can't see

the crowd around you, you

have a great sense of feeling

them and hearing them around

you. It is quite magic and

the fact that there were so

many people this morning

despite the cold was

extraordinary. It is

impressive. Maybe it is a way

people strife to feel a sense

of community there are not many opportunities to do that

in such a benign and entirely

positive way but it is

wonderful people are reaching out to do that with each

other. This is a wonderful

day and broadcast in which to

see how beautiful the setting

here is at the Australian War

Memorial with Mt Ainslie in

the background and we will

see a beautiful shot down an

Dack Parade. The

Governor-General Michael

Jeffrey is waiting to receive

the first of the marches.

Yes, we can see Governor-General Michael

Jeffrey in his uniform

wearing the fawu beret. He

was a member of that regiment

for many years and is maintaining that association

even though he is a general

he still wears the beret of

his old unit. That is typical

of the unit. We will see lots

of people in the march bearing symbols of their military service. Do you

think it make as difference

to those who are marching the fact that the Governor-General receiving

them is in fact a military

person himself, as against previous Governor-Generals

that were not? It may well

do. There has been a

tradition of military Governor-Generals from time

to time. Others are not of

course but I think there

might be a special

connection, especially with

Vietnam veterans. The major bears the miltary cross which

he won in Vietnam so there

are many Vietnam veterans see

one of their own taking the

salute. Peter, what about the anniversaryies that we celebrate today, there always

seem to be anniversaries

celebrated each Anzac Day.

What are the 2007 anniversaryies? There are

sadly many. Australian has

been involved in so many

wars. We think back to 1967,

Vietnam, 1957, the

Australians were involved in

the Malayan anniversary but

those of 1917, the 90th

anniversary of battles where

more Australians died in that

year in any other year and

there must be many people

around this parade ground

thinking of people who died

in that year. Peter, here is

our riderless horse, one of

the favourite parts of the

march. Here is Rusty the

riderless horse which has

been in the march for several

years led by a man dressed in

uniform of the second division of the Australian

imperial and the blue and

White armband indicates he is

a signaller. Notice the boots

reversed in the stirrups

which is an ancient symbol of

loss which symbolises what

the day is about. Primarily

it is about remembering those

who are not here to march and

many march in memory of those

left behind. The horse has

started to get a bit stoppy.

The man leading the horse is

dressed exactly as the second

division would have been

dressed in the bat of

1917. It is such a poignant

way to start the march. Yes,

very simple and appreciated

by everybody who has that

sense of loss today. Even if

they didn't know anybody who

served in the First World War

on anybody in their family

there is still sense a loss

of loss across the

country. Rusty has been doing

this for some time here at the Australian War Memorial.

Yes, I don't know what he

does for the rest of the year

but he is very much appreciated on 25

April. Indeed. Our march has

begun. Who will we see first

up, Peter? First up around

the corner will be the

Commander and party. I feel a

great deal of sympathy for

GarthPratton, I know what he

is feeling because he is

wondering where the first

contingent has got to and it

has not yet come around the

corner so he is wondering

what to say but he has

thought of something which is

marvellous! A very commanding

job. Yes, Garth has been with

us over a number of years and

has been a great as yet. Who

are we seeing here? In the

light blue beret is Garry

Brody who wears medals

denoteing his service in the

Defence Force and the police.

He was in the Federal police

and served in Cyprus in the

1970s but I might be

corrected on that. The parade

Commander is not just very

moanal. The marshals and

commanders have a great job

in Marshalling this great

parade. Wonderful to see the

young people carrying the ban yes,.

Yes that is an Anzac Day

tradition where children from

Scouts, Girl Guides and

Brownies and all sorts of

youth organisations carry the

flag. They are preceded by

the ANZAC banner in the shape

of the colour patch of the

first Australian artillery,

it has the word ANZAC under

it because the first division

served under Gallipoli and

their colour is that of the

artillery. What a great

honour to carry that flag.

Yes, they feel particular

pride they are involved in

the ceremony with such promise. I understand there

are always descendants of various servicemen and

women. That is certainly the

intention but I think these

days anyone is welcome if

they are willing. We are

seeing the New Zealanders

come on parade and what would ANZAC be without the New

Zealanders, that relationship

that stretches back to

Gallipoli and the war in

South Africa. Top Commander

is David Procter out of the

Australian defence college of

Western and he is leading

members of the Navy, Army and Air Force and I think New

Zealand vet tons as well. A

real strength of the ANZAC

spirit over many decades.

There are a couple of

anniversaryies, the first is the Australian Intelligence

Corps which was formed

exactly 100ers ago so it is

marching on the head of the

march today in recognition of

that long service. Is it the

Australian intelligence komp

that has the motto

"Forewarned is for armed"?

Yes, that is their job, a job

which is often invisible.

These men work in back rooms

Crouched over raid yes and

maps and documents and women

as well of course and you

would never know they are there except their

intelligence and the work

they do is paid out in

operation is. Very happy

faces there. Very proud

faces. Yes, you mentioned whether these people

knowledge the

Governor-General. I see he is

speaking to them as he

passes. Here is his old

Regiment, the special air

services regiment, they

performed in 1957 so it is

their 50th anniversary and

there is a good turn out.

Many dressed with their

fawnSAS berets. Being his own

Regiment or former Regiment

you can see a beaming smile

on the Governor-General

there. Yes, he is probably

greeting many of then by name and they are smiling back at

him which is a reminder of

the personal connection

thanks Anzac Day has. It is

often difficult with a

country the size of ours to

see people you knew in

service but here with such a

small regiment the

Governor-General is

recognising people. We have a

very small group here. The

World War I banner. Yes, they

have got out of order because they should follow the ANZAC

banner we have just seen. We

do not have their details but

because they wear medals on

the right-hand side of their

chests you can see this young

man is wearing the famous

World War I trio of medals,

the three medals that were awarded the Australians who

served in the First World War

and these are in many

families possessions and back

drawers and proudly displayed

on living room walls. You can

see they are worn in memory

of those who served 90 years

or more ago. Again it is

wonderful to see the young

participateing in the parade

and wearing the medals and

feeling part of all of this.

That is right. Cherishing the

memory, the heritage. They

are reenacting the heritage

group. This is another

anniversary year. Another

anniversary of 1917 is the battle of Beersheba which

many Australians will know.

It occurred in October 31, 19

17 and men wearing the

uniform of the Australian

Light Horse and there are at

least three men from the

Australian Light Horse on

parade today in memory of the

fact that in October 1917

Australians took part in one

of the great mounted actions

of the light war. There is

another signaller, the blue

and White armband, he is

riding Rusty. He has come

because the Light Horse were

not just men with rifles,

they were men with

communications equipment they

are the light-horsemen. Don't

they look magnificent. Why

would they have emu plume ?in

their hats? This goes back

the Queensland mounted

infantry who joined the

Shearers strike who were posted in western Queensland

to maintain order in the

sheering sheds. They found

and shot a lot of emus and

put the plumes in their hat.

Behind the horsemen are

members dressed in the

uniform of the Australian

Imperial Force of the Great

War. These are the men who

fought in those terrible bats

I just referred to and especially Passchendaele

which was the uniform in which so many Australians

died in the Great War. The

second Royal Navy is coming

next. A group of sailors who

come to Canberra this year

specially. They were men who

were posted to merchant

vessels to communicate

between vessels and the shore

serving in small groups aboard merchant ships and a

very dangerous job it was. Yesterday at the National

Museum I met Bill and Val who

will march later this

morning. There they are, the

sailors from the World War II

and their descendants served

in oceans all over the world,

the Atlantic, Pacific, around

the coast and seas around

Australia. Marvellous to see

one in an automated bike

there I suppose to - so

intent on marching. That is

right. I think we will see

more of those in order to

allow veterans to be a part

of the march even if they cannot physically march.

There is a British sailor who

wears the rare White polar

beret. The second world Army,

men from the militia, and the

AIF who served in North

Africa, Greece, Syria,

Malaya, Singapore and the war

in Papua New Guinea. Sadly

not very many marching even

though that was the largest part of the defence

service. Why would that be?

Age I'm afraid. These are men

who enlisted more than 60

years ago and is taking its

toll T it is a strenuous

march up ANZAC Parade even

though the World War II

people start at the head of

the march it is still a hike

but wonderful to see them and

their families. It is, quite

a hike. I did it myself.

There is a slight grading as

you walk up. There is, and

there is an urge to keep in

step with others. The

commando association is a

very small group often represented only by members

of the Sheean family,

Rosemary and Jennifer but it

is great the association

banner can be carried by

Scouts and the Girl Guides.

The MZ represents that the

commanders and commandos were

sent behind Japanese lines.

Very small and elite units

with a very dangerous job. The Prime Minister John

Howard and Mrs Howard there.

What happens to the banners

as the diggers get older and

some of them pass on? I

hope they will be donated to

museums, possibly the

memorial or the National

Museum of Australia. I would

love to have the Rats of

Tobruk. This is a popular

group. Why? Not just

Australians, Britons, Poles,

one of the first great epics

of the World War II. Those

who are Rats or connected

with the Rats of Tobruk are

very proud of that special

association. Here we see most

of the Rats are descendants,

they wear the immediate Yass

on the right breast. Always a

crowd favourite. Yes, a

famous group. The opposition

leader Kevin Rudd here in

Canberra today. We are

looking at the banner of the

New Zealand survey unit, one

of the smallest units

possibly represented by only

families of veterans. They

were a unit formed in New

Guinea. I think that is Kevin

Gill the son of one of the

original members. Then the

Rat association. Led by

Milson Cottie, not just a

World War II survivor but a

Korean war survivor. These

are men and possibly some

women who served in the royal Australian Air Force so many

served in Britain in the

bomber offensive in Germany,

the Fighter Command and in

North Africa and the Pacific

possibly in defence of

Australia flying over

Darwin. Gee, some proud

faces. So they should be as

well. They are accepting the cheers and the waves of the

crowd. There is a lady I

recognise from the Dixon

shops but I don't know her

name. That's Canberra for

you! It is. Here are some

special visitors, the RSL

sub-branch from Victoria

which represents Korea

veterans B 20 of them have

made the trek to Canberra

this year. These are members

of the Army, Navy and Air

Force who served in the

Korean war from 1950 to 1953

and the 77 squad drofnt Royal

Australian Air Force. They

will remember battles led by

the President of their

group. Before we start to see

the Vietnam veterans groups

I'm joined by another

cocommentator this morning,

good morning to Pete Ryan,

the President of the Vietnam

veterans association in Canberra. Good

morning. Lovely to have you

along. You are going to tell

me about the Vietnam groups.

The first group coming past

now is the HMAS Sydney and

escorts. The Sydney was known

as the Port Jackson ferry and

transported the bulk of the

Battalion troops to and from

Vietnam. And we have quite a

few from Vietnam this

morning. Now we have the

Australian Army training team

Vietnam. This is the most

highly decorated unit of any

unit to fight in Vietnam.

Members one 4 Victoria

Crosses and many other distinguished decorations.

They are a very proud bunch.

I know a few of these

guys. We will all be getting

together very soon, or you

will be. Number 9 squad drorngs this is your own

unit. Yes, led by one of

the Air Force DFC winners

since Korea and a couple of

the other xwies I recognise

Lofty Lachlan, Snow clayton

an others. Some of these guys

I was in Vietnam with. Is

this a very moving moment?

It is a very proud moment for

our guys. 9 sqaudron operated

as a support for the Army

flying dust-off helicopters,

troop movements but we

specialised for doing support

work for the special regiment

in serving and extracting

their patrols many times over

fire. For the Vietnam vets,

is the march April reminder,

does it take you back to that

day or is it just a day to

focus on being proud? Is it difficult for somebody? It

is very difficult for a lot

of our people. Many of our Vietnam veterans still carry

mental scars from the war and

every year we see more and

more of them rightfully

taking their place in society

as proud members who served

in Vietnam. Pete, thank you.

We have just seen the fleet

air arm association go past.

Now the Australian naval

association We missed the

Canberra ex-service women's

association which is a pity

but here is the Naval

Association of Australia representing sailors from all

Commonwealth Navy groups,

including members still

serving. They are followed by

the fleet association. These

are the Navy's flyers led by

Norman Lee who I think served

in Korea and the neat air arm

now only flies helicopters

from the warships but they

served in the World War II

and especially in the Korean

war when Australia had its

own aircraft carrier HMAS

Sydney. A large contingent, Peter.

Yes, a strong spirit. HMAS

Perth a very famous ship in

the Royal Australian Navy,

many of the men marching

today are connected with the

Perth and the Vietnam war but

there were two Perths before

it. One was sunk in the World

War II and most of the men

died in battle or as

prisoners of war. The later

Perth was a guided missile

destroying that served in the

Vietnam war. The submarines

association Australia, their

city branch. Yes, another strong association that never

tell much about themselves

but always turn up. That is

true. They are remembering

the A2 which sank off

Gallipoli in 1915 and the A1

which sank off Britain and

which now people are looking

for. The RAN communique

force, these are led by

president John Kirky, these

people communicate between

ships and the shore and

operate radio and wireless

equipment. Doctor Peter

Stanley, here is the WRAN

association, they are very

well turned out and very

proud.

Yes, and in the blue and

white which is so reflective

of the Navy led by Judith

Rowe. They were formed in

1941 and the first posting

was down the road here.

Followed by the Royal Navy

led by Brian Parker, members

of the Royal Navy, Royal

Marines and asosh jated forces. Always a good strong

turn out from the British

veterans and there are some

members of the WRANS there,

the British Navy service for

Wimmera there. The royal

Australian Armoured Corps.

Yes, led by general Laurie

O'Donnell in the black

berets. There is Alexis con

of coloured berets in the

Australian Defence Force.

These are the men who drive

the tanks. They started off

riding horses so the Light Horse tradition these men

pick up but the Armoured

Division has been a part of

the Army since the 1920s and

many would have served in

Vietnam when the tanks went

to Vietnam. Behind them? The

Gunners. There is Major

General John White law patron

of their association. Their

motto is laty for

"Everywhere" just about

everywhere the Australian

Army go they go. The

engineers association?

Yes, led by Peter Day. They

have a turn out from younger

members of their corps marching in front. The

engineers are a important and

very large corps. There were

30,000 of them in the World

War II and there is a man who

was one of them. Many of

these men would have served

in the royal Australian

engineers in campaigns after

1945 especially in Malaya.

The survey corps which used

to be part of the engineers

which is why they marched

just behind the engineers

with their distinctive purple

colours, their colour patch

is purple. There is Clem

Sergeant, he used to be a

commandant and he knows a lot

about Australian history too,

he is followed by the signallers. Despite the

weather we have a terrific

turn out of marchers and

crowd. Yes, and no-one will

suffer heat stroke which is a

great relief. We nearly

missed the signal corps. They

keep everybody in touch.

There is one who was a

peacekeeper. Followed by the

royal Australian Regiment

association which is always a

very strong turn out led by

Craig Johnston. The Royal Australian Regiment has all

the Australian Army's

infantry formed in 1948

before the occupation of

Japan. This unit and the

Battalions of the Royal

Australian Regiment have

served in all the conflict

since that time, in Korea,

the Malayian emergency, the

confrontation with Indonesia

and as peacekeepers in East

Timor and members are still

serving overseas today. I

notice that while none of

these people practice the

march as such, they march

still very well. That is

right. A bit of a spring in

the step and a straight back.

The Possums. These chaps do

not tell us anything about

themselves or their names but

they always turn up. This was

an Army aviation unit serving

in Vietnam and still serves

today and is on rotation to

East Timor with another

sqaudron T It is interesting

how Anzac Day does that, we

get groups turning up

unannounced. Yes, regular

as clock work. Here is the

medical corps leg by Tony

Gill, the man at the front

taking the salute. The royal

Australian Army medical corps

has served in all Australia's

conflicts of course.

Naturally they are associated

with Defence Force nursing

led by Jeff Robinson the

director of Defence Force

nursing. This is quite a

mixed group of men and

women. Yes, that is right.

Nursing has changed. Many

jobs women have moved into

and the Defence Force has

many male nurses and female.

These people have seen the

worst of Australia's

conflicts in recent years.

Associated with these corps

is the dental corps which

goes back to 1943 and there

were Australian dentists on

Gallipoli. They served also

in relief operations after

the Boxing Day tsunami. That

was a couple of years

ago. The royal Australian

Army ordinance corps

association. That was Peter

Bray who leads the ordinance

corps, a very important corps

because it provides

everything they need, from

nuts and bolts through to

computers so these men and

women do an often overlooked

job. These are the royal Australian electrical and

mechanical engineers create

from the engineers in 1942 as

the Army became more

technical led by Larry Foley

and they basically keep the

money running. The Pay Corps

is a new group. I have not

seen them on parade before.

No, but I would imagine it is a rather important one. If

they do not do their job

nobody does any fighting! See

the one with the blue beret?

They go on peacekeeping

deployments. Essentialal to

keep the Army moving.

Looking at the badge I think these may be members of the

pay corps, I'm not sure but

they are followed by the

royal Australian military

police who are always obvious

in their bright blue berets,

the miltary police have served right from Gallipoli

and there they are. Again

some very proud faces there,

Peter. The parade ground is

certainly filling up as are

all the chairs put out. The

crowd around Canberra's

Australian War Memorial has

swelled despite the cold.

Here we have the citizens.

Yes, led by warrant officer

John Lee, these are the

soldiers from can from and

district. The associated Army

Reserve Regments which have a

long linneage followed by the

Papua New Guinea rifles

formed of Australians who

lived in pan what New Guinea

during the World War II and who served against the

Japanese in 1942 in very

nasty places t.s raids. Lived

in the hills. The footage

depicts many of these

men. That footage which is

very, very famous. We are

joined in the commentary box

this morning by another

Peter. Peter Evans, brigadier

Peter Evans the former state

RSL president. Good morning.

Good morning.╝white Lovely

the have you along. How are

you enjoying the parade?

Mption very much. You will

tell us about the RSL groups

as they march into the parade

ground this morning. They

are not here yet. 28 sqaudron

who are going past the screen

led by the gentleman from

Wagga, they helped to fight

the 2003 bushfires so it

shows how the reserve units

are part of the community

That is again a beautifully

turned-out marching group

there. Coming up behind them

will be I believe the RSL

Woden valley sub-branch which

brigadier, Peter, you will

tell us about. That is the

Woden valley sub-branch, the

largest in the ACT led by

Deputy President Peter

Collis. The branch has set up

a number of opportunities for

veterans to stay in touch

with their comrades. They

have also been very active in

the Edison park memorial and

the Anzac Day peace

ceremony. A very proud

looking bunch there, Peter.

Yes, they certainly are. We

also as well as having the

diggers, we have descendants

and young people.

Yes, we have a number wearing

their grandparents's

medals. The Tugganon branch.

Yes, not as large a branch as

woweden valley but a very

active one. It is lovely too

again the see the

Governor-General speaking to

the marchers as they go past.

Yes, he usually has a word or

two. He seems to really thoroughly enjoy this day.

Here is a colourful group.

Yes, the winner of two Greek

naval crosses for actions

during World War II a highly

decorated man, also has the

Order of Australia medal for

his work for the Greek community in Australia. Terrific to see

them come out in costume too.

Yes, it is. They have got a

group marching with them and

the children marking the fact

that a lot of children kept

diggers from the sixth

division alive and looked

after them during the

war. This grouping go past

now? From Lemnos. Following

them the British sub-branch.

Yes, led by 86-year-old

Skaf reverent Joe Mullins

commissioned in the Queen's

Royal Regiment and served in

France and from 1940 in India

and Burma. Is that badge from

the 14th Army? A very snap

ji salute. Yes. Following

on from there is the RSL

Vietnamese sub-branch. Tell

us about a bit about them.

They are a very active

sub-branch formed in 1987.

You will notice with the

Australian flag, the

Vietnamese flag and the

former air borne division

banner, a very active group

indeed. Now here is one that

is also a crowd favourite,

the RSL peacekeepers

sub-branch. Yes, they will

have with them the MFO group

the multinational force

observers. The peacekeepers

are led by Greg Lovell and

the MFO - I have not got a

leader for that one at this

stage. Brigadier Peter Evans

thank you for joining us this

morning to talk about the RSL groups. Always favourite

groups. We move on the the

multinational forces t Malaya

and Borneo veterans

association and families association.

Yes, you can see the terra

cotta beret an unusual beret

of peace keepers in the

Middle East followed by the

Borneo and Malaya veterans.

They have a connection not

just to a emergency. Many

members of the Sandakan or

are connected with this

group. The East Timor group

and the national service association.

Yes, this is a important

development in Anzac Day

where relatively recent

military de employments are

now represented by small

numbers of young veterans. I

think we can see those

numbers grow as the years go

by. They are followed by the national servicemen. This is

another relatively new development where those who

are called up to national

service. They are seeking

recognition for the contributions they made for

the Australian Defence Force

in those years and they are

all smartly turned out with

the hats with their national

service and badge on. Again

some very proud people among

them. These men did not go

to war but there are

peacekeeping berets among

them but they served their

country and they are saying

now "We were called up, did

our duty and we would like to

be recognised" and it is good

to see them marching and

being recognised. I think

there are some very happy

faces there. It is all about

acknowledgement that they are

being recognised for what

they did. Some happy faces in

the crowd as well. Poland,

this is an impressive group

with their berets and White

and red sashes. They bare a

banner which has the ancient

Polish banner "For your

freedom and ours". The Poles

had a terrible time. They are

led by MrSkarbek who usually

leads them. The Netherlands.

Rfltion yes, led by lieu West

End as usual. Lots of

connections because of the

Netherlands and West Indies

and not only based in

Australia but here in

Canberra. There is lieu West

End and with Dutch veterans

of many services who served

in this part of the world. Following the

Netherlands, France. Yes.

This man served in Tunisia.

There are veterans who served

in Indo China that became

Vietnam. Following France the

USA. Yes, usually from the

US embassy but I see some American veterans living in

Australia, a reminder that

Australia has been allied to

the US since 1917, another

anniversary I suppose for

this year. Indeed. Following

the USA turkey. There has

been in recent years a strong

turn out from Turks some have

family connections going back

to 1910 to Gallipoli and the campaign in the desert which

we saw recognised by the

Light Horse earlier. The

Australian Navy cadets we saw

then and now the regional

cadet unit, the 224 regional

cadet unit. Yes, led by

Stephanie Scott. We always

see a good turn out. They

have been practising. They

look very nervous because

they know they are under the

eyes of several hundred

veterans. The area debts.

Yes, a good turn out from the

city of Canberra flight followed by the Australian

air League. I can never tell the difference between them

I'm afraid but they are very strong youth associations

because I think aircraft

attract young people and they

learn all sorts of things

about aviation, some of them

who go on to careers in the

royal Australian Air Force.

Happy faces in our crowd.

Good to see so many young

people, quite extraordinary.

I've seen this over the past

five or six years here in

Canberra, the crowd getting

younger and younger. Then the

air League here. I went down

to ANZAC parade last year and

tried to discover the

difference between the air

League and the cadets and I'm

sorry I failed. You have done

pretty well, Dr Peter Stanley

I think. I try. You can see

people are wearing medals on

their right chest not just

because they are members of

the League but all these

people have some connection

with those who served in

Australia and more. In the

case of the leader of the

leader which could be Tim

Anderson, several people in

his family have had service

in Australia's

wars. Following them we get

the bands but you will note

too we saw a lovely shot down

ANZAC Parade here in Canberra

which gives you a sense of

how big this march is. Coming

up ANZAC Parade into the

front of the

Governor-General. Here we

have the city band. There is

that beautiful shot looking

right down Canberra to the

south to the Brindabellas and

the flag flying in front of

Old Parliament House. Here

are the bands. They are not

playing. There has been

competition with the parade

ground band. They have been

playing down ANZAC parade.

What would the marches be

without bands? We hear the

band of the Royal Military

College of Australia on the

parade ground but down the

parade the city bands and the

others are the means by which

veterans get a sense of

occasion and we keep in step

and really lend a bit of

pageantry to the situation.

The city band is led by Craig

Johnson who used to work for

the Australian War Memorial,

I'm pretty sure. Last year he

had a job to do on parade,

this year he has another job

to do but he is not getting

paid for it because he is

with the band. You are right

about it giving a rhythm for

some of the older marchers to

keep. To I notice myself

walking up and down ANZAC parade early in the morning when a lot bands are

practising, you see some of

the diggers practising their

march. Yes, it must come

back to them, like riding a

bicycle. When you hear a band

you do fall into the rhythm

and that is important just

for the timing of the march

as much as anything. Here we

have top Burns Club pipes and

drums. They look fantastic.

Always a strong supporter by

the mar.. Led by drum major

Alex Nicholson. I can never

remember a time when they

were not part of the Anzac

Day march. We do not hear the

pipes on the parade ground

but they do lend a real sense

of occasion. They look

fantastic, too. Fortunately,

too, Peter the sun has come

out a little this morning on

to parade ground here at the

Australian War Memorial. It

was very cold earlier on but

it has brightened up, the sun

has come out and fortunately

the rain has stopped just for

now, although we loved having

it this morning. We can see

that members of the band

there, the drum major, bill

Nicholson has for bears who

served in Australia, possibly

served Scotland in war. I

can't quite make out the medals but there are people

very proudly wearing medals

today. These two little girls

carrying the banner enjoying

themselves and have giggled

all the way up the parade. It

may be nervous, it is very

intimidating. When you find

yourself on the parade ground

in front of the contingent it

can come home to you that you

are in if national

spotlight. The Salvation Army, always a strong turn

out And in war too.

Salvation Army officers have

been going to administer the Australian Defence Forces

possibly since the Boer War but possibly the First World

War. A great friend of mine

runs the museum in Melbourne

and has written book about

the Salvation Army work in

wartime and it is a praise

worthy work effort through

decades. We all enjoy their

generosity in times of war,

even journalists, in times of

distress, bushfires, natural

disasters, they are always there.

Yes, it would be hard put to

find an organisation that did

not have the high reputation.

Here are the Marshalls. Yes,

we are coming towards the end

of the mar. Don't they look

fabulous. Yes, we can see

the bearers of these riders.

Notice how they are riding to

attention. This is not a

casual trot. This is very

much being on parade. A very

controlled ride indeed. Rusty has had quite a showing today.

Yes, for the third time. The

march would not be possible

without the marshals and the

Scouts and the Brownies and

making it the success it

clearly has been. It is a

major feat to get everybody

in order and up the parade

and we can see that beautiful

shot looking down the parade

with the parade ground in

front of the Australian War

Memorial emptying new as we prepare for the catafalque

party. You can see from the

beautiful shot the size of

the crowd on both sides of

the parade ground and up and

down ANZAC parade itself which is quite a walk.

Canberra is looking very

green as the gum trees can be

seen in the foreground. We

have not had much rain but we

got a bit this morning which

was terrific but it made it a

damp Dawn Service but very

beautiful. As we wait for the

catafalque party, Peter, tell

me about what the catafalque

party is symboliseing. This

is one of those the seemingly

ancient traditions which has

been reinvented. In immediate

evil times a king or noble man who died would be placed

in a coffin and because they

are uncertain times men at

arms would literally guard

the coffin before it could be

buried to protect the it

against spoil. That tradition

was revived quite recently as

modern times sought to find

ways to express the feelings

for occasions like Anzac Day

symbolises T tradition of the

catafalque party was resurrected but applied not

to a coffin but to the Stone

of Remembrance which is at

the moment obscured by your

colleagues in the media but

is the stone where wreaths

will be laid. And then

becomes a real focus. The day

itself, we have seen a terrific turn out - there we have it, the Stone of

Remembrance, a beautiful,

beautiful mom u meant. Very

simple but very elegant. We have a lot of New Zealanders

here today. Yes, and isn't it

wonderful to see the ANZAC

connection represented in

person and in the march and

officially by the High Commissioner. His Excellency

Dr John Larkindale was the

first of the dignitaries to

arrive before the Prime Minister and the Governor-General. There we

see some of the dignitaries,

tfk Prime Minister and Mrs

Howard. We have also got parliamentarians. Dr Ross

Bastiaan AM RFD has excelled

himself putting Mehmetcik Abide morals to people across

the world in recent years. A

beautiful shot that gives us

a sense of how magnificent

the Australian war memorial

is. The context in front of Mount Ainslie which rise

degrees the ground, a beat

full work of architecture.

It is an inspired setting. On

Burley Griffin's plan it is

labelled for a casino but

somebody thought of something

better inform the site! The

axis that runs from the

Australian War Memorial down the Parliament House, John Kuerten the Prime Minister

during the second half of the World War II said it was

fitting that representatives

and free people should look

out to see the monument of

those people who fought

here. It gives beautiful

symmetry to Canberra too,

particularly if you stand on

top Mount Ainslie over the

Australian War Memorial and

over ANZAC Parade across the

lake then to the triangle of

old Parliament House up to

the new Parliament House. We

still call it the new Parliament House even though

it has been there for 20

years. We take it for

granted, too, because we see

it in Canberra every day but

those who visit Canberra I

think still are impressed by

the setting. I've noticed

over the last week or so many

more visitors coming to the Australian War Memorial. We

do get a lot of visitors here

anyway but over the last week

it seems to bring a lot of

Australians to Canberra.

That is right. The

combination of school

holidays and Anzac Day gives

the people moral a peak in

its figures. There are people

who come on holiday but I

think often when people enter

the memorial they are

surprised by what they find

because they find a memorial

and a museum, a place that commemorates why Australians

are gathering here today. As

someone who used to work the

Australian War Memorial - in

fact you used to do this very

parade commentary yourself -

why do you think it continues

to win international award

for touries many. The

memorial has been very

successful in rein vetting

itself as a tourist

attraction and gives them an

experience not just as a

tourist experience and we are

seeing a spectacle with

meaning which summarises what

the memorial is about. It is always about something which

is very important to a lot of

people and which despite the

pomp is something that is

solemn and severus and

getting that mix right is the

challenge the memorial has faced. As we have seen today

a lot of younger faces around and younger people marching

and descendants of servicemen

and women marching, do you

think that this will change

over time as the diggers age

and servicemen and women age,

that we will see a very

different Anzac Day? We

certainly will. Speaking as

an historian looking over

Anzac Day which has been

going for 90 years, it always

has changed T ceremony we see

before us is extraordinarily

different to even 20 years

ago. It is more bigger, more military. We have seen the

presence of the Federal Guard

for evenings ample. It will change in the future as

Australian society changes,

as future commitments. We

hope there are no more wars

but realistically we assume

there will be. There are

peacekeeping veterans who

will be marching 50 years into the future because we

need to remember those

commitments. We need to remember what the Defence

Force has done for the

country and the nation

continues to think that is

important, then Anzac Day

will still be important! Certainly with Australian

being at war at the moment in

Iraq and with our troops in

Afghanistan and elsewhere

around the world and

certainly East Timor, I

believe that that brings more and more younger people out

too because they feel a sense

of connection with that.

Yes, indeed. The age of the

marchers as you say is

getting younger because of

the commitment Australia is engaged in which means young

people are able to relate

more to those on parade.

Traditionally when we were

growing up it was middle-aged

and elderly men and possibly

men. Now we see a much

greater diversity and I is

easier for people to relate

to that. We are not seeing

any World War I veterans on

the march any more which make

as difference. I think we saw

the last one a year or two

ago.. yes, that is a difficulty. The greatest number of Australians who

died in war as we know from

the roll of honour had those

who died in the Great War

which is hard to maintain the

memory. That is why it is

great to see Rusty and the

ban yes, it was 60,000

Australians who died in the

Great War, at least their

memory is preserved in the

ceremony because the First

World War was the reason

Anzac Day was created and why

it is so important. We are

seeing the preparation for

the catafalque party. Here

they come as they move

towards the Stone of

Remembrance. This is always

such a beautifully

choreographed and executed

part of the whole ceremonial

event here on Anzac Day. It

certainly is. It is a very

demanding piece of ceremony,

not just because we see there

are six service people, they

are the focus of the ceremony

at the moment, but also because these young

servicemen and women have to

maintain a very precise and

exact stillness for the whole duration of the ceremony and

that is not an easy thing to

do. I'm always astonished we

do not see more people in the

Fred dration Guard fall

over. Funny you should

bhention that. A couple of

years ago we had one member

of the catafalque party just

as he had turned and stood in

position, he fainted and it

was hard as to whether or not

we should have made mention

of it but he fainted and had

to be carried away. At the

time it was surprisingly

warm. Although it was felt

that the nervousness and

exacty tud, the stress had

overwhelmed him. It is a

great responsibility. We see

two young men and women

today, they have been

practising this but as you

say the tension of being the

focus and maintaining that

stillness, that accepts of responsibility - there is

nothing you can do if you

faint. We have one from each

of the services?

Yes, there are two soldiers,

a sailor and an airman but

the Federal Guard is a mixed

unit from the three service

from the Defence Force as a

whole. The Federation Guard

are very experienced in

mounting ceremonies and they

have procedures to cope with

if people fall over so they

are very experienced. The

position they take up, they

now maintain that right

through. That is right. It

is a very familiar position

to those who see country war

Mehmetcik Abide morals. Their

position the young solders

are adoing is exactly that of the country towns. Governor-General

Michael Jeffrey, the Governor-General, will

deliver his commemorative

address. At 4.30 precisely

the first line of the 8th

Light Horse leapt from their

trenches, as their helmets

appeared an awful fire broke

among them. Many were shot

but a line started forward.

It crumbled and vanished

within 5 metres. One or two

on the flanks- ed to the

enemies parapet before being

killed. The rest lay still in

the open. The second line saw

the fate of their friends.

They waited two minutes as

ordered. They could hardly

have doubted their fate. They

knew they would die, and they

determined to die bravely.

Boys, you have minutes to

live, their commanding

officer told them