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(generated from captions) supposed to say the rain hasn't

dampened the celebration

s? Yeah, you're right. Can we

do that again? Yes. Are you

ready? Yes. And the rain

hasn't dampened celebrations,

has it? No, nothing could

dampen the celebrations here

this week, Brian and of course

in a sense the rain is entirely

appropriate. Because these are

very grey times economically,

aren't they ? Where have you

gone there? This can't be

right. I must have given you

the wrong lead-in line. Go back

to the rain is appropriate. OK.

That's right, and the rain is

appropriate anyway of course.

The rain, Brian? It's been

raining all week? It has and

of course we're here to

celebrate the Queen's reign and

long may she reign. She is the

reigning monarch. These are all

puns, we'll run a super across

the screen. It's winding down

now? We've had boats down the

Thames. Winding down the

Thames. We've had the

concert. What was it like?

Amazing. I was personally

amazed by the concert. Who

sang at it? Sir everyone.

Sorry, can't read my own

writing. Sir Elton, Sir Paul,

Sir Rolf, Sir Tom. It was

fantastic. What exactsly a

Diamond Jubilee? In this case

it's the 60th an varso rae it's the 60th an varso rae of

the Queen's ascension to the -

anniversary of the Queen's

asection to the throne. Will there be other public servants

who've been in the job that

long? I very much doubt it.

This mazing, silver jubilee.

All happening in London? Very

exciting in London, yes.

Thanks for your time. Anything else? Just a couple of

details. You got a pencil? Yep. London is

L-O-N-D-O-N. Thanks for that.

Exciting, probably Google that

one. It's got an X in it.

Amazing, has that got a Z in

it? Yes, got a Z in That's the

program for tonight. Tomorrow

night you have your local

Closed Captions by CSI editions of 7:30. Goodnight.

Block This Program is

Captioned Live.

Ahead on Catalyst - genetic

testing at home. A life changing alternative to

wheelchairs. What is hidden in

a cat's pur? And Venus

completes its transit for this

century. Hello Venus!

Do you want to glimpse into

the future? The secrets within

our DNA hold extraordinary

power. As a former medical

scientist, I have seen how

advances in technology have

revolutionised our

understanding of diseases.

One of the fastest growing

areas is genetic testing.

There is a huge potential,

for example, in drugs and

personal liced medicine. Now

there is the at moment genetic

test kit. It promises to

predict your risk of disease

before it strikes. We cover a

whole ranges of diseases,

including heart disease,

prostate cancer, all the auto

immune diseases. The risk

figure is not based on sound

science. I have set about to

investigate whether these personal genome test kits are

all they're cracked up to be.

I have often thought about

getting my genome analysed. I

am intrigued by the idea of

being able to change my own

destiny, to predict diseases

and choose the best treatments.

It is the promise of

personalised medicine.

Ordering a genetic test kit

can be done simply online.

Normally, my family history

would be the best indicator of

my future health. My faernts

are generally healthy. And my

grandparents lived into their

90s with the exception of my

maternal grandfather who died

of a heart attack in his 50s. -

parents. Could I be at risk?

I am nervous now. I

collected my saliva sample

containing the DNA from my

cheek cells and sent it off.

Are these test kits a waste

of time and money? Here in the

Netherlands, a leading ep deem

ol gist in genomics says they

are. I think at this moment the predictability of those

commercial test are very

low. I can hear the click and

I want to know... Cecile

decided to compare her own DNA

test between two different

companies... I compared my

results for eight different

diseases. These are percentage

risks? Yes, percentage risks.

If you look here, you see for

heart attack, they predict my

disease at 8.9% and the other

one is 41.3. That is really

different. Type 1 diabetes is

an enormous difference. The

numbers are smaller because it

is a rare disease but this is

0.9% and the other one

is.05. How could they come up

with such different results?

They do the calculations in

different ways which produces

the different results. Cecile

explained that all companies

begin their calculation with an

average risk of disease. The

problem is each company release

on information from different

sources. They use different

gene variations to calculate

the risk. There is no

standardisation of results.

Also, your risk of disease

changes as scientists discover

new genetic information. So

you can't really trust the

results that you get from

different companies? No. It is

not something that you would

really know because you would

only test your results - With

one company. I am getting more

doubtful about the reliability

of this test. Yes. There are

also many factors that are not

taken into account when

assessing a person's risk of disease. What you should take

into account is the lifestyle

factors. They have much more

impacts on your risk of disease

than the DNA variations

alone. If you area want to

change your health behaviour,

then don't - adopt a healthier

lifestyle immediately. This did

start me wondering about my own

test results. Back in Sydney,

I logged into my account and it

all seemed benign except one

thing struck me as rather odd.

They have given me a

prostate cancer risk of 24%. I

am pretty sure I don't have a

prostate. I thought it best I

get some advice from an expert

in genetics. It says you have

an increased risk for prostate

cancer. It should be zero,

shouldn't it? What they're

saying is that your risk is

increased over that of European

men who share your genotype.

You're a woman why would they

compare you to European men?

They haven't personal liced it

to me, have they? They haven't

and the other concern too of

course is that all of your

averages have been based on

risks for men. It is

concerning. When I approached

the head of Lumigenix, he was

just as surprised as I

was. After some investigation,

he discovered a mistake had

been made. In not specifying

my gender when signing up, the

computer automatically

defaulted to a European

male. One might argue that

within my DNA there are my sex

chromosomes which are two XXs

and not an XY, so you should be

able to identify whether I'm

male or female. In the same way

we could identify your auth

entis think but we don't. There

may be a deletion or you may be

one of the one in 100,000 that

has trouble expressing the Y or

the X. If you switch it

back... Roman revealed it

wasn't the first time this

happened. We actually talk all

of it back on board and we

definitely address the other

side. In hindsight we probably

should make it - with a Big Red

flashing panel for the

gender. That is a relief. I

thought my DNA was telling me I

had a prostate. Despite the

limitations, Roman believes

these retail test kits are here

to stay. The resistance

against it, it is because it is

an emerging technology. In the

near future everybody will be

done at birth and we will see a

more tar getd more personalised

health care out of it where

drugs will be done on the spot

for your diseases with your

genetic signature. Personal

genetic testing, now or in the

future, may have some

unforeseen consequences. It

might influence your choice of

a partner and your prospects of

getting a job or health

insurance. How this technology

will affect you only time will


Every minute, every day,

people are robbed of their

independence by spinal injuries

and crippling disabilities. For

people who can't walk and need

mobility, a wheelchair is as

good as it gets. But for many,

that is just not good enough.

Upgrading paralysed limbs

with a wearable robot was once

a sci-fi dream. Now, it is a

reality. I am about to meet an

engineer who designs technology

so he can walk with his head

held high. Six years ago,

Jarred Pearce broke his back in

a car accident. He's wearing a

robotic exoskeleton or Rex for

short. And before too much

longer, he plans to leave his

wheelchair behind. Jarred,

how are you? Good to see you.

How is your turning circle?

Good. As a T4 paraplegic,

Jarred has full use of his arms

but his lower body and legs are paralysed. How does that feel

for you? Does that feel like

you're upright and stable? I

love it. It beats being in a

wheelchair. Bernice first met

Jarred after his accident when

he relied totally on a

wheelchair. Do your little

dance move.

How did that change when he

started using the exoskeleton?

It was amazing. Being able to

be face to face with him and

actually the first thing I did

was I ran up to him and gave

him a hug. We have never hugged

standing up. That was amazing

to be able to do that. Was he

taller than you thought? Yeah,

very much taller. I like to

wear heels when has on his

legs. Jarred has the exoskeleton on loan but even

when he returns it, it is never

far away.

This is the workshop of Rex

Bionics in Auckland New

Zealand. Jarred works here as a

production engineer. He builds

and tests robotic exoskeletons.

This is all my friends, they

watch me and I walk before I am

30, I said that. I think I got onto the machine about six

months before my 30th birthday

and I went back and I said "I

have done it, I walked like I

said I would" respect. I didn't

know I would be using a

device. Richard Little is one

of the inventors. Nine years

ago he founded Rex Bionics. His

motivation deeply personal. We

originally started this for

somebody with mismis. Rex

Bionics is not just for people

with spinal chord injuries. It

is for people with other

mobility impairments. We don't

discriminate by injury or

illness or condition. In several countries, other types of robotic limbs have been

developed to assist mobility.

They all require the user to

balance with crutches. And

that is where Rex is different

from the rest. It is for those

who can't stand up

themselves. You have to hold

the user upright in Rex,

support them, not allow too

much weight to go through their

own feet but allow enough to go

through so they get the

benefits of the standing and

walking. To build the world's

first hands free self

supporting exoskeleton, it has

meant starting from scratch.

The robotic system recreates

a safe and gentle walking

motion that most of us take for


We see a lot of people are

watching people walk around and

study the walk and how we

actually physically do that and

putting that into motion in the

machine. This is one of the

menus that we have changed

here. Without nerve or muscle

impulses in their legs to drive

the machine, users control it

with a joy stick. It is a

preprogrammed walk on the flat

that is set. Then it sensors

the ground underneath it as

well, so it is somewhere in

between being preprogrammed and not knowing anything about

where it is walking. Dozens of

micro processors and 100

sensors are coordinated by a

central computer brain in the

back. Even if it breaks down or

the battery runs flat, Rex is

designed to stay upright.

Can you see that Rex is

perfectly well balanced even

with all the weight on the

wrong side of the machine. The

mechanical system has to be

light enough to be battery

powered yet strong enough to

carry a person and all the

loads that involves. I dare say

that as I push this button, my

brain is going to be competing

with this machine for control

of my muscles.

You feel like you're

surrendered to the machine. You

have to let your body just

fall, which I guess we normally

compensate that with walking

ourselves. In this case, you

have to let the machine do it

for you.

Next to the experts in

wearing a robot, I am a very

clumsy walker.

There is an emergency stop

button. Where is that? The red

one. Cool. Thanks guys.

With a price tag of more

than $100,000, Rex is still out

of reach for most. Work

continues to make the

exoskeleton cheaper, lighter

and faster. More than mobility

it offers a better quality of

life. The value of walking, the

value of standing up, family

and friends seeing me, like I

used to be and health benefits

and pain relief, it is just so

much in it, you can't put a

value on it. Priceless? Yeah,


The purring of the happy

cat. It is one of nature's

simple pleasures. Well, not

since the scientists came along

and discovered something a tad

disturbing. Apparently there

is not just one kind of pur,

there are two. Inside the

second one is a secret signal

so powerful it can bend a human

to its will. In order to film

authentic cat purrs I decided

to send an email across the ABC

and recruit a band of brave

volunteers. Right, troops, so,

what equipment have you got?

Digital camera. IPhone. Impressive. An

actual microphone. I had

created my own low-cost DIY ABC

natural history film unit. Now

I was to send them on a daring

mission. Go forth. Film your

cats purring. Go!

This is my theory, if I

clip the mic here, it should...

Take two.

We have asked them to film

their cats purring in two

situations. One, when they're

relaxed sitting on a lap. The

other when they want something.

Food. Or to get their owner

out of bed. Could you come

and do some purring

please. This may take some

time. Meanwhile, fortunately,

we have some purrs we prepared

earlier. I will play you two

different cat purrs and I want

you to rate how urgent or how

pleasant they sound.

Pleasant, I would say, five

out of seven. How urgent

sounding? Not very urgent.

2. The next pur... One. You

really don't like that pur. I

don't like that pur. That

sounds pretty urgent. It sounds

more like a rhino. These purrs

were supplied by the original

researcher Dr Karen McComb from

the UK. What is the difference?

Time to bring our DIY film

unit back from the field and

reveal what this is all about.

Was it easy? Not always.

First, we will play them the

purrs supplied by the UK

researchers. Can they pick the situation these purrs were

recorded in. (Cat purrs) You

want to make a call on

that. That is a relaxed pussy cat. You all think that?

Yes. Let's play the other

one. (Cat purrs) That is a

hungry pussy cat. A slight

sense of desperation with that

one. Correct. This second pur

has been termed a solicitation

pur. To the UK scientist found

it was consistently rated more

urgent and far less

pleasant. The question is why

is it so? We will have a look at these two different purrs

now. This is the relaxed

pur. (Plays pur) It is sort of

descending down as we get

higher in the frequency. Let's

listen to the wake up or food

pur. (Plays pur). I want you to

look at this. See this right

here, this peak, that is

sitting around 470, 480 hurts,

that is the hidden signal

inside the solicitation pur.

For a long time, it was a

mystery how the cat even makes

its pur. You see, normal voice

sounds are made by air passing

the vocal foldz but a cat is

too tiny to make a sound this

deep. - folds. To get this low

it should be the size of an

elephant. We now know how

cats do it and it is really

ingenius. Instead of passing

air through the vocal folds,

the cat can just twitch its

vocal folds independently. Here

is where it gets really clever.

What the UK research has

discovered is an additional

component. An extra voicing or

a cry, where the air is passed

up past the vocal folds while

the cat is still purring. They

call it the voiced

peak. Sitting between 300 and

600 hurts this voiced peak is

the same frequency as a baby's

cry. Effectively, inside the

solicitation pur is the buried

distress call of a human

baby. It is that hidden voiced

peak in the solicitation pur

that makes it his harmonic and

that is what drives the owner

mad and into action. One of

our team's cats filmed at

dinner time demonstrates this

perfectly. Look at that.

There is a massive voice peak

here at about 470 hurts and

that is the urgency. There you

go. That is how your cat is

manipulating you.

Thanks to all our volunteers

for their efforts to confer the

secret demand inside the pussy

cat's pur.

Yesterday, just 43 million

kilometres away Venus was

sliding between us and the sun.

But here at Sydney

observatory, so were plenty of

clouds. What are your chances

of seeing the transit today? I

don't think we will see

it. Next to nothing. I don't

expect to see very much at all

to be honest. Waiting for the

blue patch over there and we

will run.

Just after the transit of

Venus starts, the clouds part

and people get their first

look. Wow. Oh wow. It is a dot

and a spot within the sun. Can

you see it? I can see it. Wow

that is really cool. Hello

Venus! That is amazing. I can

see Venus just like a pea on

the edge of the huge golden

orb. It is remarkable to be

able to see a planet, a whole planet silhouetted against the

nearest star. In the past,

timing the transit from

different view points was the

key to measuring the universe.

Everybody knew the ratio of

the planets from the sun but they didn't know the exact

distance to any of them. This

was kind of like unlocking the

size of the solar system with

the biggest ruler. These days,

scientists study the transit

for very different reasons, as

Graeme Phillips finds out at

Macquarie University. Back in

Cook's day the the purpose of

observing the transit was to

work out how far the earth is

from the sun. This time around,

astronomers are trying to learn

about other star systems.

Specifically, about the

planets orbiting distant Suns.

They're called ex yo planets.

Carlos's day job is ex yo

planet hunting. For the search

he's building a new highly

sensitive instrument. It will

analyse the star's light

spectrum in incredible detail,

allowing tiny wobbles in the

star to be detected. We have

the star and the planet going

around the star. We all know

that the star is holding the planet in place but sometimes

it is hard to think that the

planet is also moving the star. The planet's gravity

tugs on the star, forcing the

star into that tiny inner

orbit. We have to be very

precise and if we are, we can actually see that movement and

if we analyse it properly, we

can see the planet. But

there's another way of

detecting exo planets. Watching

while they transit their

Suns. Just like a Venus

transit. Rather than measuring

a wobble, the locked star light

is detected. We can look at the

luminosity of the main star and

when we see that it decreases

and that happens periodically,

that could be a signature of a

planet around that star. It is

a very useful method. It can

give us more information than

just the presence of a

planet. The size of a planet

can be worked out from the

amount of light that is

blocked. The reason as ston

Messrs are so excited about the

transit of Venus is they get to

see a transit up close. We

know information on the sun

very well. We know information

on Venus very well. We can make calculations of what it would

look like to see the sun

through Venus. That information

can be applied to Suns and

exoplanets we don't know so

well leading to new

discoveries. One telescope that

will be keenly watching the

transit is Hubble, it has made

so many amaze ing discoveries

over its decades in space. But its highly sensitive

instruments could burn out if

pointed directly at the sun. The telescope will look at

the moon and look at the sunlight reflected on the moon

while the planet Venus is going

in front of it. That reflected

light will have passed through

Venus's atmosphere and will

carry telltale signs of the

gases encountered on the way.

Astronomers can work out the

make-up of Venus's skies from

the moon shine. That is

exciting because the same

technique could be used to find

out about exoplanet skies. Back

at Sydney observatory you don't

need a modern telescope to view

the sun This beautiful old

instrument is the oldest

working telescope in Australia.

It has been here since 1874 and

today it becomes one of the few

in the world to have observed

three Tran sits of Venus.

Typically you find a

magnificent instrument

unusable. It is usually an

exhibit but we have it here in

use today. We're doing some

cultural as strong my. The

transit inspires people of all

ages to pause and wonder about

our place in the solar

system. It is amazing to look

at the black spot and think

that is a whole planet. That is

the size of the earth and how

tiny we are compared to the

sun. Thanks very much to those

who sent us your photos. Here

are some of the best.

That is it for this transit.

You won't see Venus quite like

this for another century or so.

Wear taking a break at Catalyst

too. Just for a few weeks. We

will be back in August. In the

meantime, check out the web

site and stay in touch with us

on Facebook. See you soon. Closed Captions by CSI.

This Program Is Captioned Live.

Good evening, Craig Allen with an

Good evening, Craig Allen with an ABC News update. He smuggled himself

News update. He smuggled himself into the country now, he's managed to

sneak out of it, Captain Emad left

Canberra on Tuesday, 24 hours after

the ABC exposed him as a

people-smuggling king-pin. Federal

police were aware he was trying to

flee but didn't have enough evidence

to stop him. Opposition activists in

Syria claim there's been another

massacre. They've released footage

yet to be verified of what they say

are some of the 78 victims of a mass

killing by security forces in Hama

province. State television has

province. State television has blamed terrorists for the atrocity. Katy

Gallagher's threatening legal action

against the federal government over

asbestos clean-up costs. It'll cost

$100 million to decontaminate soil

$100 million to decontaminate soil at the Eastlake development near

Kingston. And a clean-up at the

Kingston. And a clean-up at the north western ponds project is already

costing taxpayers $30 million. The

waste was dumped before

self-government. But the federal

government's so far not budging. To

Canberra's weather - morning frost,

down to minus five with a sunny high

of 13 degrees. More news in an hour. Mark Draper. What about him? He's just been arrested. It's for murder.