Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Disclaimer: The Parliamentary Library does not warrant the accuracy of closed captions. These are derived automatically from the broadcaster's signal.
As it Happened -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) Neither did you, by the way. Their

challenge was to find a policy, to

work out what they would do with

the people that come beyond what

they think the numbers should be.

Their challenge was to come up with

those policy solutions. It wasn't

just all one way, and also, when

they were there, they also talked

to people about whether everyone

was genuine, and, you know, Michael

met Abdi and had his own opinions

about that. It wasn't all one way.

We have to wrap it up. We're out of

time. You can keep talking about it

online. Go to our website, to

Twitter or our Facebook page. We

will be back in our usual time slot

next week, Tuesday at 8.30. Until

night. then, thank you everybody and good

(APPLAUSE) (APht.

Supertext captions by Red Bee Media

- www.redbeemedia.com.au.

When you are a parent the last

thing you do is give up your child.

to the state? What drives familys to hand a child

I need 24 hours of support.

to breaking point. Incredible strain is driving people

A fix has been promised but will it

billion. be funded? Stkwroo we put in $1

Our children have been assessed and

of another assessment. it sounds like a government version

In the meantime a ray of hope.

Disability Services visited me the

day after the SBS team filmed.

changed. Things changed? Yes, they have

Good evening. Kathy Novak with a

World News Australia uipdate. The

hunt for the rogue Afghan soldier

who killed three Australians is

continuing, as the two soldiers who

died in a helicopter crash were identified as 23-year-old Private Nathanael Galagher and 30-year-old

Lance Corporal Mervyn McDonald.

Australia has called off its search

for any more survivors from a boat

which sank off Indonesia. 54 asylum

seekers have been rescued,

describing how they spent more than

24 hours in the ocean and watched

others drown. And Republican Presidential Candidate Mitt

Romney's made his pitch for votes

after a familiar face, and phrase,

warmed up the party faithful. Go

ahead, make my day. And I'll have a

at 10:30pm. full World News Australia bulletin

NARRATOR: 100 years ago, and his companions Captain Robert Falcon Scott set out for the South Pole. They never returned.

to the ends of the earth Their epic journey of human endurance. would push them beyond the limits own version of this modern legend. Every generation since has had its A century on, and his fellow explorers, the diaries and letters of Scott for the very first time, some revealed here tell the story... ..in their own words. London, 1910, at its height, the capital of an empire on five continents. ruling over 400 million people of discovery and adventure, This was an age of electricity and the first radios, like the 'Titanic'. and of huge ships mastery of the earth. There seemed no limit to mankind's remained a blank space on the map - And yet, there was one place that Antarctica,

corner of the world. the most remote and hostile At its heart, the South Pole. this last place on earth And the man chosen to claim for the British Empire was Captain Robert Falcon Scott. of the expedition MAN: The main object

the honour is to achieve for our country to reach the South Pole. of being the first is that the expedition And my intention till the object is accomplished. should remain in the far south of the main object, In addition to the accomplishment are looked for. important scientific results to a middle-class family in Devon. Scott was born in 1868 At 13 years old, he joined the navy,

of an expedition to Antarctica. and in 1901 he took command and opened the door to society, This won him fame where he met and married Kathleen Bruce in 1908. the glamorous sculptor that you shall go to the Pole. WOMAN: Write and tell me Oh, dear me! energy and enterprise What's the use of having can't be done! if a little thing like that It's got to be done, so hurry up. Don't leave a stone unturned, because I need it. and love me more and more Dr Edward Wilson, Joining Scott was his old friend a medic, a naturalist. the Expedition Scientific Staff. He became Chief of

Dearest Ory, our marriage would be hard to beat For real happiness, hard to improve on. and our married life above all. I am the man you have blessed I always feel so certain to write and publish that I shall be given time

that are in my head. some of the things absolutely fearless This conviction makes me as to another journey south, I know I shall come back to you. for, whatever happens, (STEAM WHISTLE BLOWS) from all walks of life, Scott's crew came polar experience. some with no previous Henry Bowers 28-year-old naval lieutenant joined as ship's storekeeper. at Waterloo yesterday. MAN: Mother saw me off but held up. Dear old mother was very upset that the danger's too much. Of course, she thinks on the platform alongside us A truckload of coffins hardly led to cheerfulness. came from the navy - Most of the crew the aristocratic cavalry officer the exception, Captain Lawrence Oates. Dear Mother, Please excuse pencil. glorified yachting trip now - We're doing a sort of visitors and ladies galore. and came back the same day, On Saturday, we went over to Calais to air himself in the clubhouse. the idea being for Scott different when we get down south. However, I suspect things will be about 10:00 We sail from here tomorrow Cardiff on the 10th. and expect to arrive (SHIP HORN BLOWS, GULLS CAW)

to their families. At Cardiff, the men waved goodbye the expedition ship, 'Terra Nova', And on June 15, began her 9,000-mile voyage south. for three years. They would be away together worth working for as a man. WILSON: Scott is a man only have been a Pole hunt, No-one can say that it will

is a sine qua non. though that, of course, but we shall get more too. We must get to the Pole We want the scientific work to make the bagging of the Pole merely an item in the results. Dear Mother, The reason of being so late is that this ship has only two speeds - one is slow and the other is slower. I'm enjoying this trip immensely and I'm almost sorry this part of it is over. It will mean collars and clean clothes and tea parties in the wardroom at Cape Town. My own darling, Soon there won't be any posts to bring you letters when I am thinking of you, so I write to you now, for you to read someday in England. I shall be thinking of you always, dear, and picturing your daily life, wondering always what you are doing and whether you're thinking of me. KATHLEEN: I shall think of you this day and all and every day. But for you, dearest, it will be better for you to forget all about us until your work is done and it's time to come home again.

Promise me this thing - that you won't come back any sooner or leave any work you might do in order to hasten back to us. But, of course, you'd NEVER do that! After six months, the 'Terra Nova' made landfall in Antarctica. Scott and his men were setting foot in the coldest, driest and windiest place on earth. Their survival in this, the world's most extreme environment, would push the boundaries of their medical knowledge. With the Antarctic winter approaching, their first task was to build a hut for shelter. The hut is becoming the most comfortable dwelling place imaginable. Such a noble dwelling transcends the word 'hut', and we'd pause to give it a more fitting title only from lack of the appropriate suggestion. After breakfast this morning,

I found Bowers making cubicles as I had arranged, but I soon saw this would not fit in, so instructed him to build a bulkhead of cases which quite shut off the officers' space from the men's, I'm quite sure to the satisfaction of both. In April, the sun set for six months. In the stormy winter darkness, temperatures fell as low as -39 Celsius, -36 Fahrenheit. 24-year-old Apsley Cherry-Garrard was one of the youngest men on the expedition.

He had been sent to Antarctica by his father to toughen up. MAN: The blizzard which had been threatening so long broke last night. I woke at about 4am and lay awake some time listening to the wind and the shaking of the hut and found myself wondering... ..what would be the best thing to do if the roof blew off. As I get more and more fit, I find I get times when I get a bit down. At first I...I felt rather that way continually, wanting to do nothing.

Once I got very down about the southern journey, feeling that the...the whole thing was an impossibility. The hut was an 800 mile mark from the Pole. The men's diet had to provide far more energy than needed in normal life if they were to survive this journey. It takes about 300-odd foot-pounds of energy for a man to simply exist. And the more you can stick into him over and above this, the more he can do. Fat, pure and simple, gives the most energy. There is no doubt. My theory is that you want something filling as well. Fat makes up nearly 60% of modern polar rations. In Scott's, it made up a quarter.

At times the men would be getting little more than half the energy they needed. They didn't know it, but they would be starving with every step. In 1911, there was also no understanding of vitamins. Without enough vitamin C, the men would get scurvy,

which weakens blood vessels, leading to fatigue and chronic bleeding. Spring came in October, and on the 31st it was time to set out for the Pole. (DOGS BARK, MEN SHOUT) For transport, the men had one dog sled team and two prototype motor sledges. But above all, they'd placed their trust in human strength and 10 Siberian ponies. SCOTT: For herein, the entries in this diary will be the first chapter of our history. The future is in the lap of the gods. I can think of nothing left undone to deserve success. But the gods did have other ideas. Somewhere to the south, a rival South Pole expedition was already on its way. Bunnings means more for Dad. It's a big boy's toy store. Forget about the socks and jocks this year - come into Bunnings and get what Dad really wants. Maglite LED Torch, only $24.90. Ozito 2-stroke chainsaw, $99. Ryobi drill driver, $199.

Wiltshire BBQ tool set, $39.95. Hortex pruner, just $6.94. Check out our Father's Day catalogue online. SONG: # Bunnings Warehouse! # Lowest prices are just the beginning.

On November 1, 1911, Captain Scott and his companions began their 800-mile trek to the South Pole. They were not alone.

(HORSES WHINNY) Roald Amundsen was a celebrated Norwegian explorer. He'd had ambitions to be the first man to the North Pole, but in 1910 was beaten to it, so he turned his gaze south. Whilst Scott's ship, the 'Terra Nova', left to imperial fanfare, Amundsen's 'Fram' set sail in secret.

For a whole month, not even his crew knew their true destination. At 6pm, I called all the men together and told them my intention to go to the South Pole. When I asked if they were willing to go with me... ..I got an unanimous yes. We set sail and made fine speed for the South Pole. I've often wished that Scott could have known my decision so that it didn't look like I'd tried to get ahead of him without his knowledge, but I've been afraid that any public announcement would stop me. Only once he was safely on his way to Antarctica did Amundsen reveal his plans. To Scott, he sent a short telegram. Beg to inform you, proceeding Antarctic. Amundsen. The proper, as well as the wiser course for us, is to proceed exactly as though this had not happened,

to go forward and do our best for the honour of the country without fear or panic. Any attempt to race must have wrecked my plan. Besides which, it doesn't appear the sort of thing one is out for. After all, it is the work that counts, not the applause that follows. They say Amundsen has been underhand in the way he has gone about it but I personally don't see it as underhand to keep your mouth shut. I myself think these Norskis are a very tough lot. They have 200 dogs, and also they are very good ski runners while we...can only walk. (HUSKIES YAP) Amundsen and his men set off from his winter station Framheim on October 20, 1911. Their route to the Pole was 60 miles shorter than Scott's but lay across unknown terrain. AMUNDSEN: We saddled our walkers - 13 dogs for each of the four sledges - and set off. Suddenly, a large piece of the surface fell in and a horrible chasm opened just by the sledge, big enough to swallow all of us. Luckily, we were sufficiently to the side of it that we managed. Well we take our lives in our hands, but it is amusing to hear that no-one wants to turn back. No, these are chaps who want to go forward... ..at whatever cost. Scott was following in the footsteps of the British explorer Ernest Shackleton who had reached the Polar Plateau in 1909. From his past experience, Scott had concluded that Antarctica was too cold for dogs. So whilst Amundsen trusted in dogs... (HORSE WHINNIES)

..Scott used a combination of one dog sled, two motor sledges and 10 ponies. My pony, Little Michael,

will have enjoyed the few weeks or so before his death, for he enjoys every incident, pricking up his ears and getting quite excited when anything happens. And the arrival of the dog teams each morning will send him to bed with much to dream of. I must say, his master dreams pretty regularly too. Just a few days into the march, both motor sledges broke down. All day yesterday, we were coming across derelict cans of petrol, lubricating oil and eventually the derelict car itself. ?1,000 at the wayside. Ponies came through all well, but I am anxious about these beasts. Very anxious. They're not the ponies they ought to have been and if they pull through well, all the thanks will be due to Oates. We started the winter with 10 ponies and have 10 now. And they're very fit and well. But they are, without exception, the greatest lot of crocks I have ever seen that were seriously meant for use. Four of them are lame now and another only wants a day's hard work to be lame too. The dogs are doing splendidly and will take a heavier load from tomorrow. We kill another pony tomorrow night, if we get our march off, and shall then have nearly three days food for the other five. In fact, everything looks well, if the weather will only give us a chance to see our way to the glacier.

In London, Kathleen Scott waited for news of her husband's progress. They had already been apart for 18 months. She wrote to him regularly, even though she didn't know when or if he would receive her letters. I woke up having had a bad dream about you. And then Peter came very close to me and he said, empathetically, "Daddy won't come back..." ..as though in answer to my silly thoughts. By the time you read this, you will probably be comfortably lounging in an armchair on a P&O near Colombo or something, and will say contentedly, "Silly little maid." And you'll probably be right. My dear love. My dear, dear love. I do love you so. How glad I am that you are the father of my baby. How happy we three shall be when you come home, back with or without success. For both expeditions, reaching the Pole meant first crossing the 400-mile-wide Great Ice Barrier to the Antarctic coast before climbing over a chain of mountains to the plateau.

Amundsen's dogs travelled quickly. Just a month after setting off, they had begun their climb. It was wonderful work the dogs performed today - 17km with a climb of 5,000ft. Come and say that dogs are useless here. In four days, we've come from the coast to the plateau - 44km, 10,600ft. They were also, 24 of our best comrades, given the best reward. Death. (GUNSHOT, DOG YELPS) On arriving at 8pm, they were shot and their intestines removed. They will be skinned tomorrow. We now have 18 of the best left. The surviving dogs would feed on their dead comrades for the rest of the journey. On the Great Ice Barrier, Scott was struggling with Antarctica's unpredictable weather. SCOTT: We awoke this morning to a raging, howling blizzard. After a minute or two in the open, one is covered from head to foot. The temperature is high, so that what falls and drives against one sticks. The ponies - head, tails, legs and all parts not protected by their rugs, are covered with ice. What on earth does such weather mean at this time of year? It is more than our share of ill fortune, I think. But the luck may turn yet. Everything's soaking wet - sleeping bags sodden, tent dripping, water everywhere. Been living in pants only. Windproofs all wringing wet, so are all the sleeping boots, socks, gloves, everything. On the other side of the mountains... ..Amundsen was facing a greater obstacle.

AMUNDSEN: The largest of our unpleasant surprises was a very large glacier which ran east-west as far as the eye could see, right on our course, in fact. This Devils Glacier has shown itself worthy of its name. MAN: Hup! Hup! Hup! Hup! One must cover two miles to go one.

Abyss after abyss and gap after gap must be gone around. Frightening crevasses everywhere make advancing extremely difficult. During the night, the wind has swept large parts of the glacier bare and shiny. It looked really horrible. We'd left our crampons at the Butcher's Shop, and without them a climb on bare ice would be almost impossible. A thousand thoughts ran through my head. The Pole lost... ..through such a trifle? SCOTT: The situation is now serious. One small feed remains for the ponies after today, so we must either march tomorrow or sacrifice the animals. The next morning, the blizzard lifted just enough for the ponies to be driven on. WILSON: It was beastly work, and the horses constantly collapsed and lay down and sank down. And eventually we could only get them on for five or six yards at a time. They were clean done. Then we camped, shot them all, and then, before turning in, had an hour or two of butcher's work, cutting them up and skinning them for dog food. And for a depot for ourselves for our return journey. Thank God the horses are now all done and we begin the heavier work ourselves. Poor beasts. They have done wonderfully well, considering the terrible circumstances under which they worked. But yet it is hard to have to kill them so early. For the 400 miles to the Pole, the 800 miles back, and with the dog team soon to be sent back... ..Scott and his men would have to haul all their supplies themselves. Willpower is like a muscle that gets stronger the more you use it. Every cigarette you DON'T smoke makes your willpower stronger. Find out how others quit and: By the middle of December 1911, Captain Scott's expedition was climbing fast towards the freezing high altitude plateau at the centre of Antarctica. At its heart, their great goal, the South Pole. SCOTT: I'm feeling very cheerful about everything tonight. For once, one can say "sufficient for the day is the good thereof". Our luck may be on the turn. I think we deserve it. We've had an exciting day. This morning was just like the scenic railway at Earls Court. We got straight onto the big pressure waves of ice. It was a hard pluck up the waves, very often standing pulls. But going down the other side was the exciting part. All we could do was to set the sledge straight, hang on to the straps, give it a little push and rush down the slope, which was sometimes so sheer that the sled was in the air. Scott is quite wonderful in his selections of route, as we have escaped excessive dangers and difficulties all along. But in this case, we had fairly good going but got into a perfect mess of crevasses into which we continually fell, some to the length of their harnesses, to be hauled out with the alpine rope. Scott planned to choose just four men

to accompany him to the Pole. The others would be sent back.

Scott came up to me and said that he was afraid he had rather a blow for me. Of course, I knew what he was going to say. I could hardly grasp that I was going back... ..tomorrow night. I have been selected to go to the Pole with Scott, as you would have seen by the papers. I am, of course, delighted, but I am sorry I shall not be home for another year, as we shall miss the ship. We shall get to the Pole alright.

What a lot we shall have to talk about when I get back. The four chosen to accompany Scott to the Pole - Oates, Wilson, Petty Officer Edgar Evans and Henry 'Birdie' Bowers. But unknown to Scott and his men, Amundsen's expedition had reached the Polar Plateau three weeks before them. They had struggled through a maze of crevasses but once on the plateau, they had picked up speed. AMUNDSEN: The plateau which we are now crossing resembles a stiffened sea - a huge dome of ice

broken up by quite small, evenly jacked crevasses. And so at last we reached our destination and planted our flag on the geographical South Pole. King Haakon VII's Plateau. Thank God. A very... ..very moving day.

The sun travels around the heavens at practically the same height, and warmth from the cloudless sky. It's still this evening. And so...peaceful. The dogs lie happily stretched out in the baking sun, and are, in spite of their meagre diet, apparently quite well. We're definitely the first here. We've set up a little tent with the Norwegian flag waving from the top of the tent pole. And so, farewell, dear Pole. We won't meet again. A few miles north of the Pole, Amundsen and his men left a warning to Scott. A black flag. Three weeks later, Scott and his men were nearing their goal. But with the freezing Polar Plateau's high altitude, the men's daily rations now only provided about half the calories their bodies were burning. Another hard grind in the afternoon and five miles added. About 74 miles from the Pole. Can we keep this up for seven days? It takes it out of us like anything. None of us ever had such hard work before. At altitude, the air is thinner, so Scott and his men's bodies had to work harder to carry enough oxygen to their muscles and vital organs, burning ever more energy. Their oxygen-starved blood became thicker and slow moving, making them more vulnerable to frostbite. The water on their bodies froze, damaging the cells and causing their skin to blister and blacken. My feet are giving me a lot of trouble. They've been continually wet since leaving Hut Point. And now walking along this hard ice in frozen crampons has made rather hay of them. The 24-hour sunshine was also a danger. The men found their goggles uncomfortable but without them, the high altitude UV light burnt the backs of their eyes - snow blindness. The eyeballs are full of stabbing pains and seem dry and hot all the time, though, they simply squelch out water. The pain seems in spasms, and sleep or anything else is impossible. SCOTT: It is wonderful to think that two long marches would land us at the Pole. We left our depot today with nine days provisions so that it ought to be a certain thing now, and the only appalling possibility, the sight of the Norwegian flag forestalling ours. Only 27 miles from the Pole - we ought to do it now. As the weakening party approached the Pole, Amundsen was just over a week away from arriving back at his base, Framheim. AMUNDSEN: Framheim lay as we left it, bathed in the morning sun. At 4am we stood once more in our little house, warmly greeted by our somewhat surprised comrades. They hadn't expected us for some time yet. We heard a...a mass of news. Some people appear to be indignant at our being here. A breach of etiquette. Are these people mad? Is the quest for the Pole exclusively given to Scott to solve? I couldn't care less. These idiots. The Norwegians loaded the ship and set sail to tell the world their news.

We check our prices... We check our prices... BOTH: ..at least twice a day, so you get the lowest price. You just said what I said. That's the whole idea. That's the whole idea? VOICEOVER: Officeworks twice-daily price checks. If you've got the big ideas, Officeworks has the lowest prices. SCOTT: The worst has happened. Or nearly the worst. About the second hour of the march, Bowers' sharp eyes detected what he thought was a cairn.

We marched on, found that it was a black flag tied to a sledge bearer, nearby the remains of a camp, sledge tracks and ski tracks going and coming, and the clear trace of the dogs' paws. Many dogs. This told us the whole story. The Norwegians have forestalled us and are first at the Pole. We camped on the Pole itself at 6:30pm this evening. It blew from force 4 to 6 all day at our teeth, with temp -22. The coldest march I can ever remember. It was a very bitter day. Great God, this is an awful place, and terrible enough for us to have laboured to it without the reward of priority and a desperate struggle to get the news through first. Now for the run home. I wonder if we can do it. Things beginning to look a little serious. Strong wind at the start has developed into a full blizzard at lunch. Is the weather breaking up?

If so, God help us with the tremendous summit journey and the scant food. By now the men were starving. With no fat left, their bodies had started to burn muscles and even vital organs for fuel. Although the fresh pony meat which supplemented their tinned rations contained some vitamin C, it wasn't enough. Scurvy was a constant risk. It weakened their blood vessels, meaning their wounds took longer to heal. We are all pretty hungry, could eat twice what we have, especially at breakfast. Evans has a number of badly blistered finger ends, which he got at the Pole, Oates's big toe is turning blue-black.

By the middle of February, and with no word yet from her husband, Kathleen was getting worried. I was very taken up with you all evening. I wonder if anything special is happening to you. But something odd happened to the clocks and watches between 9pm and 10pm. I was still rather taken up by you and... ..a wee bit depressed. As you ought about now be returning to ship, I see no reason for depression. I wonder... 9,000 miles away, and Scott had faced a crisis. Evans has nearly broken down in the brain, we think. He's absolutely changed from his normal self, reliant self. WILSON: He was comatose when we got him into the tent. And, um, he died without recovering consciousness... ..at about 10pm that night. At the hut, too, the men were getting concerned.

Apsley Cherry-Garrard was ordered to lead two dog sleds to meet Scott at the big supply camp known as One Ton Depot. But by now, the polar party, still hauling their supplies, including precious geological specimens, were running short of food and fuel. SCOTT: God help us. We can't keep up this pulling, that is certain. Amongst ourselves, we are unendingly cheerful, but what each man feels in his heart I can only guess. CHERRY-GARRARD: One Ton Depot. There is no sign of Scott here. And perhaps he will get in soon and all will be well. I've decided to wait for two days and then settle what we will do. I think he must be in in two or three days. SCOTT: We cannot help each other. Each has enough to do to take care of themselves. Poor Oates is unable to pull. He sits on the sledge when we are track searching. He's wonderfully plucky, as his feet must be giving him great pain. It is a very cold wait. Waiting and thinking. I was so sure I saw them coming last night that I... (SIGHS) ..I nearly started to walk to them. That same day, March 7, Amundsen reached Australia. (MORSE CODE SIGNAL BEEPS) KATHLEEN: Today came the clash and turmoil.

There were cables right and left to say, "Amundsen arrived. "Hobart states Scott has reached the Pole." Thank all the gods I was not taken in, and whilst the post has shrieked 'Scott at the South Pole! Brilliant Victory!'... ..I was certain that something was wrong. This morning received a telegram from my brother, Leon, who told me to send the main telegrams to the 'Daily Chronicle', London. That was done at once, and since then I've kept silent. When I went to bed at 10pm, the telegrams began to rain in. The Pole's conquest was official. In the morning papers, Kathleen found her suspicions confirmed. Peter said this morning, "Mummy, is Amundsen a good man?" And I said, "Yes, I think he is." And then he said, "Amundsen and Daddy both got to the Pole. "Daddy has stopped working now." By now, Cherry-Garrard was running low on supplies.

CHERRY-GARRARD: All ready to start tomorrow with eight days dog food. Please, God, we can get off. It is...

It is terribly anxious work. As the rescue party turned for home, Scott and his companions were just 50 miles away. SCOTT: At lunch, the day before yesterday, poor Titus Oates said he couldn't go on. He proposed we should leave him in his sleeping bag.

That we could not do and we induced him to come on. At night he grew worse and we knew the end had come. Should this be found, I want these facts recorded. He slept through the night before last, hoping not to wake. But he woke in the morning yesterday. It was blowing a blizzard. He said, "I'm just going outside. "I may be some time." He went out into the blizzard and we have not seen him since. October 1912. The Antarctic spring. Nothing had been heard of Captain Scott and his companions since January. So after six months sheltering in the hut from the winter darkness, a relief expedition set off south. They marched to a point 11 miles south of One Ton Depot. We have found them. The tent was there. It was covered with snow and looked just like a cairn, only a gathering of snow showed where the ventilation was

and so we found the door. Scott lay in the centre, Bill on his left, with his head toward the door, and Birdie on his right, lying with his feet toward the door. Scott had thrown back the flaps of his bag at the end and his left hand was stretched over Wilson, his lifelong friend. Beneath the head of his bag, between the bag and the floor cloth, was the green wallet in which he carried his diary. The brown books, the diary, were inside and on the floor cloth were some letters. Atkinson read the lesson from the burial service from Corinthians. Perhaps it has never been read in a more magnificent cathedral and under more impressive circumstances, for it is a grave which kings must envy. The diaries and last letters revealed the polar party's fate, frozen to death in a stormbound tent,

unable to reach their depot. My own dearest mother... As this very possibly will be my last letter to you... ..I am sorry it is such a short scribble. When man's extremity is reached, God's help may put things right. And though the end will be painless enough for myself... ..I should so like to come through this for your dear sake. Your ever-loving son till the end of this life, and the next, where we will meet... ..and where God shall wipe away all tears from our eyes. Don't be unhappy. All is for the best. (INHALES) We are playing a good part in a great scheme arranged by God himself, and all is well. My own dear wife, goodbye for the present. I do not cease to pray for you till the very last. I do not think we can hope for any better things now. We shall stick it out till the end... ..but we're getting weaker, of course... ..and the end cannot be far. It seems a pity but... ..I do not think I can write more. R Scott. Last entry.

For God's sake, look after our people. Alongside Scott's diary, the relief expedition also found a small leather case which has been kept private by Scott's family until now. MAN: This is the red Morocco case that was found on my grandfather's body in the tent. And... ..he would have had this when he went to the South Pole. Inside, there's a little note saying, "Found on Scott's person." And it's a picture of Kathleen. And...and on the other side, a picture of my father when he was a child. And then also tucked in here... ..is a letter from Kathleen. This would have been the last letter he received from Kathleen. Kathleen's letter

and the letter written by Scott to her in his final hours would be their last words to each other.

KATHLEEN: My dear one, How can I guess how things will be with you when you get this? Oh, deary, I am full of hope.

My brave man will win. With his own right hand and with his mighty arm hath he gathered himself the victory. I don't know if you'll ever get these silly little letters. And it's truly to tell you that I love you more than is at all comfy. And moreover, I think you're splendid.

When you come home, we'll feel closer and closer together and the long time we've been apart will seem only a little hour. May all the good gods conspire to bring my Con through his great difficulties. With a glad heart and a constant hope...

..bless you, dearest of men. K. SCOTT: To my widow, You know I have loved you.

You know my thoughts must have constantly dwelt on you, and, oh, dear me, you must know that quite the worst aspect of this situation What lots and lots I could tell you of this journey.

How much better it has been than lounging in comfort at home. What tales you would have for the boy - but, oh, what a price to pay. To forfeit the sight of your dear, dear face. Supertext Captions by Red Bee Media Australia Captions copyright SBS 2012 This program is captioned live.

No early exit from Afghanistan as

Australia mourns it's fallen. It

would be wrong to leave prematurely

or to leave tomorrow as some people

suggest. Asylum boat search called

off, survivors taken to Indonesia.

Four days we were in the water.

Without jackets, everything. Mitt

Romney's pitch for the presidency -

restoring America's greatness. We

deserve better. My children deserve

better, my family deserves better.

My country deserves better. And new

concerns about Iran's nuclear

program and a war of words.

Good evening and welcome to the

program. I'm Kathy Novak. The hunt

for the rogue Afghan solder who

shot dead three Australians in

Afghanistan is continuing. Two

other Australians killed in a

helicopter crash have identifieded.

The defence minister and Defence

Force chief have warned there could

be more so-called green on blue

attacks. But along with the Prime

Minister they insist there will be

no early withdrawal from

Afghanistan. Five soldiers lost,

now two names. Killed in

yesterday's helicopter crash in

Afghanistan were two commandos, 23- year-old private Nathanael Galagher

from Wee Waa in New South Wales was

on his second Afghan tour. 30-year-

old Lance Corporal Mervyn McDonald

from Carnarvon in WA had done six

and served in East Timor. Both

leave parents, siblings and

partners. Lance Corporal Mervyn

McDonald was engaged. The names of

three others killed separately at

the hands of an Afghan soldier have

yet to be released. Yesterday was a

day of loss. Today is a day of

grief. The impact of the double

tragedy has hit the Defence Force

hard. There has been no greater

shock ,no greater pain that the

force has felts for many a I don't

think year. The Prime Minister cut

short her cook Islands visit to

return for briefings. She is facing

calls to get out of Afghanistan now.

It is not appropriate to leave them

there until 2014. The government is

not budging. I cannot and will not

countenance giving a strategic

victory to people who have made it

their work to kill Australian

soldiers. A hunt is underway for

the man who shot the Australians.

They now know who he is. The chief

of police of Oruzghan province has

named sergeant Hep Matula as the

alleged perpetrator. He is

currently being chased by a joint

task force. What they don't know

yet is why. We are not yet aware of

any relationship he has with the

Taliban. These incidents known as

green on blue or insider attacks

are on the rise and have a huge

impact on morale. About a quarter

of them are believed to involve the

Taliban but they claim them

regardless. Why is it a strategic

issue? If we blink the Taliban win.

The man who sent soldiers to

Afghanistan is offering condolence

and praise. They carry heavy

burdens and pay extraordinarily

high prices. The blood of those

soldiers is on the hands of John

Howard, Kevin Rudd and Julia

Gillard. I'm not going to get side

tracked or way laid into domestic

Australian debate even if some ugly

language is being used. The Prime

Minister says to quit now would

leave a security vacuum. Karen Middleton, World News Australia.

Australian authorities have called

off their search for survivors from

an asylum boat that sank off

Indonesia. 54 people rescued after

the sinking have been taken to

western Java, many needing medical

treatment. Some say they spent more

than 24 hours in the ocean and saw

people drowning. Almost 100 thought

to have been on board the vessel

are still missing. Exhausted after

their ordeal the survivors are

helped by Indonesian officials.

With a reported 150 or so people on

board, their boat went down off

Java. At least 54 survivors were

kes queue - rescued by an

Australian naval vessel. This

Mantelles of losing his sister at

sea. 25 years old. I was about to

help her. Inside the water without

anything. I couldn't help her. I

was like ,no, I was like, please

don't go. Many of the survivors are

young. Their time in the ocean,

devastating. For 24 hours with

buckets we took water out. We

survived purely by that. The boat

sunk after one day. For another

three days we were floating on

water. Taken to a hotel for initial

processing, they are desperate to avoid immigration detention.

Meanwhile former Howard government

minister peeter Reith was among a

group grand unprecedented access to

Australia's Christmas Island

detention centre for the go back to

where you came from program. Mr

Reith was a central figure in the

2001 children over board affair and

helped shape the so-called Pacific

solution offshore processing scheme.

How much do the people smugglers

charge you. Almost 5,000. That's

about the going rate. When you set

out to come to Australia, did you

realise that you could and would

certainly end up in a detention

centre. No. That Australia has

detention encentres. No. Any yomy

Steer is the UN director for the UN

HCR. Over the last three nights our

estimates of the value of donations

are in the high 300,000s. The

donations continue. Reviews of Mitt

Romney's first speech as the

Republican presidential nominee are

mixed. Fellow Republicans gave him

high marks, saying rofpl knee

accomplished what he needed -

Romney accomplished what he needed

to do. Democrats say they heard

nothing new and that his speech

fell flat. Most people agree on one

thing: the warm-up act was bizarre.

Even before he walked on stage

political experts say Mitt Romney

was trying to shed his reputation

as a stiff politician. I even saw

him give a fist pump. This was the

biggest stage of Mitt Romney's

political career. I accept your

nomination of President of the US.