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(generated from captions) THEME MUSIC Tonight on Catalyst - in fish school. Mark Horstman take a class than we ever expected. There's more learning going on lifelong passion for genetics. Jenny Graves shares her Science is very exciting. It doesn't let you go. It really grabs you. And I travel to Melbourne can help to unravel to find out if science of Australian art. one of the greatest mysteries Hello. Welcome to Catalyst. the great Australian bite. Fish - it's always been of course we love eating it, We love catching it, there's always been plenty of it. and in the past at least, But for how much longer? has been studying fish for 14 years. Behavioural ecologist Dr Culum Brown to keep catching fish, And he reckons if we want learning from them. we're going to have to start the little fish in fish schools His experiments show that actually learn from the older ones. the big older fish, So if we keep catching

who's going to teach the little guys?

Mark Horstman joins fish school. RELAXING MUSIC species of fish. There are 32,000-plus their behaviour and ecology. We know almost nothing about just like people. Each fish is an individual, aggressive individuals. You know, you have these

You have shy, retiring individuals. You have bold individuals. and memory capabilities. They have fantastic learning is just totally inflexible - that fish behaviour in particular A lot of people think they're like little swimming robots. But that's absolutely not the case. and adjust their behaviour They can learn all sorts of things the chance to do it. if only we'd give them WAVE CRASHES as animals, do we? We don't tend to regard fish No. It's an odd thing. do you know that say, I mean, how many vegetarians but I eat fish." "Oh, I'm a vegetarian on an industrial scale. wild animals that we hunt for food Fish are the only intelligent we take them for granted. The problem is how much over the side as bycatch. The ones we don't want are dumped are degraded by pollution. Many of their coastal habitats are highly destructive. Some fishing methods EXPLOSION have to give them a fighting chance. If we want fish in the future, we AUCTION CALL at the Sydney Fish Market Before dawn each morning our oceans have to offer. is a passing parade of the best of a hundred marine species Every day, there's 50 tonnes coming through this market. about how fish behave? But how much do we really understand that in schools of fish, Now new research is showing us than we ever expected. there's more learning going on about fish behaviour, The less we understand are at risk from overfishing. the more their populations They just can't cope pressure that we're putting on them. with the huge amount of predation to respond to predators The gap between their ability as predators - and our ability to catch them that gap is widening, hugely. of industrial fishing, As a result, after 50 years 400 commercial fish stocks three-quarters of the world's are at risk of collapse. how many are removed each year, We still don't really know nor how many remain. the behaviour of fish to catch them, While we're good at exploiting they need to survive. we're blind to the social lives wants to change. behavioural ecologist Culum Brown It's a mindset that the 'Fish Whisperer', yes. They call me Definitely. Get inside their heads. You have to think like a fish. These are rainbow fish. of animal psychology Culum uses simple principles to test their learning and memory. an association What they do is they make between the appearance of that light down the tube behind it. and the food that gets delivered Exactly like Pavlov's dogs. Like Pavlov's dogs. to figure out It doesn't take them long there's food. that where there's a light,

exposures. It takes only six or seven So that's pretty rapid learning. that know about the light What happens if you add fish before? to a school that's never seen it could be put in with the naive ones These pre-trained individuals is rapidly accelerated. and the rate of learning some juvenile wild fish, When he did this with he found they learned twice as fast from each other. that fish learn. The same applies to most things straightforward experiment This is a fairly that this is a scary thing. where we teach them

and physically chasing them around. Um, simply by taking this or a real predator, Whether it's a plastic toy the principle remains the same. and respond to predators, If you train them to recognise controlled experiments we've shown in their chances of survival. that that dramatically increases reared in hatcheries. That's important for fish Before they're released to the wild, and when to swim away. they can be taught what to eat There's no way a fish could survive with that many challenges, in the real world, if they didn't remember things. of thing we're simulating here. And that's exactly the sort it only comes from experience. It's not in-built - to overfishing. And here might lie an answer from the wild, As we're increasingly removing fish is actually put some back. um, what we're trying to do now WATER GURGLES south of Sydney, On the Georges River, is putting these ideas into action. fisheries scientist Matt Taylor 250 kilometres away He's towed this tank from a hatchery or jewfish. to release baby mulloway, project in New South Wales. It's the only marine restocking or jewfish, We've got about 8,500 mulloway, between 80mm and 150mm in length. on the Georges River And, um, they're an important fish of, um, anglers around this estuary, with such a high concentration being in the heart of Sydney.

They're a difficult one to catch, ever forget it. but few anglers that catch a jewfish backing up to a boat ramp, Usually, restocking means tipping out bucketfuls of fingerlings, and hoping for the best. But Matt's approach is different. He releases mulloway in areas selected for their carrying capacity. You right? Yep. It's based on their key habitat, their appetite, and the abundance of food. MATT: Are you totally mulloway? Oh, mate, we both - we wish...we wish we could! (Laughs) Well, we're out stocking them today. We got a couple of thousand on the boat here with us. How many young mulloway you reckon you've released so far in your life? Since 2003, probably about 250,000. Quarter of a million? Up and down the coast. Yeah, yeah. Gone into about half a dozen estuaries from the border down to Sydney. There you go, fellas. Live long and prosper! These young mulloway experience live prey and predators while growing up in the hatchery. So how many of these are gonna survive? Oh, hopefully all of them, but realistically, probably about 50% will die before they reach the fishery.

That's my best guess. When the monitoring is complete, Matt expects a better survival rate than the usual 10% or less. Depending on your species, fish education can play a huge role in the survival if you release fingerlings. What's your dumbest fish? Dumbest fish - at the moment we're only stocking mulloway, so I...I can't answer that question. Well, I suppose mulloway will have to be my dumbest fish, then, won't it! Smartest fish? Mulloway! (Laughs) But restocking the sea, even with smart fish, is only part of the solution to overfishing. If you start throwing fish in open-ocean waters, you have to be very sure that you know where the currents are gonna take those fish, and -

or where they're gonna migrate, um, by the time of harvest. Nevertheless, Culum Brown sees untapped potential in their talent for social learning. Training fish en masse and releasing them into the real world - that's the next step, and we're pretty confident it's gonna work. He herds his schools of experimental rainbow fish behind a wall to record how long it takes them to find a way out. The idea of this experiment is to teach the fish to escape from the - um, well it used to be the trawl net, but we've modified it somewhat. It's a symbolic trawl net. It's a symbolic trawl net with a nice pink escape route, which is actually a little bit terrifying for them. Fish learn to escape by watching others do it - a lot quicker if their teachers are already trained. And with similar species, he found they remember the lesson for at least a year. That's a long time in the life of a fish! Well, these ones only live two or three years in the wild, so...and that's effectively a third or half their lifetime. And for 15 minutes' worth of training, that's pretty astonishing.

Not only are they learning from the individual experiences, they're obviously -

because they're keeping track of what other individuals are doing - they gain a lot of information just by watching and learning from others. That suggests, then, that fish have culture. Yeah, certainly. And that means cultural knowledge can be lost when the big old fish with all the wisdom get dragged out of the school. Like the infamous North Sea cod fishery, which collapsed because too many mature fish were taken. Now the cod no longer migrate to the traditional places where they once fed and bred.

Not only have we messed with the biology, now the juvenile fish are effectively having to figure it out for themselves. And that's pretty devastating, there's no doubt about that. And there - there is some debate

on whether or not those stocks will ever come back

because we've messed with that culture. Culum suggests keeping the middle-sized individuals and leaving the old ones alone. And he goes one step further - why not help fish bridge the technological gap by training them to avoid trawlers? Yeah, certainly - that would be the ultimate aim. If you could teach them to avoid trawlers - which some fish do learn, they can recognise the noise of trawlers. Fishing industry might see you as a dangerous man if you talk to too many fish! Yes, possibly. Although, I mean, I have to say I've always been a keen fisherman myself! What we need to do is really concentrate on putting the, I guess, ecology and behaviour

back into fisheries management, particularly hatcheries. THEME MUSIC Back in 1888, here in Melbourne, the artist Charles Conder painted the work 'Orchard at Box Hill'. It's the impressionistic piece But it's got a mysterious past.

Well, now it's being examined in forensic detail by both scientists and art historians alike. Paul Willis explains. Here at the Ian Potter gallery of the National Gallery of Victoria is one of the most mysterious pictures in Australian art. It's a hidden figure whose history is obscure and whose future is uncertain. The question is, can science provide some answers? STRING MUSIC The painting in question is 'Orchard at Box Hill' by Charles Conder - a mysterious and infamous work of art. At one stage it held the record for being the most valuable painting on the Australian art market. That was in 1969, and it sold for $32,000. And this has got an area in the centre where it's been overcleaned, and a face has emerged, that's a person wearing a hat with a broad ostrich plume. Now the gallery want this picture in a new exhibition. So it's crunch time - art experts have to determine why the figure's there, who painted it, and if it's part of the original composition. Based on their findings, they'll then make a decision - will the hidden figure be revealed, or painted out entirely? So this painting still holds secrets that we need to find out.

Art conservator Michael Varcoe-Cocks begins his forensic investigations with an X-ray of the whole picture. MACHINE WHIRRS AND BEEPS The moment of truth! What have we got here, then? OK. Let's put it up. Right. Well, instantly you can see down here is this full figure of the dress. Oh... The face and the parasol. That's remarkable.

And so she's hidden inside all of the paint that's on the canvas? Below the upper layers, that's right. So this is the only way we can see below the surface and see what's underneath. Now the question is, does this hidden woman belong in this picture, or was she perhaps part of an earlier painting on a canvas that Conder had reused? And this is the image in reflected light? That's right. Michael turns to his computer. But what we've done now is we've digitised the radiograph,

and we've overlaid it, so we can do a direct comparison. And see both images in 50% transparent light. So what does this tell you?

Is there something about where things are positioned that you learn? Yeah. I mean, what I'm starting to read straightaway is that the figure very much sits within the landscape. It's not a recycled canvas. She did, at one point, belong in this orchard scene. But somebody's painted her out. So what's the next level of analysis after this? So the next process will be a much more refined elemental analysis, and try and establish the, um... the composition of the pigments used in the original painting,

and compositions that were used in any later painting. That should be able to tell us a sequence of events, that can ultimately inform us on our final judgment. For a more detailed analysis, Michael has teamed up with Deborah Lowe, an analytical and conservation scientist at the CSIRO division of manufacturing and materials technology. They've taken 'Orchard at Box Hill' to the labs for X-ray defraction analysis,

which should be able to identify the minerals that the pigments are made from. Now we're going to collect from that white area that you've identified as overpaint. Yep. And the X-ray defraction reveals something unexpected - traces of the titanium mineral, anaphase. The uppermost layers that are painting out the figure contain a pigment - in this case, titanium white - which didn't exist when Charles Conder was around. And it's clearly not by him. So these three here. Well, that's great. 'Cause that tells me definitively that the uppermost layers, anyway, are restorations. So I feel very confident that they're not the work by the artist and were applied by a later hand and should come off. By analysing every brushstroke, Michael and Deborah build up an impressive database that will be vital in the restoration of this mysterious masterpiece. In the past, conservation treatments were more of an artisan, sort of craftsman, um, process. Now, through the advent of scientific analysis,

it's meant that all of the treatments are really well-informed in terms of the materials that the artist used, and the decisions about what materials to use that are made by the conservator. Once all the data is in and the original paint can be separated from the more recent restorations, it's time to get to work. SOFT PIANO PLAYS As Michael strips away the top layer of paint, he reveals another secret hidden in the painting. Underneath the uppermost layer of restoration, we found yet another layer. And this layer, we believe it to be by the artist. And the reason I know that is that it contains elements of, um, foreign matter

that also exist in other parts of the picture. And this new layer helps reveal exactly what Conder was thinking when he was working on this painting.

What's happened is that Conder's had a major change in the composition - he's decided to remove the figure himself. And that, I guess, is a little confusing for people in the past,

because they thought such a major element such as the central figure would naturally be part of the composition. Um, this is very typical of Conder. He's - he's very non-conformist, and he's made a dramatic change in mind and suppressed the figure himself, resorted to a more simplified landscape, and much more of a typical impressionist-style painting. After the cleaning, there's some restoration required to bring the painting back to its original condition. BRUSH CLINKS AGAINST GLASS Michael uses the same pigment Conder would have used over a century before. We have a clear path mapped out in front of us. So, there's other layers which have to be removed - there's the discoloured varnish layer, there's residues from old restorations. So it all has to be removed and taken away. We can then see the painting as it is in its current state, and um, yeah, hopefully we'll get to see a sense of the original palette of Conder.

And we can join the painting back with its contemporaries in the exhibition. So it'll be interesting to see that final result. SLOW MUSIC Well, after months of investigation and restoration, here it is - 'Orchard at Box Hill', just as Charles Conder intended it without the mysterious female figure. Who was she? Well, that's anyone's guess. Now, we can all see the differences between black and white, right? Well, wrong, actually. Dr Bart Anderson has been researching the way our brains register light. And his work has caused a big rethink in the way we understand vision. I think you'll enjoy wrapping your grey matter around this one! ELECTRONIC MUSIC The way we perceive things may not always be black and white. Everyone knows a zebra is black and white, but is it always this obvious? Depending on the surroundings or context of the image you're looking at, your brain will register it as either dark or light. Take this picture, for example. In this image, the discs appear white. And here, they appear black. But in fact, they're identical. The problem of vision is to try to figure out what the different components are in the world that reach our eyes. that gave rise to the images but clever illusion, Using this simple a long-standing dispute Dr Bart Anderson has settled on how our brains compute lightness. Every time we look at a surface, down into three layers. our visual system is breaking it that strikes the object, There's the illumination on the surface. that actually is just impinging which is the amount of light of the object, There's the reflectance that the object reflects. which is the proportion of the light

And there's transparency, intervening material might have which is the effects that any that reaches your eyes. on the amount of light white discs clouded by black smoke. So going back to this image, I see it's the complete opposite. And in this image, Why is that? the contrast. Well, it has to do with the entire backgrounds... If I rotate Right. Oh right. So they look identical now. the direction of contrast - The visual system uses that is, whether its dark to light relative to the background. or light to dark, appear the same or different to you? OK, Mary. Do these chess pieces in this image. Well, they appear the same the background, But if I were to change Ooh! Now they're different. and dark here. They appear white here to just one of these chess pieces - OK. Now if I pay attention the original background... if I go back to You can see that they don't change. Oh. and its surroundings So the boundary between an image lightness. is critical to how we perceive white discs through dark checks, Black discs through white checks, they look pretty similar. but if I cover up the boundaries, Again - black discs, white discs. just tricking our eyesight, So are these illusions effectively and boundaries or can Bart's theories of context be applied in the real world? ENGINE TURNS OFF Now take this as a practical example. on this black window The reflection of my white shirt because white on black makes grey. should appear grey, my shirt appears white. But interestingly, to the eye, So why is that? in which we see things. Well, it's all about the context it appears different. If we take something out of context, If we take a closer look at my shirt of the black car, and take it out of the context It actually looks grey. So, what does this tell us? Well, it's helping us understand figures out what's in the world. how the visual system actually

its decomposition. How it actually does on the long-standing theory Finally, Bart has shed light our brain is assessing that every time we look at an object, reflectance and transparency of it the illumination, to determine how light or dark it is. So seeing really is believing. THEME MUSIC The scientist we're about to meet unravelling the mysteries of DNA. has spent more than 30 years Much to Jenny Graham's surprise, taught her more about human genetics kangaroos and wallabies have than she ever dreamed possible. PIANO PLAYS for discovering 13 human genes. Professor Jenny Graves is famous clues to those human genes But she never thought she'd find inside Australian marsupials. Marsupials weren't my first choice, and it was so fascinating, but I did some work Australian animals and I realised that to give to the world of genetics. had something very unique OPERA MUSIC My parents were both scientists, very excited by their science. and I could see that they were both When I was at university, very hard about careers. I wasn't really thinking in the '50s and '60s This was Adelaide and most girls didn't have careers. So I was leaving things open. very much. Well, I didn't really like biology of stuff, a lot of facts, It seemed like an awful lot that weren't really related. and particularly evolution, So when I met genetics, holds all biology together." I thought, "Well there's what

and plants and bacteria together, kangaroos and humans and whales There's what holds is the DNA and the chromosomes. not to pursue a serious career Women often choose when they have children. and a mother and a wife. It's terribly hard to be a scientist for about 12 years. I think I was slightly mad in the 1970s. Jenny made a major discovery genes are inactivated, She found a natural way known as DNA methylation. about DNA methylation And it was the discoveries I made "Ooh! Goodness me! that made me think, something really important? "How come I discovered "Wow, this could be fun!"

with a new drive. And that really did lead me on used to be my dream - Well, it always could actually see where genes are, if only we had some way that we and now we can! that's tagged with fluorescent dyes We colour them with DNA where a gene is. so we can see exactly These are fantastic techniques, images we get. and it's absolutely beautiful of science that I absolutely love! And really, this is the part with the new genome sequencing now I have a huge opportunity driving me all my whole life. to answer questions that have been becomes inactive in females, The question of why one X chromosome and how this happens. How does it work in kangaroos? the same way. It doesn't seem to work threads of this complex interaction. We might be able to pull apart the like to do in the next few years. And that's one thing I'd really Science is very exciting. but it's incredibly exciting. It's not easy, and it doesn't let you go. It really grabs you it's an adventure story. It's a detective story, what's going to happen next. And you never know you are what you eat. Next week on Catalyst - your grandmother ate, too. But science suggests you're what on or off. Epigenetics turn our genes more Catalyst stories, If you'd like to read or watch go to our website. That's it for now. see you next week. On behalf of the Catalyst team,

THEME MUSIC

CC

Good evening. Virginia Haussegger

with an ABC News update. Today's

with an ABC News update. Today's good news on the job's front could put

further pressure on the Reserve Bank

to lift interest rates. Unemployment

is back at a 30-year low to 4.5%.

is back at a 30-year low to 4.5%. The Prime Minister says it shows the

benefit of the government's new

workplace rules, but economists are

warning mortgage holders to brace

themselves. The ACT Government has

unveiled a radical plan to make

housing more affordable in Canberra.

It includes more land releases, a

greater emphasis on low-cost housing

packages, and extra concessions for

first home buyers. Australia's

development of a tsunami early

warning system is a step closer. One

of five deep-ocean detection buoys

of five deep-ocean detection buoys is on it's way to an anchorage off

Tasmania. Melbourne music fans were

treated to a rare free performance

from one of the world's biggest rock

bands last night. The Red Hot Chili

Peppers hit the stage at Federation

Square in an experimental mood,

Square in an experimental mood, minus lead singer Anthony Kiedis. And

Canberra's weather - fine with

morning fog. A top of 25, after

getting down to 7 degrees overnight.

Sydney - 25. Melbourne - 25.

Sydney - 25. Melbourne - 25. Adelaide - 31. More news in an hour and,

again, in 'Lateline' at 10.20. Enjoy

your evening.

This program is not subtitled A heart transplant is a life-changing event... The world is now my oyster, from the bottom to the top. ..but, for a few, it brings much more. I absolutely do not believe, for a second, that a heart is just a pump. Little by little, many things started happening. I was more of an Italian food fan, but I love Mexican food now. I suddenly liked green peppers, putting them in my food. I used to take them out.

I just was writing and writing and writing. I didn't have a clue where it was coming from. I was convinced that I was living with the presence of another within me. It's like two people in one body.

Is it possible that a new heart could bring with it the memories of a donor? This idea of a sentient, remembering, connecting heart is one of the most radical scientific concepts to come along in a very long time. And it changes everything. A heart transplant is now a routine operation. But a number of patients who have received new hearts,

are reporting huge changes in their tastes, personality, and, most extraordinarily, in their memories. They believe that they've been given much more than they bargained for from their donors. PIANO TITTERS The heart has been seen for centuries as a symbolic organ, associated with love and emotion. Today, new science is testing this theory - that the heart is involved in our feelings, that it is intelligent and can sometimes lead the brain in our interpretation of the world around us. HEARTBEATS From our research, I've come to say that I think the poets and the great scholars have been right all along - the heart plays a particularly unique role in our experience of emotion. Why have these metaphors dominated for centuries? Is it just metaphor? Is it just poetry? Or is there an inner wisdom here that merits the attention of modern science?

It's a controversial theory, and many cardiologists and neurologists are sceptical. I'm very sceptical, because I know that this organ cannot generate ideas