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(generated from captions) one. People earning more than a

million dollars an hour.

Correct. And what are both

sides of politics agreed

represents the biggest threat

to Australia at the

moment? Biggest threat. Both

sides are agreed? Gay

marriage. Correct, Who is

Anthony Albanese's tailor. Who

is Anthony Albanese's tailor?

Yeah. Is it Whelan? That is correct, Robert, good on you

and after that round you've won

a well-known newspaper company. A newspaper company?

Fantastic. Bugger it, I was

looking for a lift home. And

that's the program for tonight.

your local editions of 7.30 and Tomorrow night will you have

I will be back on Monday. Hope you can join me then. Goodnight. Closed Captions by # Theme music Ahead on Catalyst - DR GRAHAM PHILLIPS: poisoning our food chain. ocean plastics come back to meet their maker. And that's where plastics is it better than shoes? Barefoot running - But can you pick the criminal? And witness to a crime. In our throwaway world, ANJA TAYLOR: outlives its usefulness a plastic bag after around 15 minutes. might last a little longer. A plastic bottle Party balloons, a whole occasion. to these discarded treasures But the ocean likes to hang on for decades, even centuries, a taste for plastic. giving many other consumers and have a quick look? WOMAN: Can we just open it up flesh-footed shearwater. This is a dead feel sick to the stomach. What you're about to see may make you about your own health But if you care the odd bit of seafood, and you like this is essential viewing. MAN: Oh, bloody hell! Look at that. Jesus Christ! MAN 2: Oh, you're kidding! I am not. 175 pieces of plastic, balloon ties and a doll's arm. including bottle tops, all of the pieces of plastic These are days ago. taken from that bird's stomach three of the bird's body weight. It represents about 5% to 8% That's the equivalent of me of plastic in my stomach. carrying around 3kg to 5kg even more disturbing What makes this is where it's occurring - pristine Lord Howe Island. the beautiful and seemingly Sadly, deaths like these to local biologist Ian Hutton. are nothing new quite a while? So you have been documenting this for I started to notice Yeah, back about the year 2000, on the forest floor here little bits of plastic and began searching birds, chicks. and I started to find skeletons of in the forest. Look - here's one over here that we do find here... So this is the sort of thing ..in May and June, Oh, my goodness. or perished after the chicks have either fledged like this one. the down on it, so it is a chick. So that's a chick. We can see of plastic that it swallowed? So these are all of the bits you find often? That's right. Is this something that I find carcass after carcass Well, walking through the forest, just like this. These plastic delicacies by their parents are fed to shearwater chicks for fish. who mistake floating rubbish (Birds squawk) the stomachs of about 50 chicks We have, this year, flushed did have some plastic, and each one of those some, large amounts. don't make it to adulthood. Many chicks It's hardly a surprise are in rapid population decline. that the local shearwaters about a bird species in trouble. But this is not a story some littering Lord Howe locals. Nor is it the story of What we're seeing here it's hard to fathom. is a world problem so severe WOMAN: Our fishing nets and natural fibres. are no longer made from hemp we talk on plastic, We drive in plastic, we sit on plastic chairs, we package our food in it. You can go on an airplane now 15 or 20 pieces of plastic and there might be from point A to point B. just to get you new plastic It's estimated 3.5 million pieces of enter the world's oceans daily. Carried on global currents, in huge circulating gyres, they accumulate to marine life along the way. causing countless injuries It's a global issue. in seabirds all around Australia. We're finding plastics It's happening on our own shores populations around here as well. and with our own breeding Where is it coming from? on wildlife? What's the overall impact Where is it going to? and syncs of that marine debris Understanding the sources is a really big question still. up into the vegetation... If you go a nationwide study Denise is spearheading to tackle these questions. been assessed It's the first time marine debris has on such a huge scale. Yep, that's perfect. either side of the transect, So we're gonna just walk up about a metre from it, OK? we're gonna look out either side On this deserted island beach, within seconds. plastic can be found There's a big bit here. There's a bit. There's a big bit. So I'm gonna pick that piece up my science chart and I'm gonna actually look at it on that piece is there. and I'm gonna record how big What is it? top of a big jerry can. That actually looks to me like the to fit around a bird's neck. Just big enough That certainly could. is well travelled, The debris we're finding here in foreign species. sometimes covered like these tiny barnacles, Stowaways, for thousands of kilometres may survive native species when they arrive. and cause devastation to So as we go out on these beaches on our shores, and we pick up rubbish the debris that's come here.' we say, 'OK, this is oceanographic models We can then use winds, what are the currents? that tell us, you know, what are the These bits of garbage that ended up here, where did they most likely come from? There's 35,000km of Australian coastline to cover. To fill in the information gaps, CSIRO is joining forces with Earthwatch and training up volunteers. We're working with school groups, teachers, citizen scientists around the country because we simply can't get all the information at every little beach along the way. I really think that by teaching kids, that's where we're gonna start to see that change. So far, the survey is more than three-quarters of the way around the continent. Lord Howe Island is just one stop on the map. (Birds squawk) It's an important survey point due to its location and its numerous species of nesting seabirds. This one's the providence petrel. And he's very friendly. (Petrel chitters) Over 270 species worldwide are known to be affected by marine debris, including nearly half of all seabird species. Our ultimate goal is to get a priority list - to understand which of the species are more and less threatened by marine debris. And to do that, we need to know where those birds are foraging, for example, where those turtles are foraging or how they feed or the size of the birds and those sorts of things. Like many people, I've been aware for some time that plastic is not great for marine life. But it wasn't until I looked closely at the tideline of Neds Beach that the penny really dropped. There's lot of little, tiny bits. We're getting into what they call microplastics, right? And if you look here, I bet we've got 50 or 100 bits just in this little bit, so you can see where the water line would have come up. Plastics don't biodegrade, but over many years in the sun and elements, they break down into smaller and smaller pieces until they're so small, they're hard to see. Look on any beach in the tideline and you're likely to find hundreds of these tiny, little pieces of plastic. It starts to give you an inkling of just how much must be out there. But the real problem with these harmless-looking pieces is they can be ingested by animals right down at the bottom of the food chain - as far down as plankton - and that's where plastics come back to meet their maker. Zoologist Dr Jennifer Lavers has spent the past five seasons working on the Lord Howe shearwater problem and has found the severe effects of microplastics are happening at a molecular level. They have what I call the invisible toxic effect - it's less easy to detect but equally as scary. The plastic itself inherently contains a wide array of chemicals that are used during the manufacturing process. When the plastic is put out into the marine environment and it floats around in the ocean for, let's say, 10 or 40 years - it really does last forever - it basically acts like a little magnet or a sponge and it takes all the contaminants that are out there in the ocean environment, that are really diluted in the ocean water, and it concentrates it onto the surface. Plastic itself has up to a thousand times a higher concentration of contaminant on its surface than the surrounding sea water from which it came, and when the animal, whether it's a turtle or a seabird, takes that into their body, those contaminants leach out into the bloodstream and is incorporated into the tissues. ..83, 84, 85, 86... Jennifer collects and weighs plastic from dead birds and sends the feathers off for lab analysis. They reveal what contaminants are in the body. The flesh-footed shearwater on Lord Howe Island is officially the world's most heavily contaminated seabird, just from mercury alone. So the toxic threshold that's widely regarded around the world for birds is 4.3 parts per million. Anything above that 4.3ppm is considered toxic to the birds. Well, flesh-footed shearwaters on Lord Howe Island are between 1,000 and 3,000 parts per million. Asides from death, mercury can cause a wide array of effects, from neurological damage to infertility. And mercury is just one of the many toxic contaminants found in and on plastic debris. There is now a huge range of studies that are coming out almost every month that are showing marine species at the absolute base of the food chain are ingesting these plastics and these contaminants. Anything really that comes out of the ocean, you can not certify that as organic any longer. It's estimated fish in the North Pacific now consume up to 24,000 tonnes of plastic a year. As one predator eats another, contaminants biomagnify. This means the most vulnerable animal to the effects of toxic plastic contamination is the one at the very top of the food chain - us. If you eat seafood in any fashion whatsoever, the plastic pollution and corresponding contaminant problem has relevance to you. Results from the marine debris study are yet to be analysed. But major sources of debris are apparent. DENISE: We do know, from the rubbish that we find and the modelling that we're doing, that our major population centres, that rubbish on those beaches is local. We're also seeing that, say, areas like Perth and WA, that a lot of our rubbish is actually blowing offshore, which means that we may be delivering that to other places much further afield. If I can say, hey, we know that where we've got those covers some of the major cities, over the river mouths, like we do in the rubbish we know that that really helps stop from getting out there, to make management decisions then we can start at really relevant scales. Is anyone doing it right? So does anybody get a gold star? plastic bottles or cans Observationally, we do not find full in South Australia, or glass bottles the container deposit scheme and I would likely attribute that to that they have there. with the beverage industry The waste that's associated comprises about a third, are as high as a half and some estimates that we find globally, of the marine debris and straws so that's bottles and cans and disposable coffee cups. Bring your to-go cup with you. JENNIFER: A lot of the solutions to the plastic problem are really simple and we can, each and every one person, can make a change. It's not just governments that need to come in and enact sweeping changes. With each one of us contributing around 67kg of plastic waste a year, avoiding single-use plastics can make an enormous difference to the environment our own wellbeing. and, ultimately, with the ocean on a daily basis Whether or not you interact or you've been fortunate enough come into your life, to see an albatross to kind of think twice you will really need is coming from about where your food surrounding community have played and what role you and your problem. in the plastic pollution contaminant hundreds of thousands of years Human beings were running for before we ever invented a shoe. we should still be running today - So some people think that's how barefoot. in the last ten years or so Well, the recent evidence are not doing is showing that shoes what we thought they were doing. that shoes prevent injuries, There is no evidence improve performance, there's no evidence that shoes but the other argument is that barefoot running has no evidence either. We're not used to walking around barefoot. We're certainly not used to running around barefoot. The prime thing is in my research is that barefoot running forces you to change the things that you normally do. So what does happen when you go barefoot? the guinea pig Well, I'm going to be to find out. and do some running in the lab a sensor on your skin. OK, Ruben, I'm gonna put Like that. be measuring here? So what are we gonna activity OK, Ruben, so we're measuring muscle from your lower leg. we've got two sensors. To do that, a couple of sensors on your feet. We've also got are purely there Now, these sensors hits the ground to record when your foot during running. and when you push off So let's go for a run. Ready, go. (Monitor bleeps steadily) from running in the shoes. OK, Ruben, we've got enough data I'll get you to take your shoes off now and we'll do some barefoot running. (Monitor bleeps steadily) So, George, I'm covered in dots. What's next? Well, we've put a series of reflective markers on your legs, Ruben, because we want to capture movement of your joints around your knee and your ankle and see whether there's differences running barefoot between when you're in the shoes. to when you're running go running again. OK. So I've got to Excellent. You do. his left foot is right on that. You can just see his toe... I've run a marathon already, I feel like do this test barefoot. and I still have to from the motion analysis. So we've got the results that you can see And this first video so you're shod, is you running in your shoes, make contact with the ground, and you'll note that as you you're landing on your heel. you can see that you when you're barefoot running, And then when we switch across to you can clearly see striking with your heel, that you're no longer with your full foot. you're now landing Also of interest, if we switch across to the second screen, is we're now measuring ground reaction force, and whilst in shoes, we're seeing a greater initial impact force. that impact force is lessened. Yeah, so when you land on your heel, you hit the ground hard. Yeah. The reason why people change is because, mainly, landing on your heel barefoot is painful. to a forefoot. So people then change to a forefoot, Well, when you change gets reduced significantly. your stride length The further consequence of that is we've shown in our laboratory your stride length, that if you reduce of running goes up. your metabolic cost it just escalates The whole thing, from a very, very minor change. the next part of the experiment? So then what happened in to your muscle activity. Yeah, so moving on The two muscles that we tested on the front of your leg. were the calf muscle and the muscle the calf muscle first, Now, if we look at when you're running barefoot you can see that is working harder your calf muscle and it's actually coming on slightly earlier. So there's a bit of pre-activation compared to running in the jogging shoe, in the running shoe, that you've got here. Yeah, right, so this is interesting because I could feel, when I'm running without shoes, my calf muscle is pulling on the back of my heel harder. on the front of your leg, And if we look at the muscle when you're running barefoot we can see that a decrease in activity there's actually of this particular muscle in a running show. relative to running I guess an interesting point, Ruben, looking at kinematical motion, is, on all three screens we're and muscle activity, force of impact in all three areas. that you're quite different from shoes to barefoot, So when you're changing muscles and different structures. you can expect to use different is that at transition time What we've shown risk of being injured. is probably you're at the greatest What happens to people from shoes to barefoot running, who transition their footfall pattern, they change and, in fact, when you ran, you changed. And footfall patterns, like heel-toe pattern, those are very, very, very deeply ingrained in your motor program. It's hard to change that. And so when you're forced to change that, I think that there's a greater possibility for certain types of injuries. So if you are thinking of ditching your shoes and running barefoot, your muscles differently remember, you'll be using and it's a big change so take it slow. Ooh. to make a decision? Like this? How do you prefer Ooh? Or like this? That one. gives the best answer? And which do you think because, in a minute, Well, get ready quick versus considered decisions we're going to put your to the test situations you could ever face. in one of the most important I have to go commit a crime. But first, please excuse me, I've decided to steal a hybrid. be a criminal, Well, if I'm going to an environmentally friendly one. I may as well be Plus, the other advantage... (Whispers) ..silent getaway. Despite my cunning plan, though, I've been spotted. (Sirens wail) And now the police want me for a line-up. In fact, these days they often tend to use photo line-ups rather than live, but the principles are pretty much the same. Basically you get as much time as you like to make sure you make the right call. Take your time. And that's totally understandable. When the stakes are this high, the wrong person to jail, with the potential to send take your time. a sense of justice tells you, traditional witness line-ups But this man says are a disaster. There are two major problems. One is, when the witness to the crime is asked to come in and look at a line-up, they come with quite strong expectations that the bad guy is going to be in the line-up and it's their job to find them. But the second one is the witness, almost certainly, is going to have a less-than-perfect memory. They've seen an event that they probably didn't know was going to happen, they've seen it under not-so-great conditions, then they're asked to make a decision - a yes/no decision - that says 'Yep, that person was the bad guy' or 'That person is not,' a decision which has enormous consequences. They're actually a big ask of the brain. Maybe too much? I think it's probably way too much. It's an unrealistic type of assessment. Yet juries instinctively trust eyewitnesses - studies show they're far more likely to say guilty with an eyewitness ID. This is Jennifer Thompson who was raped. He put a knife to my throat and told me to shut up, or he was gonna kill me. If I lived, I wanted to memorise everything about this person. This is the man she confidently identified and put away for ten years - Ronald Cotton. But she was wrong. Jennifer, she just made an honest mistake. I was lucky that there was DNA evidence. He was exonerated. And Thompson was so distressed by her mistake, she famously teamed up with Cotton to campaign for change. The shocking fact is, of the 290-odd people sent to jail for serious crimes and later found innocent, over 70% were put there by witnesses who got it wrong. We know, for instance, if you do lab experiments where you simulate crimes and run line-ups, that probably about 50% of decisions are right. If you look at field studies, you get a similar picture. There's got to be a better way of doing this. And that's how Professor Brewer came up with what he calls his 'crazy idea' - an idea too crazy to even let the public know about, until now. What we decided to do was actually compare standard line-ups with a procedure where people never made a decision. Instead, people would simply rate how confident they are it's the culprit. But here's the kicker - people had to make up their minds in seconds. It's called deadlining. Professor Brewer's 'crazy idea' was to apply deadlining to line-ups. I guess most people would have the view that the good witness is the thoughtful witness. But the encouragement for our 'crazy idea' is that there's other work, much of it done by us, which shows that fast identification decisions, on average, are more likely to be accurate than slow ones, which is suggesting that the person that has the strong memory can look at the line-up and pretty much go, bang, that's the person. Well, would you like to try the test with me? First of all, we're going to watch a crime, so pay attention. OK, did you get that? So we have to wait three minutes now. It's putting a pause in for us, letting our memory decay. But it's TV time, so I reckon we'll just crack on, eh? A series of photos will come up and we rate how confident we are it's the culprit in three seconds. Ooh! (Laughs) It's quick!

Nup. What they're looking for is a big difference between the highest confidence rating and all the rest. That's it. See how we went. Well, this is the crook. Did you get him? I'm quite surprised, actually. It was both harder than I thought, 'cause I got a good look at the guy, but my brain also got it right. Just. And the results for this method are impressive. In fact, so impressive, that when Professor Brewer first ran it, he thought it was too good to be true. It delivers the right decision 67% of the time compared with just 50% for traditional line-ups. We thought, 'No-one's gonna believe this,' so we cranked out a pile of more subjects and it kept working. So we did another experiment, and this time we put in a week's retention interval - so they come in, see the crime, go away, go and lead their life, come back a week later, and, bingo, it worked again. In fact, it looks like it works better. Sometimes the quick decision is the best, even if it does seem counterintuitive here. But that's why it's taken six years of testing and publication in a top journal for Professor Brewer to be confident enough to let the story out. And it's making quite the splash already. The Economist, Wall Street Journal... Yeah, it was nice. It is a promising start. Probably one of the most promising new ideas in years. But with the line-up so heavily embedded in our justice system's culture, it's hard to imagine it changing fast. Definitely her. I always have a bit of faith that if you can do good science and replicate it over and over under important conditions, that eventually it's like hitting someone with a hammer, that eventually you will get there. Until then, it looks like I'm free to continue my new career of low-carbon crime. GRAHAM PHILLIPS: Next time on Catalyst, our skin and the battle to cheat ageing. Oh, my goodness! Closed Captions by CSI - Amy Idziak

This Program is Captioned Live.

Good evening. Craig Allen with an

Good evening. Craig Allen with an ABC news update. Qantas has announced a

new 10 year partnership with

Emirates. The deal which still has

Emirates. The deal which still has to be approved by regulators will see

the airline scrap its Singapore

stopover to Europe, instead flying

through Dubai. Qantas will also end

its long relationship with British

Airways. A postie's died after

crashing his motorbike in Canberra's

north this afternoon. He was

travelling along Kingsford Smith

Drive in Melba when he came off his

Australia Post bike. The accident

brings the Territory's road toll for

2012 to seven. The unemployment rate

fell unexpectedly last month to 5.1

percent. But economists say the drop

doesn't reflect what's really

happening in the jobs market. New

figures show that the number of

people looking for work also fell to

its lowest level since 2007.

its lowest level since 2007. Analysts say that may suggest people are

giving up the hunt for work. Former

president Bill Clinton has delighted

US Democrats with a rousing speech

US Democrats with a rousing speech in support of Barack Obama. Mr Clinton

told the Democratic National

Convention that President Obama

simply needed more time to fix the

country's economy. To Canberra's

weather. Wet, windy and quite cold

tomorrow. Up to 6 millimetres

expected with showers into the

evening, and winds up to 50

kilometres an hour. A top of just 13

degrees. More news in an hour. # Carnival instruments play Blue Danube Waltz