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Catalyst -

View in ParlView

Dirty Little Secrets

Reporter: Mark Horstman

Producer: Mark Horstman, Greg Swanborough, Paul Faint

Researcher: Maria Ceballos

Is the air in our cities safe to breathe? New science about fine particle pollution has a dire
warning for public health. A storm of toxic dust and poison gases swirls through our streets and
suburbs every day. Not the result of some freak industrial accident, but an invisible killer we
unwittingly spread from our vehicle exhausts. The global epidemic of fine particle pollution is
estimated to kill nearly a million people each year. The toxic particles are so incredibly small
they can slip straight through lung walls into our bloodstream. So small, are they beyond the reach
of government agencies charged with protecting public health?



Narration: We thought we knew how harmful air pollution is - but we were wrong.

An invisible plague of fine particles is surrounding us - invading our bodies as we suck it into
our lungs.

Dr Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: We're exposed to fine particles in large quantities all the time,
they're always around us.

Dr Mike Kleinman:We've actually shown increased inflammation in the brain.

Narration: This is new science with a dire warning for public health. More people are dying from
traffic exhaust than we ever realised.

Dr. Gong: Even if you're completely healthy, well in certain circumstances you may be susceptible.

Ass. Prof. John Gullotta: I'm actually seeing it in my own practice, younger and younger children
coming in at an earlier age, suffering from these diseases.

Dr Mike Jerrett: Being in areas of high traffic density is not good. Being very close to major
roadways is very bad.

We hope that our message is getting through that pollution is hurting and killing people.

Narration: Most of us spend all our lives breathing these mysterious fine particles.

It's time to expose their dirty little secrets.

Living in the Big Smoke means that fine particles are part of everyday life - whether at home or at
work, in hospitals or childcare centres, at the shops or in the cafe.

An inner-city school has agreed to help Catalyst measure how much is actually swirling around us.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: We're setting up an experiment, here in a school playground, right next to
a busy road.

The grade sixers here are going to use the information coming out of these machines to find out
what's in the air they breathe.

It's going to run for a few weeks, and we don't know what we're going to find out - so let's get

Abbey Proud, Teacher: Did anyone happen to notice what those brown boxes were? Cale?

Cale, Student: I think they measure, like um, the air particles and the pollution in the air.

Abbey Proud, Teacher: They are air monitoring machines. What sorts of things do you think an air
monitoring machine might do?

Seonie, Student: To see what we suck up every day.

Narration: This school could be any city school. What they breathe here is what millions of us
breathe everyday.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: How ya goin?

Kids: Good.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: This is one of the machines. Ever seen one of these before?

Kids: No

Mark Horstman, Reporter: Come in a bit closer and see what's in here. So this is where the air goes
in through the top. And it gets sucked down into the box here where it's weighed.

Narration: Involving school children in our experiment is something of a first in Australia.

Abbey Proud, Teacher: I certainly haven't heard of it being done before. I think it's a unique
opportunity - and we want to find out if there's enough particles here to be poisonous.

Steve, Parent: We are living in the city, so we do have an expectation of a high pollution reading
we're hopeful that it isn't - you know, damaging.

Narration: With no way of knowing whether the pollution readings will be high or low, the school
made a courageous decision to give Catalyst the green light.

This is what we're looking for -

Magnified more than 100,000 times, ultra-fine particles look like this.

Tiny specks of sooty carbon coated with the chemical cocktails from burnt fuel, toxins like
chromium, peroxides, and cancer-causing hydrocarbons.

To measure them, think microns. There are one thousand microns in just one millimetre.

Fine particles less than 2.5 microns, classed as PM2.5, are smaller than a red blood cell.

And much smaller still, less than one-tenth of one micron, are the ultrafine particles, the size of
a virus.

Busy roads spew out more fine particle pollution than anywhere else - exactly where millions of
urban Australians live, work and play.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: Right here in eight lanes of traffic, I'm probably inhaling around ten
million of these particles with every breath. And that's not surprising because trillions of them
come spewing out of the average car.

Narration: Many more come from diesel engines and trucks.

The fear is, the smaller the particle, the bigger the health risk, because tiny particles reach
parts of the body that larger particles can't.

To find out what the latest research can tell us, I need to visit a mega-city choking in traffic -
Los Angeles.

Narration: Los Angeles is a magnet, not only for wannabe film stars but for scientists
investigating particle pollution. And it's easy to see why - this has got to be the world's biggest
natural laboratories. And even up here, high in the Hollywood hills, late in the afternoon, you can
see this rising tide of particle haze creeping up the range. But it's down here in the city, where
people breathe some of the most polluted air in the world.

Because there's 17 million people driving 10 million vehicles every day.

And what makes matters worse is LA's geography.

Dr Mike Jerrett, Medical Geographer: We have the Los Angeles basin surrounded by the San Gabriel,
the San Bernadino and Santa Ana Mountains and we get a cool ocean breeze and warm air coming off
the mountains and that creates what's called a temperature inversion. So it compresses the
pollution close to ground level and really allows it to cook.

Narration: Like a big bowl with a lid on it?

Dr Mike Jerrett, Medical Geographer: It is, and it keeps the population and the pollution too close
together... and there's nowhere for it to go except into people's lungs.

Narration: On a clear morning, you can see the mountains behind downtown LA.

But by midday, the particle haze is so thick it makes the entire mountain range completely

The problem is so severe that your car's exhaust is required by law to meet pollution standards.

Unlike Australia, in California you can't sell a car without an emissions check.

Jim, Jim's Smog Centre: There's five different types of gases that come out. Hydrocarbons, carbon
monoxide, oxides of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Narration: But just keeping an eye on the exhaust pipe won't tell us everything we need to know.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: For 60 bucks, Jim will tell me what gases come out of my exhaust pipe, and
I can get the car registered. But that doesn't give me the whole story about what kind of
particles, and how much are coming out, plus what happens to them once they escape into the big
wide world.

Narration: There's a chemical soup out there, making brand new particles from hundreds of

And atmospheric chemist Paul Ziemann collects the recipes.

Dr Paul Ziemann, UC: The real atmosphere is very complex, so one needs to do more controlled
studies in a laboratory setting.

Narration: So he creates an artificial world - an experimental chamber lit by fluoro tubes, like a
freeway in the sun.

Dr Paul Ziemann, UC: What we have here is some hydrocarbons that are similar to what one might see
by a freeway, and we create some reactions that lead to particle formation, and then those
molecules are analysed in this spectrometer.

Narration: It only takes two of these chemicals to brew smog in a bottle.

Dr Paul Ziemann, UC: So what I have are two glass bulbs here. The larger bulb contains cyclohexene
which is a component of car exhaust, and the second is ozone which is an oxidant formed in the
atmosphere from sunlight - but if I mix the two together by opening this valve - you'll notice a
cloud that appears and - this is the same sort of haze that's formed in the atmosphere.

Narration: With these new particles made by chemical reactions in the air, as well as the particles
made by the engine, you've got double the trouble.

Back in the school yard, the particle monitor has been whirring away for two days, sampling the

The machine we're using is called a TEOM. It's the same type used by state governments to measure
air quality.

Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: It's commonly used by monitoring sites, the EPAs, CSIRO has used these,
it's a very standard piece of equipment.

Narration: When the authorities weigh and report levels of particle matter, it's for 10 microns
across and less.

But is this level adequate to protect public health? After all, larger coarse particles make up
most of the weight.

We're using the TEOM to weigh only fine and ultra fine particles - smaller than 2.5 microns.

We've set it up 20 metres from an arterial road with around 80,000 vehicles passing each day.

Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: Being close to a roadway, certainly during the peak times, it would be
expected that most of your fine particles, less than 2.5, would be coming from the roadway.

Abbey Proud, Teacher: I suppose the immediate assumption would be that there will be large volumes
of particle pollution, being next to a main road.

Narration: And that's what we're finding. The experiment's just begun, but one morning before
school starts, the TEOM records a very high level of PM2.5.

Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: How do those levels strike you?

You have a couple of reasonably high days.

Narration: And this will be a worry for everyone in the area if it keeps happening. We won't know
if these high readings are the norm until our experiment has finished.

Across the Pacific, research has gone further than just measuring the particles in the air.

Toxicologists like Mike Kleinman study what the fine particles can actually do once they get inside
your body.

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: This is a lung, a dried lung from a person about
sixty years old who lived in Los Angeles most of their lives and what you can see here is all these
black particles that were originally taken in and were removed by the immune system and placed out
there in lymph nodes. What's significant is that when these particles are out there if they contain
toxic materials, heavy metals, carcinogens, they can have life long effects.

Narration: Scary stuff - and if particles get beyond the lungs, what happens next?

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: The animal is being induced.

Narration: To find out, Mike uses rats as stand-ins for people.

From this rat we will get heart rate, their arrhythmias. We'll actually get all the same
information that we get from human ECGs. The operation today is to implant this transmitter in the
abdomen of the animal and to connect the leads to the chest across the heart under the skin.

The rats breathe only purified air in the lab, until their big day comes.

Then they're off to stay next to the freeway in specially cooled gas chambers.

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: These particular animals are going to be exposed in
an area of Los Angeles that has very high particle pollution.

We place the animals at the edge of the van, and connect them to an air pollution device that
concentrates the particles out of the air by about twenty to thirty times.

Narration: Mike's team can select the particular size of ultrafine particles they want to test.

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: Now we have to adjust the flow to 5 litres per

On a usual day, the air pollution is coming directly over this site.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: And how thick is the air pollution? How many particles would you get in a
cubic centimetre for example?

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: Well we probably are getting about 100,000 particles
per cc, which is a fairly high number concentration.

Narration: The bionic rats breathe the particle-laden air and transmit their heartbeats to a nearby

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: And then we have another group that only gets
purified air so we can compare the results in these different groups of animals.

OK, we're all connected up, we're good to go.

Narration: Amid the shimmering heat of summer concrete, it's time for a breather as the experiment
gets under way.

This is actually the time when a visit from an ice-cream truck would be very nice.

Before ground-breaking experiments like this, we had no idea what fine particles from traffic do to
living things.

The clues are in these rats. Over two weeks they get a measured dose of particles from the
surrounding brew of pollution. And the results are disturbing.

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: Definitely signs that the effects of the pollution
affect not only the lungs but they affect the heart, and we've actually shown increased
inflammation in the brain of animals that were exposed near the freeway. So other organs are
definitely involved.

Narration:The ultrafine particles are so incredibly small they slip right through the lungs and
hitch a ride with blood cells.

And because they get right inside cells and disable them, they are the most potent part of air
pollution, up to 50 times more damaging than bigger particles.

Mike finds they cripple vital functions, like the heartbeat.

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: In the rats we are finding changes in arrhythmias,
the animals after exposure have many more abnormal heartbeats than before the exposure.

Narration:This could explain why in cities the world over, more elderly people prone to heart
attacks and stroke, die on high pollution days.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: Traffic exhaust is full of toxic nasties from burning fuel. And ultrafine
particles are a very good way of delivering them. Within hours of arriving in my lungs, these
poison-coated particles will be turning up in my heart, my liver - even my brain.

Narration: But it's the heart where the most acute effects are felt. It's routine for cardiologists
to ask their heart patients about smoking. But I'm told they don't usually ask about particle

Dr Henry Gong, Director, Los Alamos Health Centre: It's like smoking, cigarette smoking, you inhale
the particles and gases, same thing with particles that primarily come from combustion.

Narration: Lung experts like Henry Gong now regard fine particles as a trigger, and perhaps a
cause, of heart attacks.

Dr Henry Gong, Director, Los Alamos Health Centre: It's gone beyond the lung specialist area to the
heart specialist.

Narration: This unlikely looking caravan is at the vanguard of fine particle research.

Inside is a cramped laboratory where patient volunteers inhale pollution in the name of science.

Dr Henry Gong, Director, Los Alamos Health Centre: For the ultrafine concentrated exposures, which
this is designed for, the subject would wear a mask for the entire two-hour exposure period.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: You're putting people with asthma in here too?

Dr Henry Gong, Director, Los Alamos Health Centre: Yes healthy people without asthma, and also
people with documented asthma

Narration: His results reflect the rat experiments - ultrafines are acutely toxic to the heart.

Dr Henry Gong, Director, Los Alamos Health Centre:It looks like it doesn't matter if you have lung
disease, per se, you still get a systemic effect such as reduced heart rate variability.

Narration: That means your heartbeat is less perky than it should be.

And if your heart's already struggling, an overload of particles could be fatal.

Mike Jerret: Heart disease is certainly a big part of the picture but the story goes beyond that.

Narration: Mike Jerrett combines medicine with mapping technology to see links that others haven't
seen before.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: Each of those dots is a person?

Mike Jerret: That's right - and these are the location of people in a health study where we have
information on their health conditions and we're linking that to pollution information from a
series of monitors.

Narration: The health problems mapped by his geographic information system include birth defects,
underweight babies, even stunted lungs up to ten percent smaller.

Mike Jerret: Children who grow up in more polluted communities have lower lung function at age 18
that could affect them throughout their whole life.

Narration: And then there's atherosclerosis, a disease we've always assumed comes from lifestyle
choices like too much fat and not enough exercise.

Mike Jerret: Atherosclerosis is the thickening of the carotid artery, the main artery coming out of
your heart and it underlies about 50 percent of mortality in most western societies.

Narration: Mike's team cross-checked measurements from the carotid arteries of 800 people with the
local PM2.5 levels - and found a startling link.

Mike Jerret: It was really shocking - as pollution goes up the arterial walls get thicker and we
were really surprised to see this magnitude of effect.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: Why? Haven't you seen this kind of link before?

Mike Jerret: This is the very first study where we've been able to link the underlying medical
cause for so much sickness and death in our society to air pollution.

Really, these are the smoke stacks of the new millennium - our freeways are the major emission

Narration: The World Health Organisation estimates that globally, fine particles kill 800,000
people every year.

But even a staggering death toll like this doesn't necessarily mean there's quick action to prevent

Dr Henry Gong, Director, Los Alamos Health Centre: I think it's never fast enough probably, but
there's always two sides of the argument. How fast is fast? How clean is clean?

Narration: In North America, 95 million people, that's roughly 1 in 3, live in air that
consistently exceeds fine particle standards.

It's so bad that the US Government has a death map, which pinpoints your risk of early death from
PM2.5 pollution, depending on where you live.

Even with more than 2000 deaths a year in Australia, we don't have maps like this, because our
governments aren't yet required to measure ultrafine particles.

But like the US, look along any freeway or busy road here in Australia, and you find thousands of
schools, hospitals, child-care centres and houses. It's home for millions of us.

Assoc. Prof. John Gullotta, Pres. NSW AMA/Local GP: Pollution is becoming a way of life. I don't
think it should be happening in Australia.

Narration: Dr John Gullotta is a local GP. Many of his patients come from the suburbs surrounding
his clinic, where residential streets have become pollution hotspots.

Assoc. Prof. John Gullotta, Pres. NSW AMA/Local GP: In the port for example near me, I'm actually
seeing in my own practice, younger and younger children are coming in, being exposed to these
pollutants unwillingly - who knows, in years to come their arteries may be affected and their heart
may be affected by it.

Narration: A few blocks away, Veronica's front gate opens onto a street that's become a truck

Veronica, local resident: My family has seven children, we've lived here for about eight years,
this is home - and with the trucks coming, we know there's pollution, but what can we do?

Narration: It's a question people all over the world are asking. Do we really know enough about our
exposure to these hidden killers?

It's back to school for some answers.

Abbey Proud, Teacher: Let's have a look at this data - I've got it here on the overhead and you've
also got a sheet on your desk.

Narration: After several weeks of monitoring, the students can plot the daily particle levels at
their school.

Abbey Proud, Teacher: Have a look at your graph or the graph on the board - and start to think
about some ideas about that data - what is it showing you?


James, student: We found that Wednesdays and Saturdays were the most polluted, because Wednesday is
the middle of the week where everyone maybe goes to their work, and on Saturdays they go to the
park or their sport.

Abbey Proud, Teacher: What's the highest average?

Student: 9.8

Narration: 9.8 sounds high, but it's well under the health guideline of 25 micrograms of fine and
ultra-fine particles in a cubic metre.

It seems like good news for the school.

Abbey Proud, Teacher: We assumed, I think, which is a mistake with science, we assumed that the
readings would be a lot worse than they are, so we're pleasantly surprised.

Stephen, Parent: The low results are very pleasing - and I feel that's great news if that's the
case - so it increases my interest in it, so a low result makes me want to know why it was a low

Narration: One explanation is that mother nature messed with the results.

Dr Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: Given the weather conditions over the last two weeks.

Certainly the rainfall will remove the finer particles, they'll be washed out, and you'll get lower

Narration: But even without the rain, the TEOM weighstation may not be capable of telling the whole
story. If the bulk of the particles were in the ultra-fine range they'd be virtually weightless.

So Catalyst asked CSIRO to do another roadside experiment.

Meet ELPI. It's a sophisticated device for counting particles and sorting them by weight. This is
the only one in Australia used for outdoor research.

Unlike the TEOM a few metres away, the ELPI delivers alarming news with every passing truck.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: What are the readings like here?

Dr Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: When we had a couple of trucks go past, we had readings of up to
500,000 particles per cubic centimetre.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: Half a million in a cubic cm?

Dr Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: Half a million in a cubic cm, they're in the ultrafine range - very
very fine particles.

Narration: 500,000 is a startling number, especially given the warnings that ultrafines are the
most dangerous part of air pollution from traffic.

And the ELPI's readout shows that even when ultrafine numbers are high, their mass is practically
zero. They would have gone undetected by the weighing machines used by our governments.

In the US, high ultra-fine particle counts have led to new laws.

Mike Jerrett: Some of the research that's been done in California has now resulted in a law where
it's illegal to put a school or a day care centre within 500 feet of a freeway.

Narration: In Australia we have no such law, even though ultra-fine levels may be high.

Dr Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: That's where the science comes into play -without good science you
don't get good regulations.

Narration: Scientists still want to pin down whether it's size or chemistry that makes particles
dangerous. But in the meantime, our regulations for ultra-fines lag behind the US.

Dr Brendan Halliburton, CSIRO: Currently in Australia we have a PM ten standard but we don't have a
PM two-point-five standard, it's a guideline.

Narration: And with no legal standard to keep fine and ultrafine particle levels low, the dose
we're actually getting remains a mystery.

Mark Horstman, Reporter: But what I can tell you is that particles have a dirty little secret -
there's no level that's completely safe.

Dr Henry Gong, Director, Los Alamos Health Centre: You ask the question who should be concerned? I
think we all should be concerned.

Dr John Gullotta: One could really say that exposing children to pollutants could be a form of
child abuse. I think governments have to look beyond the dollar.

Dr Michael Kleinman, Toxicologist, UC Irvine: It's much more cost-effective to eliminate pollution
than to pay for the doctor bills later.

Endnotes - Sources, References, Additional Information

Australian Government, (2002) Australia: State of the Environment 2001 fact sheet;

"Up to 2,400 deaths a year in Australia are estimated to be linked to particles, with an associated
health cost of $17.2 billion."

Bernstein AS and Abelson HT (2005) PM2.5 - A Killer in Our Midst. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med vol
159, August 2005, p.786

Brook et al (2004), Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare
professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart
Association. Circulation, 2004 Jun 1;109(21):2655-71.

On the one hand, it must be said that the risk of cardiovascular disease from particle pollution is
smaller than obesity or smoking. But on the other, the absolute number of people affected is
enormous because whole populations are exposed over entire lifetimes.

Gauderman WJ et al (2002) Association between Air Pollution and Lung Function Growth in Southern
Californian Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166, pp. 76-84.

Imhof et al (2005), Real-World Emission Factors of Fine and Ultrafine Aerosol Particles for
Different Traffic Situations in Switzerland, Environ.Sci.Technol., 39(21), 8341-8350.

Jalaludin B, Morgan G, et al. (2005) Associations between ambient air pollution and daily emergency
department attendances for cardiovascular disease in the elderly (65+ years), Sydney Australia.
Journal of Exposure Analysis and Experimental Epidemiology, advance online publication 24 August
2005; doi:10.1038/sj.jea.7500451

Up to 10% higher admissions of over 65s with cardiovascular disease on high pollution days in
Sydney - "our study adds to the growing evidence for the effects of ambient air pollution on CVD
outcomes even at relatively low ambient concentrations."

Jerrett M et al (2004) A review and evaluation of intraurban air pollution exposure models. Journal
of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 15, 185-204.

Jerrett, M et al (2005) Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality in Los Angeles.
Epidemiology 16(6), pp 1-10.

People living in Riverside, the most polluted area, are 25% more likely to die prematurely of a
heart attack than people living along the coast in Santa Monica or Venice.

Kaiser, J (2005) Mounting Evidence Indicts Fine-Particle Pollution, Science vol 307, p.1859

Kunzli N, Jerrett M, et al (2005) Ambient Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis in Los Angeles.
Environmental Health Perspectives 113(2), pp.201-206.

Li N, et al (2003) Ultrafine Particulate Pollutants Induce Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial
Damage. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(4), pp. 455-460.

Mannes T, Jalaludin B, Morgan G, et al (2005) Impact of ambient air pollution on birth weight in
Sydney, Australia. Downloaded from on 26 July 2005.

Morgan G, et al. (2003) The effects of low level air pollution on daily mortality and hospital
admissions in Sydney, Australia, 1994 to 2000. Epidemiology. 14(5) Supplement:S111-S112

"The relatively low levels of particulate air pollution in Sydney were consistently associated with
both daily mortality and hospital admissions. These particulate associations were generally
strongest for fine particles (ie. PM2.5 and BSP [BSP=fine particles that scatter light and are
measured by nephelometry]) compared with PM10, and persist even at the relatively low particulate
levels seen in Sydney, indicating no threshold concentrations are present. These results are
consistent with the international literature."

Nel, A (2005), Air Pollution-Related Illness: Effects of Particles. Science, vol 308, p.804-805.

Routledge HC, Ayres JG, and Townend JN (2003) Why cardiologists should be interested in air
pollution. Heart 89, 1383-1388

Samet JM et al (2004) Do Airborne Particles Induce Heritable Mutations? Science 304, pp.971-972

Schwartz J, Dockery DW, et al (1996) Is daily mortality associated specifically with fine
particles? J Air Waste Manag Assoc 46(10):927.

Sioutas, C (2004) Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM near Freeways Impacted by
Heavy/Light-Duty Traffic.

At the same site from 1997-2004 in California, mass measurements of PM2.5 decreased (eg. from 40.9
to 15.3 ìg/m3), while number measurements increased (eg. 185,000 to 450,000 particles/cm3).

Tobias HJ, Ziemann PJ (2000) Real-Time Chemical Analysis of Organic Aerosols Using a Thermal
Desorption Particle Beam Mass Spectrometer. Aerosol Science and Technology 33:170-190.

WHO (2002), The World Health Report 2002 - Quantifying Selected Major Risks to Health, p. 69.

Story Contacts

Abbey Proud


Stephen Doggett


Dr Michael Jerrett

Medical Geographer

University of Southern California

Dr Paul Ziemann

Atmospheric Chemist

University of California, Riverside

Dr Brendan Halliburton

Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research

CSIRO Sydney

Prof Michael Kleinman


University of California, Irvine

Dr Henry Gong

Chief, Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center

Downey, California

Dr Michael Jerrett

Medical Geographer

University of Southern California

Assoc. Prof. John Gullotta

NSW President

Australian Medical Association

Veronica Paea


Related Info

Why cardiologists should be interested in air pollution (html)

Why cardiologists should be interested in air pollution (pdf)

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the
American Heart Association

Relative Effects of Air Pollution on Lungs and Heart

Mounting Evidence Indicts Fine Particle Pollution (Science, Mar 2005)

Health Impacts of Ultrafine Particles - Desktop Literature Review and Analysis

Why cardiologists should be interested in air pollution