Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Disclaimer: The Parliamentary Library does not warrant the accuracy of closed captions. These are derived automatically from the broadcaster's signal.
As it Happened -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) to spare my life, "and should it please God "I will see you soon. "But if not, grieve not for me. "I shall fall in a noble cause." as a Chartist hero. George Shell is now remembered When troops examine the bodies, of weapons they discover an enormous array of the Chartists' planning. and the full extent at the level of organisation Newspaper reports marvel of these ordinary working people. from that uprising Some of the Chartists are buried at Saint Woolos Cathedral on the route of their final march. George Shell is one of ten Chartists to this churchyard whose bodies are brought here by the military in the dead of night

and placed in unmarked graves. this campaign to be forgotten. The authorities clearly want in a noble cause. But these are people prepared to die democratic rights. Not only do they want of happiness and dignity They want a basic measure in their troubled lives. that irresistible need for change. And the Newport Rising is all about are charged with high treason The three leaders of the rising for life. and transported to Australia is a popular protest The Newport Rising by the working class of Wales. of a political awakening The beginning years in the story of Wales... that will dominate the next hundred to change the face of Wales. It takes one turbulent century an overwhelmingly industrial one. A predominantly rural economy becomes a new class of person. And it brings with it whose poverty and suffering A spirited working class will create a new politics. is now about rapid change. Our story of Wales the social turmoil The Industrial Revolution, they're only just beginning. (EXPANSIVE MUSIC) Captions (c) SBS Australia 2012

Good evening, PJ Madam with the

latest from the newsroom. Hope is

fading for up to 100 people still

missing after an asylum seeker boat

capsized. Those rescued have

arrived at Christmas Island and are

receiving treatment. At least 110 others were rescued. Markets

rattled over more signs of weakness

among some of the world's top banks.

Ratings agency Moody's has

downgraded 15 key banking firms

across the US and Europe. A nervous

wait in Egypt - tens of thousand of

protesters are in Tahrir Square

still waiting for the presidential

election results. They are also

poised for an announcement to be

made by the Military later tonight.

And the trial of Arnesh Behring

Breivik has entered its final day

in Norway. His defence lawyers have

rejected the prosecution's push for

psychiatric care as punishment for

killing 77 people last July. All

bulletin. those details and more in our 10:30

you do all sorts of things If you're young, 10 years later. that you might not do and he was 15 - Helmuth, I met when I was 14 at the dancing school. Mother got this, I'll never forget it, er, dress, which was French, had long sleeves and was short to the knee. very nice in it. I must have looked I was very unsure of myself. I wasn't sure how I looked at all. and I liked to dance very much. He was a very good dancer, And we danced all night long until one very pretty girl came up to him and said, with this girl, "If you don't stop dancing "I will never kiss you again." he continued to dance with me. I was thrilled to see that And we danced the entire evening. Helmuth was very good looking, very suspicious of him. which made me he fell in love with me then, And he declared that

but I didn't know what that was, and I didn't take it seriously. again for years. We then did not see each other I was 13 when Hitler took office.

happened at school. The first change that I noticed a stack of envelopes and said, My classroom teacher handed out and bring it back tomorrow." "Have your parents fill this out instructed my parents It was a note that if I was Aryan or Jewish. to let the school know Being 5'10", having the blonde hair, and looking like the prototype of Hitler's Germanic vision... Jewish about me at that time. ..I did not think there was anything the envelope At dinner, I handed my parents and they grew silent. My father explained it to me. My mother's parents had been Jewish, to Christianity. but then had converted "So what's the big deal?" My immediate response was, According to the Nuremberg race laws my mother was Jewish, and therefore I was a half-Jew. or go to university. That meant I could not marry It made me very angry impossible for me. because everything was made of that age think about, You know, the two things that girls at least in my generation, or go to college. was to either get married And I couldn't do either. a Holocaust story My story is really not because my father was not Jewish. Yet Hitler labelled me, I could to get back at him. and I was determined to do whatever were very good teachers. The high school teachers we got this terrible man. But in the Nazi time He was a top SS Nazi. One day when I didn't do my homework the SS man pulled me aside. come to my office for a week, He said, "As of tomorrow, you will in front of my door "and you will stand Hitler salute for half an hour." "and raise your arm in the My father was furious. we wrapped my right arm in a cast. He called up a doctor friend and in a sling and said, I arrived the next day I can't raise my arm. "Sorry, it seems with my left arm?" "Would you like me to salute The SS man was furious, but there was nothing he could do. I was very naughty. And powerful. And stupid. that I get out of the country. My parents suggested go to university, So that I could perhaps or do something out there, still give me money. as long as they could when I left. I was 18 going on 19 My mother called. I could hear fear in her voice. not to come home to Berlin... She was choking up when she told me ..that Aunty is crazy. She's impossible to live with. what to do with Aunty. And that we don't know Telephones were already tapped and we always spoke in code. In our family, 'Aunty' was our codename for Hitler. It was 1939, September, and it was then that the war began. NEWSREEL: Adolf Hitler's all-out attack on Poland makes the long-dreaded European war a certainty. Sitting in Switzerland where I could read all of it, hear all of it, it was even worse because we knew everything. I knew that the persecution of the Jews

was getting worse each month and that my mother was in danger. And I knew that my father could no longer get out of Germany. My parents were already older. My mother was 38 when she had me. I was the one to help them. So I took the train and returned home without anybody's permission. I entered a war zone. Life in Berlin had changed during my time away -

big changes. (SOLDIERS CHANT) The SS would round up Jews on occasion.

And when they did, an Aryan friend who worked at the propaganda ministry tipped us off. And we would leave town for a few days. It was during one such pogrom

that my parents and I left to go skiing for Christmas. Around 4:00 in the afternoon, I quit skiing and joined my parents for hot chocolate at a lovely hotel. There was dancing and music, and to my amazement, even American jazz. Amongst the young officers on furlough, I saw my friend Helmuth standing. He seemed very happy to see me and, of course, we danced. The next day I skied with Helmuth, but realised almost immediately that he was not a good skier. He spent most of his time falling, yet remained unbelievably good-natured. The next morning, I called to invite him to our house. And his mom picked up the phone and screamed, "Jutta, what have you done?" She told me that Helmuth was covered in black and blues and in no condition to speak to me. Just then, Helmuth grabbed the phone and said that he would love to see me. I guess his mother was just being protective. We spent the day walking through town. And we talked about old times, mutual friends, and not much about politics. He told me that he had seen me all my life and always wanted me. I think you could call it a crush. He was very good looking, and a really good person, and a bright one, which is a nice combination. Sometimes you have one or the other, but I feel I had absolutely everything. (TRAIN HORN TOOTS) You might already be aware that the National Broadband Network rollout is currently underway. And as it continues to reach every home and business across Australia, it's also good to know that over 30 NBN retail providers can deliver world-class broadband wherever you live

at a price that doesn't discriminate between city and country. For more information on pricing, visit australia.gov.au/nbn/pricing WOMAN: You can't say to somebody, "It's gonna be alright"... ..in that situation. You can't say, "You're gonna feel better."

You can't say the right thing.

At all. There is no right thing. There is no making it OK. He thought that he was invincible,

like a lot of young guys do. After the holidays, Helmuth joined a unit on the front and we agreed to stay in touch. JUTTA: It was honourable to fight for one's country

and he assumed that it was the proper thing to do. HELMUTH: "Dear Jutta.

"Isn't it fabulous that I am writing to you again today?

"At least I think so. "Yet since I dream of you again last night, "I consider it a necessity. "I will make it my custom to write whenever I dream of you. "Who knows how much longer I will be able to dream? "Fondly, Helmuth." NEWSREEL: The leaders of Nazi Germany shifted their war machine into high gear. Nazis are marching ahead at the fastest speed a conquering army has moved in all history. Nazi Stuka dive-bombers are strafing and bombing thousands of helpless women and children. The first great phase of the war in the west has been won by Germany.

Each night my parents and I pulled the shades in the house. We huddled around the radio and kept the volume low. (RADIO STATIC) CHURCHILL: (ON RADIO) This effort of the Germans... We listened to the BBC. It was considered a treasonous act. There were quite a few Germans who were against Hitler,

which is one of the reasons that I talk about it.

Because so often people think that everybody was a Nazi. There were a lot of very good Germans who were very sad about what was happening to their country. We met in small groups called 'tea circles' where we openly discussed the situation in Germany, and felt that nothing would ever change unless one did something about it. I had good friends. I had wonderful friends. Helmuth saw firsthand the cruelty of Hitler's orders. He and his artillery unit were told to bomb soft targets such as Russian towns filled with women and children. He and those in his unit refused, and gave the order to everybody to shoot away from where the people lived... ..so that they had a chance to go and hide. But after that warning shot, they were forced to adjust their aim, and aim for the town centre. More and more injured soldiers spilled back into Berlin. For me, it meant that my friends returned home. Werner von Haeften was sent back from the war in Africa having suffered a terrible wound. At the time, when the Jewish question was so important, he was one of my biggest helpers. And he was certainly against Hitler. (KNOCK ON DOOR) One evening, Werner von Haeften came to our house to ask a favour - a dangerous favour. He asked us whether or not we would be willing to hide a man who was looked for by the Gestapo. And my father said, "This is entirely dependent on my wife. "I can't expect her to say yes to that." Werner felt badly in a way that he was asking us. He said, "We are desperate. "This man knows all of our names - "all of the names of people who are actively against Hitler. "And if he is caught, "it will be dreadful." And so we harboured a fugitive. Gehre was a nervous wreck and he was worn down. We'd find him smoking cigarettes in our garden, right under the windows of our neighbours, who were ardent Nazis. His behaviour was erratic and dangerous. But it was very difficult to smuggle someone out of the country. So he stayed with us much longer than anticipated. HELMUTH: "My dear Jutta, "You won't believe it - I am still alive.

"The last two months were absolute shit. "No-one would have guessed "that we would still be fighting in Russia at this late date. "Our chances for an end are diminishing "while our hopes for an end increase. "To be so alone knowing that you are so far away is really insufferable. "I kiss your mouth, your face, "and I believe in you. "Helmuth." As the Germans withdrew, a shell burst right next to him and cut through his lower arm, but didn't kill him. Helmuth made the long journey back to Germany where he began his slow recovery. Now I saw a side of him that I'd never seen before. His blind optimism turned more serious. The war had changed him. HELMUTH: "Dearest Jutta, "I am for once lying on my bed on my tummy to write to you. "I hope you can read my still awful writing. "I am trying to use my left hand. "On such days, everything seems to come together - "fever, horrid pain, "with medication that does not do a thing to make me feel better. "I have to get 100% well to be my old self once more. "I hope you can come visit me soon. "Please. Do it soon." Each time we saw each other, Helmuth urged me to tell him more about the political situation - details that had been kept from the soldiers. I just felt that he needed to know. He had no clue. JUTTA: There had already been multiple attempts on Hitler's life. But time and time again, it was a military oath that prevented mutiny. (SPEAKS GERMAN) (TRUMPETS BLAST) (ALL SING IN GERMAN) Many officers felt that

regardless of how much they disapproved of Hitler they had sworn their allegiance to him, and once they had given their word, that was final. There is something which is very Germanic of that generation - of honour to the point of destruction. (HELMUTH SPEAKS GERMAN) "There is a lot of defiance in that which we have to muster. "We can do it, despite everything." He begged me to find a job where he might do something against Hitler. There was one person I knew who was deeply involved in a military plot to kill Hitler. I didn't know the details, of course,

but I broached the subject with Werner von Haeften over dinner. He had never met Helmuth before and his first reaction was to say, "How do I know he's not a spy and can be trusted?" Werner had always been easygoing. But on that night I saw him deadly serious. He was wearing a uniform and a revolver. And that's something he never did. Who wears a gun to dinner? Even in Berlin, no-one did that. So I teased him and said, "Do you plan on shooting someone tonight?" He looked me straight in the eyes and said, "These are dangerous times." And that was enough for me not to ask any more questions. I knew something was up. Werner met Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg in 1943. They shared their profound hatred for Hitler, and decided that the only way to stop Hitler was to kill him. HELMUTH: "The plot itself was under the name 'Walkure' "and, of course, top secret. "Hitler himself had authorised Walkure, "yet he had no idea that it was a cover-up

"for his own assassination. "Stauffenberg and other anti-Hitler military officers "expanded upon Valkyrie "to make it the secret plan for the resistance "to take control of the armed forces "and install a government that would end the war and undo Nazi policies." "So often I am terribly frightened that I could lose you. "Unimaginable. "You have to try to protect yourself so not to destroy our happiness. "It no longer is only your life "or that of your parents. "You have to think about our future, "the beauty of our love. "Promise me to be careful. "Even difficult times pass "to make room for better and happier ones - "those full of joy and without constant fear." You might already be aware that the National Broadband Network rollout is currently underway. And as it continues to reach every home and business across Australia, it's also good to know that over 30 NBN retail providers can deliver world-class broadband wherever you live at a price that doesn't discriminate between city and country. For more information on pricing, visit australia.gov.au/nbn/pricing In 1944, Helmuth left the hospital in Frankfurt and moved into our house in Berlin.

We had very nice evenings at my parent's house and sometimes we would go out, but there wasn't a lot of that, because he didn't come back until the terrible bombing. You had bombing during the day bombing at night. You know, nowhere to go really, other than to be glad that your house was still standing. So this was not a time for dates. HELMUTH: "Haeften came to my office "and told me that some time in the near future,

"he might call on me. "He made a remark to the effect "that, well, maybe some time Hitler will be dead

"or will be killed, or something like that. "That was about the only indication which clicked with me immediately, "that something was very close, something was going to happen." He would not speak to me about what he was doing or what was going on.

And he sent me and my mother away so we would be out of the way. So we went into the mountains. And then this happened. And... (SIGHS) ..everything fell apart. By then they realised that the plot was doomed. Van Haeften pulled Helmuth aside. He knew that Helmuth and I were in love.

And he told Helmuth to save himself, to leave the building. Haeften and Stauffenberg were shot that same evening. They were the heroes who said, "Yes, we did it. "We wanted to have a better country. "And you have ruined it." That was their goodbye. (GUNSHOTS) He didn't want to endanger me,

so he spent the entire night burning all of our photographs and love letters -

anything which might show that he and I were a couple. It's ironic that he had to erase our past in order for us to have a future. HELMUTH: "July 21st, 1944. 4:00am. "Dearest, "I cannot write a lot tonight. "There is much to think about to put things in order. "Who knows whether we will see each other again and when? "In a few hours we will have to say goodbye to each other,

"to everything, and maybe forever. "There will never be a greater love than ours,

"or one more tragic. "Goodbye. I love you more than ever. H." So the next day he reported to work at the Bendlerblock as usual, and played innocent, but was promptly arrested. Those who conspired against Hitler now faced his wrath. Every day, somebody you knew was arrested. Gehre, the man we had hidden, buckled under the additional pressure. He lost his nerve and left his hiding place and shot himself and missed. He only shot himself blind. For him to be caught was a disaster.

He knew everything - our names, our address. On October 4th, the Gestapo had arrested my parents. I arrived home, no light. Nobody was there, and on the floor there was no message. I was naturally a wreck. I kept thinking, "What to do next?" I ran out of the house for fear that the Gestapo would return and arrest me. And then I hid for two weeks. And it's terribly scary...

..because you have no idea what's going to happen to you. It was fall of 1944. Germany was losing the war on both fronts, yet Hitler focused a great deal on the swift justice against the conspirators. He created the...the so-called 'People's Court'. The court was presided by Mr Freisler, an absolute devil. And blood was flowing in that court. On the 15th of October, Helmuth was going to be called before the People's Court. And all of those people were damned to death. I was sure that my mother would be gassed and my father would be dead. I didn't think I would see anybody ever again. In a war you become, sort of, um... You either become terribly afraid or you say, "To hell with it," and continue. And I'm afraid I'm the number two. I was not going to cave in. And if it weren't for the love affair, I probably would have been a chicken. I knew that the Gestapo was looking for me and so I stayed one step ahead. I'd go from friend to friend's house in the middle of the night. The whole time I thought about how I could help my parents and Helmuth survive. I had really only two options. One was for me to run away from Germany and go to Switzerland. The other option was to turn myself in.

On October 14, 1944, I walked down to the Gestapo headquarters on Prince Albertstrasse. Once inside the building, I lost all fear. I was in a strange mood - almost excited. I was put into a small and miserable interview chamber and in came... Stavitski was his name. "Why do you come to us?" And I said, "I'm looking for my parents." He stared at me straight in the eyes, and wouldn't break eye contact even for a second. I suddenly realised how much danger I was in. "I can tell you where your parents are. They are arrested." I said, "Why?" (SHOUTS IN GERMAN) He said, "You don't ask the questions. Shut up." He said, "Where have you been? We have been looking for you." And he pulled out a mug shot. He would say things to you, "Just you...just wait what we do to your mother," and, you know, "Your father is already blabbing," kind of things, er... Trying to break me down. And he was a simple, nasty piece of work. One of the most awful fellows of the Gestapo, who wanted to trip you up with the first thing you said, and then turn everything around. And it became, sort of, a fight to keep my wits about me. And with that I was locked up in solitary confinement. I knew I wanted to live. But did my parents want the same?

Did Helmuth? (ROCK MUSIC PLAYS)

Waiting for a train to pass might cost you a few minutes of your time. (TRAIN SCREECHES) (BABY LAUGHS) (CHEERING, APPLAUSE)

Good one, mate. (WOMAN LAUGHS) (WEDDING BELLS CHIME)

But consider what you could lose if you ignore the signals and don't stop. VOICEOVER: It's gonna be mind-blowing! (POP!) Join the celebration with Lotto's massive: Get you ticket As every prisoner did, I etched a calendar in the stucco wall and I watched time pass. I was in a single cell for one person

which was probably... The width was probably from here to there, and there was a wooden bed that would fall down and had all sorts of nice creatures living in it. There seemed to be so little hope. It was either in November or in December when I was taken back to the Gestapo headquarters for a second interrogation. And he was sitting there, grinning at me, and said, "We have a surprise for you." And somebody came in crawling on all fours and I realised that it was Gehre, the man we had hidden. He could no longer walk and he could hardly speak, so he must have been tortured beyond the pale, as many of them were. He was no longer a human being. It was just like an animal. His first question was, "I'm sure he had a very nice time in your house." And I just managed to say, "What are you talking about? Who is this?" "I know you are a traitor of the German Reich," he screamed. To which I remained silent. And after an hour and a half of this interrogation, Gehre was rolled back, and I was led out, without having admitted to anything at all. I decided to act sick. That would give me regular medical visits from a doctor, and maybe the doctor would help me send and receive information from the outside. He agreed to help me communicate with the outside world. So there was a band of information. And that was wonderful for me, and...and so I had an idea where everybody was.

HELMUTH: "I had joined a work squad in my prison "in order to move some of the rubble against the basement windows. "People who were in this work squad "were considered less dangerous by our young guards, "and that made at least my life more bearable." I didn't get details, but I heard that Helmuth was alive. I heard that my father was alive. But it was news of my mother that made my heart stop. I heard that my mother had been brought to a concentration camp. Ravensbruck was its name. By then we knew what happened to Jews in concentration camps. NEWSREEL: Over the White House at Washington, the flag flies at half-staff as a grief-stricken nation mourns the death

of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, president of the United States. On April 12th, 1945, President Roosevelt died. There was great excitement among the SS prison guards because they believed Hitler's propaganda

that America would bow out of the war and Germany would be victorious. But it was the following day that the prison medic injected me with the last placebo injection. And his face was beaming. He claimed to have the most extraordinary news. My mother had been released. I was stunned. I couldn't...that... I...I just couldn't stop asking.

He said he didn't know very much, but two SS people had delivered her in Berlin.

From that moment on, I was sure that we somehow would make it. The two of us, at least, would make it. NEWSREEL: The last flaming hours for a doomed city. Berlin, once mighty metropolis of a proud nation, now crumbles under the merciless pounding of Russian artillery. First you bomb everything out as much as you can. And then comes silence.

It's this eerie silence. Nothing. No sound. And then suddenly you hear sounds of the big boots. (MARCHING FOOTSTEPS) And then you know they are coming. The Battle of Berlin was one of the bloodiest battles in history. People were dying everywhere. Even Hitler himself had committed suicide, and lay dead in a bunker. We could hear the explosions get closer and closer to our prison. There were very few of us left and they were all political prisoners. So we kicked and kicked against the door, and we said to them, "If you don't let us out, "we will make sure that you get killed by the Russians. "You can hear them already. You know they are coming." And finally they opened the door. Finally, I made it to the Heidkamp's house and there I found my mother. My mother looked pitiful. She was just skin and bones. She only weighed 75 pounds. But it was a wonderful get-together. We were in each other's arms for a long time. And she felt like a bird. The Russian soldiers were roaring drunk for an entire week - totally out of control of their officers, of those who were not also drunk. It was a disaster. We didn't know what the Russians would do other than they would come in and leave with women on hand. And during that time it was from one rape to another, whether you were a grandmother, or a young girl, or a child. One evening, a young Russian officer found us in the basement. He saw me and said, "Frau, commit." So I did something - the only thing I could think of. I was wonderful at being cross-eyed, and made terrible gurgling and howling noises, moaning and... (GROANS)

It was really revolting, as revolting as I could be, like throwing up, and all sorts of dreadful sounds. He thought I was sick and moved away immediately, because the Russians were terribly afraid of diseases. The majority of women in Berlin were not so lucky.

I had heard that my father had the last hearing of the People's Court on April 23rd. I was told that he had been condemned to death for listening to the radio. As far as Helmuth was concerned, I loved him, and I thought of him constantly, and I talked to him in my mind, but I didn't think we would ever see each other again. My mother and I were depressed in many ways. We had lost the men of our lives. The door opened. As we looked around, it wasn't a Russian soldier. It was my father. He walked in looking as if he had just come from the golf course, in somebody else's coat, well-fed, the most unbelievable, wonderful sight. He had awaited execution, when the Russians stormed the prison, killed all the guards, and let my father and all the prisoners go free. Of course, you can imagine how happy everybody was. We were standing there, completely overwhelmed, talking, when five minutes later the door opens again and in walks Helmuth. The hour for which the world has been six years waiting has come.

Unconditionally and finally, our German enemy has surrendered to Russia, to Britain and her Commonwealth, to America, to the people of all free nations. It was the first wedding in Berlin, as it turned out. We looked like lovers, I'm sure, but we didn't look like the usual bridal pair because we were so funnily dressed. He had borrowed a suit that belonged to one of my other friends, who was much bigger in all directions. And I didn't have anything bridal. I had found an old piece of lace that I wrapped somehow around my head. And he had cut a wonderful bouquet for me

of flowers that he found in a bombed-out garden. It was just a great moment. I think what makes our story unique is that there are four people, and all in different places under these circumstances. None of us were injured. All four of us came together in one piece. That is extraordinary, isn't it? Supertext Captions by Red Bee Media Australia Captions copyright SBS 2012