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have been in the parliament.

I men what position in the Government was Mr Ferguson?

On the assumption he doesn't know what he was talking about, he's the Resources Minister.

Correct. Who dis agreed with him? Everybody did. It was Martin Ferguson. Correct. Why inpler did
they disagree?

The Opposition dis agreed because they need the mining boom to stay in place because the argument
is it's going to be destroyed by the policies of the Government so they need it to keep going so it
can be destroyed and the Government needs it because if you take the mining sector out of the
economy you have got to put the current account on a drip.

Who is Kloppers clop?

Is it a sound effect? Maybe a harshman passing by. I'm guessing.

Kloppers clop runs BHP. After that round you've won a dead cat bounce.

That's very acceptable. We'll take them from anywhere at this stage.

That's the program for tonight. Tomorrow you have the local editions of 7:30. I'm back Monday.
Goodnight.

Closed Captions by CSI

# Theme music

G'day, and welcome to Catalyst, coming to you from the 2012 Eureka Prizes.

Tonight we join the Australian Museum in celebrating high achievers in science.

In this room are some of the greatest scientific thinkers, communicators and leaders in Australia.

And the finalists are hoping that tonight's their night and that they walk away with a Eureka
Prize. Later we'll be catching up with some of the winners.

And we'll also be showcasing the work of previous Eureka Prize winners and seeing how their
research has progressed.

Nanopatch

Nanopatch

A new vaccination delivery method could replace needles and syringes - and save millions of lives.
Maryanne Demasi discovers the "nanopatch" and its future potential.

NARRATION

Mark Kendall was a young engineer wanting to revolutionize an old medical technique.

Prof Mark Kendall

It's really about improving the reach of vaccines. So I decided to take a step back and think about
a different way of doing that and being bored in a presentation provided me the scope just to think
and, and doodle.

NARRATION

Several years later, the nanopatch was developed.

Dr Maryanne Demasi

It's been hailed a game changer in the way we deliver vaccines.

NARRATION

First invented in 1853, the needle and syringe is still the most common way to deliver vaccines but
this has problems.

Prof Mark Kendall

Most of us don't like the needle. That can lead to needle phobia - that's holding back people
getting vaccinated. There's needle stick injuries. That becomes a very big problem in a place like
Africa but beyond that also the vaccine's in liquid form and the problem there is you need to
refrigerate the vaccine and that's expensive and, and cumbersome.

Dr Maryanne Demasi

So Mark, how do you actually apply the nanopatch?

Prof Mark Kendall

This is a, a mock up of an applicator. Normally we'd have a nanopatch in this housing but in this
particular case not. So this is how we apply it and that's the process.

Dr Maryanne Demasi

So that's it?

Prof Mark Kendall

That's it.

Dr Maryanne Demasi

No pain.

Prof Mark Kendall

No pain.

NARRATION

The prototype contains hundreds of tiny projections, each dry coated with the vaccine. They've
tested several different types of vaccines like influenza, human papillomavirus and even malaria.

Dr Maryanne Demasi

Most vaccines are injected into the muscle where there's only a few immune cells but the nanopatch
delivers it where we need it most.

NARRATION

Just below the skin is an abundant supply of immune cells so the amount of vaccine required is a
hundred fold less.

Prof Mark Kendall

The nanopatch presents the possibility of just using a fraction of the dose compared to the needle
and syringe and we've proven that in the mouse model and we seek to, to prove that in, in humans.

NARRATION

3D mapping of the skin shows the immune cells in green, engulfing the vaccine in red. The
interaction is quick.

Prof Mark Kendall

Our published work shows that it's two minutes of application time. More recent work suggests that
it could be down to just a few seconds.

NARRATION

In the event of a pandemic, these patches could be posted out to thousands of people because they
don't need refrigeration and they can be self administered. But beyond delivering vaccines, the
nanopatch is now showing a huge potential in the area of diagnosing diseases like dengue fever.

Prof Mark Kendall

The symptoms for malaria and, and dengue are identical and if you're trying to differentiate
between the two before applying the medication, you can apply a patch, turn it around and on the
spot get a colour to tell you what you have.

NARRATION

It's been over a decade in the making but Mark's sketch on his notepad will soon become a reality.

Prof Mark Kendall

It's one, one of the best feelings I think you can have that you have an idea and it turns out to
work better than you'd expected. It's a journey that takes many years, it's a long game but it's
one that we're committed to and working hard on.

WOMAN: Professor David Kay.

(Applause) Congratulations, David.

Thank you. It's a really great honour.

Can you tell me about this catheter that you've invented?

Yeah sure. Some of the patients that I see are patients who have heart disease and a common test is
a coronary angiogram. And that means we squirt dye into the coronary arteries. That's a really good
test and treatment for heart disease. But if a patient has kidney disease, that dye can potentially
damage the kidneys. So what we invented is a way of removing the dye from the body before it hits
the kidneys.

So you can do targeted therapy with this catheter?

Exactly. So we target the therapy into the organ, in this case the heart, that we want to treat,
and thereby preventing some of the toxic effects of other parts of the body.

Do you think there are other areas of medicine that this would be useful?

Yeah, absolutely. That's a good question. We're currently developing this system to treat patients
with diabetes with limb infections. That's a really serious problem, and patients can die from that
condition. And we've developed our technology to deliver antibiotics to the limb, hopefully to give
a better outcome.

Congratulations again.

Thanks very much.

Coral Winners

Coral Winners

It's been predicted that climate change will cause the total devastation of the Great Barrier Reef
within decades. But, a recent study suggests there will be coral winners and losers as a result of
ocean warming.

NARRATION

It was a major shift in the climate, the end of an ice age twelve thousand years ago that made the
Great Barrier Reef possible. As temperatures warmed, melting glaciers transformed the continental
shelf into a warm, shallow sea; conditions perfect for an explosion of life.

Ruben Meerman

Ironically, it's now predicted that our changing climate could be the demise of the reef, but I'm
on my way to meet a man with a more optimistic view.

NARRATION

From up here you really appreciate Nature's handiwork, this maze of islands, coral caves and almost
three thousand individual reefs, stretches for over two thousand kilometres; an expance so vast it
can be seen from space.In the middle of it all is my destination, Lizard Island. It's a place
Professor Terry Hughes knows well.

Ruben Meerman

Hi Terry.

Prof Terry Hughes

G'day Ruben. How are you? Welcome to Lizard Island Research Station.

Ruben Meerman

Thank you. What a magic day.

Prof Terry Hughes

Oh it's beautiful isn't it?

Ruben Meerman

Let's get out there.

Prof Terry Hughes

Yeah the wind's picking up so the sooner we go the better.

Ruben Meerman

Okay.

NARRATION

Terry recently spearheaded the first large scale investigation into whether warmer waters really
will spell the end for all coral species.

Prof Terry Hughes

We had a big wakeup call on the Barrier Reef in 1998 and again in 2002 when we had huge bleaching
events that affected the Barrier Reef along its whole length and across its whole breadth. So I'm
interested in how climate change and other human impacts on reefs are changing the species
composition of coral reefs.

NARRATION

What we call coral are actually colonies of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of tiny creatures
called polyps. Living in their tissue is photosynthetic algae called zooxanthellae, which provide
corals with essential nutrients and healthy colour. But when the water becomes too warm, the
zooxanthellae are expelled, leaving the coral bleached.

Prof Terry Hughes

That was the first time we'd really seen bleaching at that scale. We were worried about the long
term impact this will have on the reef because the world is getting warmer and warmer and the
frequency and intensity of bleaching events is, is inevitably going to go up.

NARRATION

Water temperatures increase as you travel up the coast. The hottest temperature in the north of the
reef is a full nine degrees warmer than the coolest temperature in the south. This gave scientists
a unique opportunity.

Prof Terry Hughes

We were interested in how the mix of species might change along that huge thermal gradient and what
that might tell us about the flexibility of corals, how they put themselves together to make an
assemblage of species, how that might change in response to climate change and global warming.

NARRATION

Terry's team surveyed thirty three sites, spanning the entire reef, identifying over thirty five
thousand individual coral colonies. The study has given us a more detailed understanding of the
changes that will take place as the world's oceans gradually warm.

Ruben Meerman

The good news is complete reef wipe outs are unlikely. Coral reefs like this one will still be here
in fifty years but they will be very different.

Prof Terry Hughes

The picture that's emerged over more recent studies is that bleaching is incredibly selective. It's
actually acting like a giant filter in that it's changing the mix of species because some are much
more susceptible to bleaching, others are much more resistant. There are winners and losers if you
like.

NARRATION

All it takes is for water temperatures to rise just one or two degrees above the seasonal average
for several weeks and susceptible species can bleach.

Ruben Meerman

What sort of coral's this guy?

Prof Terry Hughes

This is a branching coral. It's called Acropora.

Ruben Meerman

In terms of climate change survivors, how do these fit in?

Prof Terry Hughes

These guys generally speaking are among the most susceptible corals to bleaching. So these things
live life in the fast lane. They recruit at a very high rate, they grow quickly and they die young.

We found a huge flexibility in the mix of species from north to south and that gives us some
optimism that when susceptible species, the losers if you like, decline, that they won't all
decline at the same extent and in fact we might get some of the winner species actually increasing.

NARRATION

More robust corals can handle the rise of up to four degrees for a month or longer.

Prof Terry Hughes

Often, one of the last corals are left on the degraded reef is this particular species called
porites.

Ruben Meerman

So these sorts of corals will be the winners in the future if the climate changes?

Prof Terry Hughes

These are the toughest corals going.

Ruben Meerman

Right.

Prof Terry Hughes

This thing is two hundred years old at least.

Ruben Meerman

Amazing.

Prof Terry Hughes

So yes they're withholding, they're standing their ground. They are the winners in the future.

NARRATION

So while there is a future for the hardier species, it's not such good news for the fish that
depend on the more delicate branching and table corals for habitat.

Ruben Meerman

Once we lose all those really lovely three dimensional corals, what does that mean for the critters
that live on the reef?

Prof Terry Hughes

Well there are lots of species that depend on corals for protection from predators. There's a small
number of fish species that actually eat corals. When corals become scarcer, those species will
become less and less abundant. It's a very dynamic system and climate change is changing the whole
way that reefs function.

I don't agree with statements that the Great Barrier Reef will all be dead in twenty years time. It
will be very different from today's mix of species but I'm reasonably optimistic that if we can
avoid dangerous climate change, we'll still have a Great Barrier Reef.

Dr Dana Cordell and Professor Stuart White.

(Applause)

GRAHAM: Dr Cordell and Professor White win their Eureka Prize for research into how phosphorus
resources can be sustainably managed.

Well, congratulations to you both. What was the reaction when you first started alerting people to
this problem?

Well, it was a hidden problem. It was actually falling in the gaps between all of the different
researchers and the different regulatory agencies. There'd been a lot of concern about pollution
from phosphorus, but not so much interest or concern about the use of it and the fact that it's
essential as an element - Unlike nitrogen, which you can manufacture, phosphorus exists, it's
finite, there's quite a bit in the earth's crust but it's of low concentration and it takes a lot
of effort to concentrate it to use it as fertiliser. So it's extremely important and we're very
vulnerable.

Can I ask, what was it that first alerted you to the problem?

I was in Sweden researching urine diverting toilets and the importance of reusing urine from a
sustainable sanitation point of view and the policy people that I was interviewing there were
talking about that urine contains phosphorus, which comes from a non-renewable resource, so in the
future we'll be needing to recycle all of our urine.

Congratulations again and best of luck.

BOTH: Thank you.

Air Cargo Scanner

Air cargo scanner

Graham Phillips catches up with the Australian team that developed the world's first scanner
capable of detecting explosives in air cargo containers.

NARRATION

September 11 had a profound effect on our lives in many ways.

Dr Graham Phillips

One of the legacies of those horrific events is of course airport security.

NARRATION

We are now subjected to more scans and checks than ever before. But what about air cargo? Eighty
percent of air freight travels on passenger planes, with us. Does it get subjected to the same
level of security?

Dr Nick Cutmore

The scanning of air cargo is a pressing problem that's been around for a very long time. A lot of
sea cargo does get scanned around the world. In terms of air cargo, not a lot.

NARRATION

Since 9/11, scientists at CSIRO have been developing an air freight scanner to address this
security gap.

Dr Graham Phillips

So this is the first system you put together?

Dr Nick Cutmore

Yep no this is the first scanner that we built. What's special about this scanner is that it
combines neutrons and x-rays together to give you a much clearer picture of the, what's inside the
cargo containers.

Dr Graham Phillips

So traditional ones only use x-rays is that right?

Dr James Tickner

Yes normal systems will be based around x-ray alone.

Dr Graham Phillips

Oh okay. So how do you generate the neutrons? Where does that happen?

Dr James Tickner

They're made using a system called a neutron generator. That's actually buried deep inside this
concrete block which just shields the radiation from getting out. This uses a fusion reaction. It's
very similar to the reaction that goes on in the heart of the sun.

Dr Graham Phillips

So x-rays out of one, neutrons out of the other?

Dr James Tickner

Yep that's correct. So the, the skinnier slot's where the x-rays come out, the wider slot there is
the neutrons.

Dr Graham Phillips

So it's just sort of shooting out beams of these?

Dr James Tickner

Yep. So we get one line as it were one, one row in an image and then as we move the cargo through
the beam, row by row we build up a picture of what's inside the container.

NARRATION

The neutrons are sensed by a bank of detectors within the scanner.

Dr Graham Phillips

These are components of the detector?

Dr James Tickner

Yep that's correct. So we start off with a piece of this. This is the scintillator material. So we
fire a neutron in here and the neutron gets turned into a little flash of light that we can then
pick up with our electronics. Here we have a bank of sixteen and then we have the electronics that
converts the light into an electrical pulse, we have a digital chip to count those pulses and then
that connects through to a computer. It's quite similar to a, a digital camera. We have these
scintillators making the light, we have a whole array of pixels and that's what we use to build up
the image.

Dr Graham Phillips

So if we just had x-rays, that's what the image would look like?

Dr James Tickner

Yep. It shows the shapes of the objects in the cargo quite clearly but you have no idea what
they're actually made from. But if we bring in the neutron information then we get a full colour
image.

Dr Graham Phillips

Oh look at that yeah.

Dr James Tickner

Now the way it works is the neutrons and the x-rays together lets us pick out different classes of
material, different types of material in the cargo and then we use different colours to show those
materials to the operator.

NARRATION

With the neutrons, the scanner can distinguish up to two hundred and fifty different types of
substances.

Dr James Tickner

So for example we've got some computer equipment here on the left showing up sort of green from the
glass in, in the old fashioned computer monitor there, we've got metal parts, steel parts showing
up in blue and then we've got some food stuff showing in red and we've got paper and files showing
up in orange.

Dr Graham Phillips

So you could pick the difference between say a bag of explosives and a bag of flour?

Dr James Tickner

Yep no they'd show up quite clearly as being different colours.

NARRATION

Ironically, it's using nuclear technology to make the world a safer place.

Dr Nick Cutmore

Neutrons bring a new dimension into the, the areas that we've formed, we're able to better identify
objects that are not meant to be in the cargo, various contraband items.

NARRATION

Two of the scanners are in operation at Abu Dhabi and Belgrade airports, and the team is about to
roll out their latest version, the Mark 3.

Dr Nick Cutmore

It's made in China by our partner, Nutech. The technology really is fundamentally the same. The
things that have changed are in the shielding. We're using recycled rubber rather than concrete,
we're using smaller neutron generators and we're now using a whole system that we put in place a
lot quicker and is easier to maintain.

Dr Graham Phillips

So we now have a device that will help close the gap in air security. Let's hope it comes to an
airport near you and me soon.

Indigenous Science Education

Indigenous Science Education

Aboriginal elders and local teachers are joining forces to promote science in Australia's
indigenous communities.

Anja Taylor

Is that one or is that, that looks a bit rotten.

Woman

Yeah that's an edible one. It's edible under there.

Anja Taylor

Is it?

Student

It's good.

Anja Taylor

These kids are having a fantastic time, understandably. They're in a beautiful landscape, being
entertained by stories from an ancient culture but ironically it's being out here that's helping
keep them in the classroom longer.

Students

(LAUGH)

Anja Taylor

Oh wrong way.

NARRATION

It's all part of the Indigenous Science Education Program put together by Macquarie University.

David Harrington

The philosophy behind this program is to engage indigenous students in learning by providing
positive role models here at the school by putting the indigenous students front and centre showing
that they are good at things outside of sport.

NARRATION

The program is part of the curriculum at Maclean High School on the North Coast of New South Wales.
It was introduced back in 2004 with peer to peer teaching.

Student

Does anyone else want to pick him up that hasn't had a go? Come on guys be brave. (LAUGHS)

Andrew Ford

The aim of this is to get Aboriginal kids working, get them engaged with within education through
science. It's not necessarily to create scientists. Obviously their knowledge does increase because
they're doing the hands on practical activities.

Students

(LAUGH)

Andrew Ford

So it sucks water in at the back of the carapace and it passes it right out across the front.

Anja Taylor

So this is a pretty easy job for you Andrew?

Andrew Ford

Yeah it's a very easy job. The kids do an excellent thing. They take over from us and it's
excellent to see the year 7 kids listening to someone else.

Anja Taylor

Yes.

Andrew Ford

It's, it's different for them having the students run the demonstration.

Anja Taylor

Do they respond well?

Andrew Ford

Yeah they do. It takes a little bit to warm up.

Anja Taylor

They sort of come out of their shell when they've actually got something to interact with.

Andrew Ford

Yeah.

Anja Taylor

Got it.

Student

Woo!

NARRATION

This hands on approach certainly puts the fun into learning.

Anja Taylor

I'm a yabby wrangler.

Students

(LAUGH)

NARRATION

The program was started at the request of local elders.

Uncle Ron

Aboriginal people used to walk down there and they used to pick the stone that suits their hand
grip you know?

David Harrington

The elders were very concerned that the majority of their student weren't completing year 12. They
were sort of seeing student after student basically being very promising early on in their career
at high school but the time they get to year 12, they were dropping out at a really high rate.

Andrew Ford

What are these stones? What are they made of? What are they?

Student

Basalt.

Andrew Ford

They're basalt. That one there you can actually mount and form an axe head that way.

Uncle Ron

There was an outcry from a lot of the Aboriginal people. They weren't getting a fair go at school.
The white system was only meant for all the white people so we decided to do a system that was
meant for both you know?

Andrew Ford

Have a look at the shape on that one we found.

NARRATION

So the program recognizes and includes indigenous culture.

Uncle Ron

Yeah, well definitely grind this one.

Andrew Ford

Yep we grind that one?

Uncle Ron

Yeah.

Andrew Ford

And the shiny one?

NARRATION

Uncle Ron is taking them through the process of shaping stones into tools.

Uncle Ron

But that'll be like a handheld one.

What you've got to do is you've got to put a bit of muscle in it. That's why they traded it inland.

Andrew Ford

Got someone else to do it.

Uncle Ron

For someone else to do it, to do all the hard work.

Andrew Ford

Yeah. They're the driving force out here. We have the elders give a lot of the verbal knowledge. As
a science teacher I give that scientific back up but the elders basically drive what we do out here
on the field. This is their country, this is their knowledge.

Uncle Ron

I've often had some of the other older people that's passed on, well the religious ones would say
"oh this is God's gift to the Yaegl people", all of this lower Clarence and the beaches.

Woman

Now we're going to look for some piggy faces ah? Say if you're away from home and you're out
walking you know and you haven't got any food, you go looking for these to quench your thirst as
well as put a bit of lining on your stomach.

Anja Taylor

And that's why it's called 'piggy face'.

NARRATION

Not only are the students enjoying the learning, the program is clearly having an impact.

Woman

Put it in your mouth and squeeze it.

Anja Taylor

Has it made you interested at all in, in science?

Student

Yep. I love studying plants and yeah just I love trying out new stuff over the year so ...

Anja Taylor

What does it, what does it taste like?

Student

Just like a Juicy Fruit.

Anja Taylor

Really?

Student

Yeah.

David Harrington

It's been a wonderful success here. Here at Maclean High School, last year we had ninety four
percent of indigenous students complete it, Year 12, whereas seven years ago when we started this
program, it was less than seventy percent.

Woman

I think that's nail polish.

Student

Nail polish?

Woman

I think it's vinegar.

Uncle Ron

Going to school isn't a torment for them anymore and you know and not like it used to be. It was
agony you know for them but now the younger ones, they're out to do Year 12 you know and from there
go on to do TAFE or university.

The winner is Dr Rip - Dr Rob Brander.

(Cheering and applause) So, Rob, congratulations on winning this award.

Yeah, I'm totally stoked, thank you. It was fantastic.

So, do you think people really underestimate how dangerous a rip is?

Oh, absolutely. I think people are afraid of sharks, they've sort of heard of rips - some know a
lot about rips - but they don't really realise that these things actually cause a lot of drownings
every year.

How have you actually gone about getting that message across to people?

Well, primarily, I started giving presentations to local communities, to schools, um, and then we
started doing social media, so YouTube videos, Facebook, and we've reached thousands... tens of
thousands of people.

Do you think it's made a real difference in the understanding of rips?

I'd like to think it has, um... I think - if I keep going - I think you'll see the drownings start
to drop, but we won't know for a few more years. But I think it has.

Congratulations, Rob. Have a great evening. Thanks very much. Th

ank you. Thank you. Thank you, all.

(Cheering and applause)

The Australian Museum Eureka Prizes are about rewarding science.

(Applause continues) Congratulations to all tonight's winners and thank you for joining us. See you
next week. GRAHAM: Next time on Catalyst - ocean plastics poisoning our food chain.

ANJA: That's where plastics come back to meet their maker.

GRAHAM: Barefoot running - is it better than shoes? And witness to a crime, but can you pick the
criminal?

MARYANNE: You can find a full list of the Eureka prize-winners but following the links at the
Catalyst website.

Closed Captions by CSI

This Program is Captioned Live.

Good evening. Craig Allen with an Good evening. Craig Allen with an ABC news update. It's been
another black day for Australian armed forces in Afghanistan. Five soldiers were killed in two
separate incidents. In the first, three were shot by a the first, three were shot by a rogue Afghan
soldier in Uruzgan province Afghan soldier in Uruzgan province in a so-called green on blue attack.
Then two special forces commandos died when their helicopter crashed died when their helicopter
crashed in Helmand province. The family of murdered Canberra truck driver Bob Knight were dealt a
final blow as Knight were dealt a final blow as his killer was sentenced in court today.
28-year-old Mahmoud Mariam laughed 28-year-old Mahmoud Mariam laughed as he was jailed for the
minimum term he was jailed for the minimum term of just under six years. A bullet he fired during a
fight in western Sydney in 2009 killed Mr Knight as Sydney in 2009 killed Mr Knight as he drove
past. The Greens have drove past. The Greens have committed to introducing light rail to to
introducing light rail to Canberra if they're elected. In the party's single biggest election
promise , they've pledged 200-million dollars to build the first leg of a Canberra-wide rail
system. And the Paralympic Games have got underway Paralympic Games have got underway in London
with a spectacular opening ceremony. More than 4000 athletes from 164 countries will compete over
11 days of competition. The ceremony featured scientist professor Stephen Hawking who urged
competitors to Hawking who urged competitors to look at the stars and not their feet. To Canberra's
weather. A frosty start after minus 3 overnight. Then cloudy with rain likely later. A top of 11.
More news in an hour.

OPERA PLAYING INSIDE

Mrs Redfern?

Yes.

How nice to meet you.

You mean you're Martin Barrett.

Yes. I think we both expected someone a little different.

The only thing that puzzles me is, out of the nine girls who were there, why choose me?

Well, research. The key to any successful enterprise.

You've been poking your nose into my business.

Well, I suppose that's one way of putting it.

And what did your research tell you?

That for the most part, those girls were pretty insipid. Then your name came up. A bit of an
unknown quantity. Independent ways.

Wayward, you mean.

# BIZET: The Pearl Fishers