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Summiteers review economic progress

Summiteers review economic progress

Sabra Lane reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:10:00

SHANE MCLEOD: To the United States where the north-eastern city of Pittsburgh has been locked down
as world leaders start their third G20 summit since the global financial crisis started.

US President Barack Obama is hosting a working dinner tonight as leaders review their stimulus
measures over the past six months and look forward to what further reforms are needed.

Beyond that dinner there's violence in the city's centre with police firing rubber bullets and tear
gas to suppress rock throwing protestors marching towards the venue.

Before heading in to the summit the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and Treasurer Wayne Swan stood
shoulder to shoulder, saying they wanted the G20 to remain the institution of choice in dealing
with the fallout from the world recession.

Joining me now to discuss the latest is our reporter Sabra Lane who's in Pittsburgh.

And Sabra, what did Mr Rudd and Mr Swan have to say about the summit and what they were hoping to
achieve?

SABRA LANE: Well Shane they were very careful to downplay expectations but they also really wanted
to highlight the fact that they say the world economic situation is still very fragile and that
there are some signs that, you know, it risks going, slipping backwards despite the stimulus
measures that are happening at the moment.

Mr Rudd says it's foolish to think that the global financial crisis is over. He says that the G20
had a critical role to play in breaking the fall of the financial meltdown through the $5 trillion
worth of spending that's happened really since the first G20 meeting after the Lehman Brother's
collapse just over 12 months ago.

He was asked about whether the countries will agree to cooperate on deciding an exit strategy to
ending the stimulus spending but the Prime Minister indicated that really first off the leaders
needed to sit down and sort out a blueprint first as to actually how that would happen, let alone
even entertain the idea of talking about when that might happen - a date for when that might
happen.

So he really did stress the point that they first needed to look at a framework for figuring out
how that was actually going to happen.

But he emphasised the points that we've been hearing a lot about the last 48 hours. He says he
wants to G20 to remain the body that takes care of putting forward these new regulations. And he
says that Australia has a critical role to be involved in this.

It's really a backhander to the Europeans who are arguing that the G20 is too large and
organisation and it should be pared down to just the G8. But Australia is not involved in that
group and as Mr Rudd points out it's better to have the G20 because it's more representative. It's
got Muslim nations and it also includes the developing nations of India and China.

So now let's listen to what Mr Rudd had to say.

KEVIN RUDD: The G20 provides Australia with a voice in the decisions of the management of the
global economy, which directly affects us - a seat at the top table for the first time, which we
have not had before at head of government level and a table where the decisions on the future of
the global economy are taken.

SHANE MCLEOD: The Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. And Sabra, one of the big issues up for discussion is
excessive executive pay.

SABRA LANE: Yes it is. It's a key issue at this summit. French President Nicolas Sarkozy really
wants strong regulation of salaries. Mr Rudd and Mr Swan say that the Financial Stability Board
which was given the task of reviewing this very point last April will tonight and tomorrow deliver
a report back to G20 leaders, pointing to some recommendations as to what they should take.

Earlier today Mr Swan said that G20 nations had, quote, "a steely resolve" to make sure that this
happens. Now let's listen to what he had to say at the press conference to Australian journalists
earlier today.

WAYNE SWAN: But I think that there will be a rigorous framework outlined which is very important
because some of the packages have encouraged very risky behaviour which goes to the very core of
some of the issues in the financial system that we've lived with the consequences of over the past
six to nine months.

So it's an important part of regulation and supervision. It's not the only part however but an
important part and we're looking forward to a discussion of the report back from the FSB this
evening and in the morning.

SHANE MCLEOD: And that's the Treasurer Wayne Swan.

Sabra Lane in Pittsburgh, Mr Rudd is now having dinner with the other G20 leaders. Is that the only
thing he's been doing in town?

SABRA LANE: No, not at all! As soon as he touched down he zipped along to Carnegie Mellon
University, one of the two universities here in Pittsburgh, and he gave an address to university
students.

He also had a look at the university's robotics centre and computer software centre. It's quite
renowned for those things.

He spoke at length to the students about climate change and again he sort of rehashed the comments
that he's been making over the past week about climate change; how you know the world really needs
to get together and sign on the dotted line in December.

But he also issued the students with a challenge, saying that he really wanted to see them take up
the roles that were needed to combat climate change. He wanted to see them come up with new
technologies for lower, for technology to create things that didn't emit so much carbon dioxide and
he wanted them to become lawyers to help, you know, take action against those who pollute.

But he also acknowledged that it wasn't a one way challenge.

KEVIN RUDD: Now I know it's not fair to ask people to do something without offering up something
yourself so I say to you that I'll be doing my absolute best here in Pittsburgh at the G20 and
beyond and at every opportunity in the lead up to Copenhagen to help build the political will and
consensus necessary to bring about a positive outcome for the planet come December.

SHANE MCLEOD: Kevin Rudd again.

And Sabra, the Prime Minister's been acknowledged for his bookishness by his hosts.

SABRA LANE: Yes indeed. When he got up to begin his speech he made a number of funny little quips
to the students which showed that he'd done his research on Pittsburgh.

But he also professed to being a nerd. And at the end of his speech, which went for about 30
minutes, the MC acknowledged in thanking Mr Rudd that comment. Now let's listen to what he had to
say to Mr Rudd.

GRANT OLIPHANT: Prime Minister, you really are a nerd. That's a compliment coming from Carnegie
Mellon.

SHANE MCLEOD: And that's Grant Oliphant and before that Sabra Lane in Pittsburgh travelling with
the Prime Minister.

Doubts G20 will deliver on promises

Doubts G20 will deliver on promises

Ashley Hall reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:14:00

SHANE MCLEOD: There's plenty riding on the outcome of this weekend's G20 summit.

As well as discussing financial market reforms there's hope the leaders will devise plans for
sustainable growth and dealing with climate change.

But the success of the meeting will rest on its outcomes and whether or not member countries carry
through on their commitments.

One analyst who doubts the summit is going lead to great changes is Fariborz Moshirian, a professor
of finance with the Australian School of Business at the University of New South Wales.

He's told Ashley Hall that while the G20 grouping is a better forum to get things done than the
United Nations or the International Monetary Fund, it still lacks teeth.

FARIBORZ MOSHIRIAN: What we need at the present time is more effective international institution
which has got executive power, which could ensure that international agreements could become part
of national laws and regulations.

For instance, I'll give you an example. Since the G20 summit in Washington DC the leaders committed
themselves to free trade. Now since the Washington meeting we have seen new protectionist measures.
Since the G20 summit in London according to the recent report from WTO 100 new protectionist
measures were introduced by the G20 group themselves.

In other words even if they committed themselves to free trade we are seeing more protectionism.
The Doha Round is not yet up and running and hence if this is the benchmark for the G20 we have to
say: can we do something better with the G20 to ensure that we have more effective international
fora?

ASHLEY HALL: The US has proposed a framework for sustainable and balanced growth. How hard will
that be to achieve?

FARIBORZ MOSHIRIAN: This is one of the challenges because the US would like to see China reduceS
her trade surplus, reduces if you like her massive foreign reserves. They want to see more flexi -
a more flexible labour market in Europe.

At the same time US itself should commit to a massive reduction in her trade, in her budget
deficit.

Now question here is, who is going to coordinate between the US, Europe and Asia to ensure that we
have what is called a balanced growth in the future?

And for that very reason we can see that China is reacting to this new framework because they don't
want basically the US or Europe or even the G20 to tell them how to run their foreign exchange
regime or their trade surpluses.

ASHLEY HALL: The US is also pushing for a new rule for bank capital as a way of reducing future
financial risk. How would that work? Would that work?

FARIBORZ MOSHIRIAN: Well this is one of the challenges of the G20 because the US is now pushing for
a new capital regime for banking system, whereas the Europeans would say: We have got good capital
adequacy in our banking system. What we need to have is a better system on bank bonuses.

And this is going to be an ongoing debate over the next year or so at the G20 forum.

ASHLEY HALL: So the next year or so. It's going to take that long to get some of these issues
nutted through?

FARIBORZ MOSHIRIAN: That is the very issue that we are talking about - the inadequacy of G20
because for instance Timothy Geithner is arguing that a new capital system that he's proposing
should be implemented by 2012 and he is looking for an agreement for 2010.

But we know that by 2012 global financial crisis might well be over and hence there will be less
willingness on the part of key players to come up with an international agreement.

ASHLEY HALL: Professor Fariborz Moshirian from the Australian School of Business at the University
of New South Wales speaking with Ashley Hall.

Gillard determined on workplace safety

Gillard determined on workplace safety

David Mark reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:18:00

SHANE MCLEOD: The Acting Prime Minister Julia Gillard says she's determined to push through reforms
to create national occupational health and safety laws.

She's dismissed concerns from the union movements that the laws will put people lives at stake.

Ms Gillard is meeting her state and territory counterparts in Sydney today to release the draft
laws and she's confident she'll persuade the Western Australian Treasurer Troy Buswell to sign up.

David Mark reports from Canberra.

DAVID MARK: Julia Gillard's goal is simplicity. She wants to replace Australia's many separate
occupational health and safety laws with one national law.

JULIA GILLARD: This is a reform the nation has tried to deliver for more than 30 years and it is a
reform that is important to national productivity and prosperity.

It's ridiculous to have businesses tied up in red tape and compliance because occupational health
and safety laws change at state borders. And it's ridiculous that workers in some parts of the
nation have different protections and different rights than workers in other parts of the nation.

DAVID MARK: Most of the states have agreed to the draft set of laws that will be released later
today, but not Western Australia.

TROY BUSWELL: There's a number of unresolved issues and until those issues are resolved to our
satisfaction we'd be very reluctant to participate in the national system.

DAVID MARK: Western Australia's Treasurer Troy Buswell says he supports the principle of uniform OH
and S but not at any cost.

TROY BUSWELL: We also were concerned that the union movement have as their goal to use occupational
safety and health as - really as a stalking horse to open up a new industrial front and we want to
make sure that that doesn't happen.

And also concerns that under the current model and the way it can be changed, you know the model
can be changed without necessarily the consent of all of the states.

DAVID MARK: But Julia Gillard won't be taking no for an answer. She wants every state and territory
on board.

JULIA GILLARD: Well I'm determined to deliver this reform and I'm determined to do it by persuading
state ministers including Minister Buswell of its merit.

DAVID MARK: She may eventually get the support of all the states but the union movement is another
story.

The Australian Council of Trade Unions is spending up on an ad campaign to voice its opposition to
the national laws.

(Excerpt from advertisement)

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MALE VOICEOVER: His life will be at risk.

FEMALE: See you honey!

MALE VOICEOVER: Her husband's life will be at risk.

CHILD: Mummy's home!

MALE VOICEOVER: His mum's life will be at risk...

(End excerpt)

DAVID MARK: The unions are particularly upset that the proposed laws don't include a right for
workers to prosecute businesses if they're injured.

JULIA GILLARD: What I would say to you is that when they look at the policy decisions that have
been taken at Workplace Relations Ministerial Council level they are for a set of model laws that
deliver enormous benefits for working people, including increasing the penalties and fines for
injuring someone at work.

DAVID MARK: But the ACTU's secretary Jeff Lawrence takes issue with that claim. He's using a report
released by Access Economics to back up his claim that the laws favour business over workers.

JEFF LAWRENCE: It's clear that even though there may be some improvements in some aspects of the
legislation in some states, that in a number of respects there are going to be less protections for
some people.

So I mean what needs to be put in place is a regime that deals with, you know, those areas of
disadvantage.

DAVID MARK: But Julia Gillard isn't prepared to guarantee that no worker in Australia will be worse
off under the new laws.

JULIA GILLARD: These are laws that take the features of laws in different places and combine them
into a model that aims to improve occupational health and safety at work.

DAVID MARK: So you're not willing to give that guarantee?

JULIA GILLARD: Well to the workers of New South Wales I'd say the penalties for injuring them at
work will be higher under these laws than they are now. That's a benefit.

DAVID MARK: Even so the ACTU's Jeff Lawrence is vowing to fight on.

JEFF LAWRENCE: If unions think that people are going to be disadvantaged and have less health and
safety protection then we'll continue to campaign about the issue.

SHANE MCLEOD: The secretary of the ACTU Jeff Lawrence ending David Mark's report.

Bikies enjoy legal win over Government

Bikies enjoy legal win over Government

Nance Haxton reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:22:00

SHANE MCLEOD: Bikies in South Australia have had a big win against the State Government. They've
successfully challenged anti-bikie laws in the Supreme Court.

The laws allowed for control orders to be placed on recognised members of motorcycle clubs,
preventing them from associating with one other. The Supreme Court has ruled that part of the
legislation is invalid.

The lawyers for one club, the Finks, had argued the orders were unconstitutional because
magistrates were given no choice but to impose them, as Nance Haxton reports.

NANCE HAXTON: It's a major victory for motorcycle clubs in South Australia against the new laws
targeting organised crime.

South Australia's Supreme Court was asked to rule on whether the control order section of South
Australia's Serious and Organised Crime Act was valid.

The State Government declared the Finks an outlawed organisation in May this year but lawyers for
the Finks argued that the control orders were unconstitutional because they took away the right of
the magistrate to decide.

In a split decision the Supreme Court judges ruled that part of the legislation invalid.

In light of the judgement the Adelaide Magistrates Court has dismissed seven control orders made
against Finks members under the legislation and three other applications for orders.

The Rebels bikie gang was widely tipped as the next gang to be targeted under the legislation.

A Rebel bikie who would not give his name said outside court that he was relieved by the judgement.

REBEL BIKIE: We were expecting to win because we know it's against the Constitution of Australia,
really. Everybody will stand up and fight for their rights, hey?

No, it's all about rights, not PR.

NANCE HAXTON: Lawyer for the Finks, Craig Caldicott, says the bikies are now exonerated.

CRAIG CALDICOTT: I think it's a great judgement for my clients. We've been vindicated. We've said
from day one that Section 14 of the Serious and Organised Crime Act is invalid. It's Draconian and
it's just basically un-Australian.

It helps the little guys. This is all about freedom of association. This is all about people being
about to mix and associate with anyone else that they like.

The law is invalid. They tried to go further than anyone else and that has proven to be wrong.

The cost of all of this is enormous. The amount of resources gone into the police department to do
all of this is enormous. They've stripped personnel from Major Crime. They've stripped personnel
from Drug and Organised Crime to enable them to do it.

This is, this is so they feel more vindicated marshalling people going up and down the streets than
going after serious crime.

NANCE HAXTON: A spokesman for South Australia's Attorney General Michael Atkinson says they are
taking advice on whether to appeal.

SHANE MCLEOD: Nance Haxton in Adelaide.

GM canola growing by the road

GM canola growing by the road

Di Bain reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:26:00

SHANE MCLEOD: A group of concerned famers in country New South Wales claims to have found
genetically modified canola plants growing on the side of the road, just metres from their non-GM
fields.

The farmers who want to remain GM free are worried their international reputation is being ruined
because the GM canola seeds could easily blow into their crops.

The company that produces most GM canola in Australia denies it's a breach of bio-security and says
the chance of the plants infiltrating the farms is low.

Di Bain reports.

DI BAIN: In southern New South Wales there's two types of canola growers, GM and non-GM.

It's been more than 18 months since the genetically modified crops were allowed to be cultivated in
New South Wales and tensions about contamination are mounting.

Thousands of tonnes of GM canola is being transported throughout southern farming country.

Gai Marshall whose farm is based in the Berrigan Shire says she's tested canola plants growing
along a 20-kilomtere stretch of the Riverina Highway and found they were nearly all genetically
modified plants.

GAI MARSHALL: The reason I was, I did test them was only just out of more than anything, just a
spur of the moment.

I was testing canola crops around in the vicinity of our farming properties and I had the test kits
with me and decided as I drove out to one of the properties, driving down the Riverina Highway in
the Berrigan Shire, that I'd just stop and test some of these large plants growing on the side of
the road to be three foot high.

And of the 20 test kits I did 19 of them were GM and one was non-GM.

DI BAIN: Gai Marshall is part of a group which call themselves concerned farmers. They've decided
to grow non-GM canola.

Another farmer Juliet McFarlane is concerned her canola crops will be contaminated by the GM canola
seed. She says losing her non-GM reputation would be a big economic issue.

JULIET MCFARLANE: They may certainly face possible loss of markets because no one's actually done
any market research in the last four or five years. They're just guessing that we won't lose
markets. They don't know that.

We would be liable for any false declaration even if it's made unknowingly. It leaves farmers in a
very vulnerable position. There's absolutely no insurance to cover you.

So yeah, it's an economic issue.

DI BAIN: There's now about 41,000 hectares of GM canola grown across New South Wales, Victoria and
Western Australia. It makes up about 2 to 3 per cent of Australia's total canola production.

Most of the modified seed is Monsanto's Roundup Ready canola. Company spokesman Tony May says the
growers' concerns are overstated.

TONY MAY: We have been made aware of that but we're not surprised. You know it really was taken
into account when the regulators allow the technology to be grown.

DI BAIN: If it's found on the side of the road, what's stopping it from blowing into the middle of
a paddock?

TONY MAY: It tends to remain quite localised. And you know as part of the introduction of the
technology there was a lot of studies went into investigating the weediness of canola. And they
found that, Roundup Ready canola, and they found that it was no more weedy or invasive than
conventional canola. It's unlikely that it's going to continue to re-establish itself and become,
you know, a weediness issue.

DI BAIN: So it's unlikely but it's still possible.

TONY MAY: Oh I guess the regulators assessed the risk as low so you know, it really is unlikely.

DI BAIN: He says protocols are in place to ensure grain is handled with care and much of it is
likely to be ultimately blended with non-GM seed by grain handlers.

The Minister for Primary Industries Ian Macdonald agrees with Monsanto. He says under European
Union standards farmers are allowed to have a small percentage of GM grain in their crop.

IAN MACDONALD: I think there's a lot of exaggeration here. I don't believe that it's springing up
everywhere on a volunteer basis. And remember even if it does occur on a volunteer basis, the
studies show that it doesn't persist and can be easily treated.

However you mu- the protocol that's in place allows for, for import into Europe for instance, up to
900 kilos of GM seed within seed that is designated non-GM. So that's 900 kilos out of 100 tonnes.
So the protocols are in place that cover the potential for adventitious behaviour and a few seeds
mixing in.

DI BAIN: Mr Macdonald says he hasn't seen the tests that Gai Marshall has conducted but any
complaints would be addressed by department representatives.

SHANE MCLEOD: Di Bain reporting.

Thai trial gives HIV hope

Thai trial gives HIV hope

Shane McLeod reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:30:00

SHANE MCLEOD: There's new hope in the scientific research community with a breakthrough in
developing a vaccine to protect against the virus that causes AIDS/HIV.

A trial of an experimental vaccine in Thailand has found it reduced the risk of contracting the
virus by almost a third.

More than 16,000 volunteers took part in the study. It involved a combination of two previously
ineffective vaccines, giving researchers around the world new hope that a vaccine against the virus
may actually be achievable.

Among them is Professor Andrew Grulich, the head of epidemiology and prevention programs at the
University of New South Wales national HIV research centre.

ANDREW GRULICH: Look, it really is a substantial breakthrough because research in the HIV vaccine
field of late has been really very pessimistic. The recent studies in this field have been entirely
negative and have led to speculation that an HIV vaccine may actually be impossible.

So what this result adds, while it's not a tremendously strong result, it really reinvigorates hope
in the field of HIV vaccine research.

SHANE MCLEOD: What have the researchers done in this trial that they haven't done before?

ANDREW GRULICH: Well look this was a very large-scale trial of a vaccine strategy in Thailand. They
combined two very different vaccines. The intervention included part of the coat of HIV, if you
like, a protein called gp120, as well as a bird virus, canary pox, producing HIV proteins. And
those two were combined together.

And the rather surprising this was that those two trailed on their own have previously shown not
much hope in preventing HIV infection. So perhaps it's some aspect of this combination that's led
to this result.

SHANE MCLEOD: Do they have any theory on why this has worked where they haven't separately?

ANDREW GRULICH: Look we don't have the theories yet. It's important to point out that we don't know
the full results yet, that these results have just been released at a press conference and haven't
been reported scientifically yet.

That will happen next month and there will be tremendous scientific interest in finding out the
full results and particularly in teasing out why this vaccine might be working.

SHANE MCLEOD: In terms of the size of this study it involved 16,000 people in some of the highest
risk areas in Thailand. Is it enough of a sample size to be fairly confident about the results?

ANDREW GRULICH: Well we're told by the researchers that this, almost one-third reduction is a
statistically significant reduction but the details of that have not yet been reported. So we need
to wait until those results are reported next month to be entirely certain about that.

But nevertheless a significant reduction is something we have never seen in HIV vaccine research,
so that's really why this result is creating such excitement.

SHANE MCLEOD: And a vaccine for HIV, it would seem to be the holy grail in epidemiology. Is it
something that scientists have thought was possible?

ANDREW GRULICH: Well you know this goes back a long way. And in fact in the mid-1980s, a United
States secretary of health famously said that she thought that they would have an HIV vaccine
within two years, so there's been hope because of course we have vaccines against so many
infectious agents.

But really, since the mid-1980s the 25-odd years of research have been mostly very disappointing.
We've seen some promise in experiments in monkeys but really no evidence until this one that a
vaccine might be protective in humans.

SHANE MCLEOD: And if a vaccine becomes I guess more possible, does that have an impact on efforts
to prevent people contracting HIV?

ANDREW GRULICH: Well look one thing we need to be very certain about that even if these results are
completely confirmed, a 30 per cent effective vaccine is not a lot of help because it's only 30 per
cent effective.

If people then feel that they are protected against HIV and take more risky behaviour then it's
quite possible that increasing risk behaviour would overwhelm the protective effect of the vaccine
and actually lead to an increase in infection.

So this is not the end of the road by any means but it's really opening the door to hope, if you
like. And scientists in this field will be watching the presentation of these results in the next
month with really great interest.

SHANE MCLEOD: And hearing this news, what sort of mood do you think there will be in the research
area now?

ANDREW GRULICH: Well you know the vaccine research of the last three years or so has been very
pessimistic because the last major trial in this area, called the STEP trial was of a vaccine that
looked very promising in the laboratory and was entirely ineffective in humans and in fact in a
subset may have even increased the risk of HIV infection.

So this will change the mood from a rather pessimistic one to an optimistic one I hope, depending
of course on the full presentation of these results which we'll be keenly waiting on.

SHANE MCLEOD: Professor Andrew Grulich from the National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical
Research at the University of New South Wales.

Lawyers look to lighten the load

Lawyers look to lighten the load

Meredith Griffiths reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:34:00

SHANE MCLEOD: Like many people in a competitive profession, lawyers don't like to show weakness.

But last night about 200 of them crammed into a boardroom in Sydney to hear what the nation's five
biggest firms are doing to try to combat depression among their staff.

Research has found that lawyers are four times more likely to suffer depression than the rest of
us.

That study and last night's panel were commissioned by a foundation set up in memory of a young
lawyer who killed himself five years ago.

Meredith Griffiths reports.

MEREDITH GRIFFITHS: Tristan Jepson's parents are still coming to terms with their son's suicide
when he was 26. They've set up a foundation in his name and in 2007 asked the nation's biggest law
firms what they would do to help make their staff more mentally resilient.

Now it's time for the firms to report back. The managing partner of Freehills, Peter Butler, says
they've been working together to develop a training course.

PETER BUTLER: Every lawyer in these firms would go through a program very early in the time they
started and deal with three things.

One is give them some information about anxiety and depression; secondly to give practical ways to
manage stress and anxiety; and thirdly to give them techniques for building personal resilience,
including cognitive and physical strategies.

MEREDITH GRIFFITHS: Stuart Fuller from Mallesons Stephen Jaques says it's set up a health and
wellbeing program

STUART FULLER: It's through health checks, it's through gym memberships, it's through yoga and
Pilates. So at any time in the firm if you get to 5 o'clock at night, there's people walking around
in Pilates gear. I find it quite you know, slightly threatening.

MEREDITH GRIFFITHS: The partners all said they're committed to creating environments where people
feel they can discuss mental health issues without being stigmatised.

But Michael Rose from Allens Arthur Robinson says that means overcoming entrenched attitudes, like
young lawyers thinking they're immortal.

MICHAEL ROSE: Older practitioners, they understand that depression is a real thing. But they often
don't accept that it's a communal thing as opposed to a private thing.

They don't necessarily accept that it's an issue that belongs in the wider community of our firm,
as opposed to in the private lives of the people who are affected.

MEREDITH GRIFFITHS: But when it came time for questions it was clear not all the good intentions
are trickling down.

This young lawyer said she was impressed with all the initiatives but she's yet to see them.

YOUNG LAWYER: Recently, my brother is suffering from leukaemia and I had to take two weeks annual
leave in the new financial year to go and look after his law firm. And I got into trouble because I
was under budget.

MEREDITH GRIFFITHS: Last night's discussion panel only looked at the big firms. It didn't address
the specific pressures faced by barristers or ask what smaller firms can do.

But Tristan Jepson's father, George Jepson, says the firms have made a good start in tackling a
problem that won't be fixed in the short term.

SHANE MCLEOD: Meredith Griffiths reporting.

Brits parade buried booty

Brits parade buried booty

Felicity Ogilvie reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:38:00

SHANE MCLEOD: A cheap metal detector has led to the discovery of England's largest stash of buried
treasure.

The booty - as archaeologists are calling the treasure - is worth at least seven figures.

It was found buried in a humble farming field in Staffordshire in central England. Almost six
kilograms of gold and silver have been unearthed from the stash.

It dates from the Dark Ages and could be the treasure of kings past.

Felicity Ogilvie reports.

FELICITY OGILVIE: After years of searching for buried treasure Terry Herbert's dreams came true in
the field of a friend's farm in Staffordshire.

TERRY HERBERT: Shock! All this gold. Who put it here? This is what metal detectors dream of is
finding stuff like this. But the vast amount there is just unbelievable.

FELICITY OGILVIE: The stash of Anglo Saxon treasure is so impressive it overwhelmed the local finds
officer, Duncan Slarke.

DUNCAN SLARKE: I got a nickname from the finder, Duncan Wow Wow afterwards, because all I could say
was "wow".

Now that doesn't sound very professional. And it doesn't feel very professional. But this was
uncharted territory and the like of it may never be seen again.

FELICITY OGILVIE: Archaeologists are excited too. Ian Wykes:

IAN WYKES: Well, I'd seen some of the photos that the finder had taken. But it was only really when
I saw the stuff in the ground that you know, there's bits of gold glittering in the soil. It really
was quite overwhelming, actually.

It's the sort of thing you've always dreamed about finding when you were a kid, you know? It's why
you become an archaeologist in the first place. And all of a sudden you were sort of living that
childhood dream. It was just brilliant.

FELICITY OGILVIE: The bright treasure is believed to have been buried in the Dark Ages sometime in
the seventh or eighth century.

Archaeologist Kevin Leahy says the stash contains 1500 pieces of gold and silver and most of the
objects used to be weapons.

KEVIN LEAHY: It's mostly sword fittings which is quite incredible. There are also strips of gold
decorated with garnets which as yet we haven't been able to identify, strange little gold snakes.

And the other thing that's quite interesting is what isn't there. There are no feminine dress
fittings. There are no brooches or pendants. And there are no large buckles, which are about the
most common masculine fitting - gold object - in Anglo Saxon male graves. And they're all absent.

FELICITY OGILVIE: Basically they've unearthed what Ian Wykes calls war booty.

IAN WYKES: I think what's very significant about this find is that the history we have for the
time, which is so little, infers it was a very, very war-like time. Finding hundreds of items
relating to shields and to helmets and to swords would really seem to attest that this was truly a
very, very bloody time.

And it's probably not over-exaggerating to call this plunder and booty.

FELICITY OGILVIE: Booty that archaeologists believe belonged to a pagan king.

IAN WYKES: Some of the items which might actually be slightly later would certainly seem to be
Christian, certainly two crosses, one of which seems to have been deliberately broken and the other
seems to have been deliberately folded in on itself. So it may be as simple to say that this is a
pagan king who's taking religious artefacts and sort of stopping them being religious artefacts.

FELICITY OGILVIE: So just how much is all this buried treasure worth?

Dr Roger Bland is from the British Museum.

ROGER BLAND: We just can't give the answer to that because we really don't know actually. Until the
valuation process has been gone through it's really impossible to say.

There are some unique objects in here that are going to be very difficult to value. But I think we
are reasonably confident. We feel we can say it's a seven-figure sum.

FELICITY OGILVIE: Terry Herbert is ready to cash in on his find.

TERRY HERBERT: It's been more fun than winning the lottery. People laugh at metal detectorists.
I've had people go past and they go "Beep beep! He's after pennies".

No, we're out there to find this sort of stuff. And it is there.

FELICITY OGILVIE: The stash he found has well and truly set the record for being the biggest hoard
of buried treasure unearthed in Britain. Previous finds have contained only half as much gold.

SHANE MCLEOD: Felicity Ogilvie reporting.

Dust storm prompts radiation concerns

Dust storm prompts radiation concerns

Kirsten Aiken reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:42:00

SHANE MCLEOD: The proposed expansion of the massive Olympic Dam uranium mine is facing challenges
on a number of fronts.

Locals around Whyalla in South Australia are worried about the impact of a proposed desalination
plant to supply water for the project.

Now an Academy Award nominated documentary maker is sounding alarm bells about the risks from
radioactive dust from the planned expansion.

David Bradbury claims authorities should take a closer look at BHP Billiton's plan for the disposal
of radioactive tailings in light of this week's major dust storm, which originated in South
Australia before blowing across to major population centres on the Eastern Seaboard.

He's warning the planned uranium mine expansion poses health and environmental threats the likes of
which Australia has never before seen.

Kirsten Aiken reports.

KIRSTEN AIKEN: The spectacular yet devastating dust storm has been the subject of much discussion,
a lot of it centring on responsibility.

Farmers have come in for special attention after leading Australian scientist Peter Cosier claimed
poor land management has made Australia less resistant to dust storms.

But now a celebrated documentary maker who has spent much of his career researching nuclear power
says the dust event exposes massive health and environmental risks associated with the planned
expansion of BHP Billiton's uranium mine in South Australia.

DAVID BRADBURY: It will have much major, more major impacts than the James Hardie asbestos fallout
that we had over the last 40 or 50 years.

It will have a much bigger impact than the Maralinga atomic tests that the British chief scientist
assured us would not have an impact on our population and women in their 50s are now paying for it
with breast cancers.

KIRSTEN AIKEN: David Bradbury says he holds grave concerns about BHP Billiton's ability to contain
the 70 million tonnes of radioactive tailings he says will be dumped at the mine site each year.

DAVID BRADBURY: The open cut mine will be three kilometres wide, four kilometres long and one
kilometre deep and they propose to bring the tailings, the rock ore, up from under the ground and
dump the tailings at the mine site.

Given the dust storms of this week, which ABC TV News said originated from Woomera - which is just
right next door to Olympic Dam Roxby - they could blow those tailings across the face of Australia.

The prevailing winds traditionally go east and as we saw dramatically this week, dumping itself on
our dense population centres.

KIRSTEN AIKEN: South Australia's Mineral Resources Development Minister Paul Holloway acknowledges
dust could be a problem for the mine.

But just as BHP Billiton begins the long task of addressing 4000 public submissions on the proposed
environmental impact of the project the Minister Paul Holloway has declared dust is an issue which
can be resolved.

As for the company at the centre of the Olympic Dam project a BHP Billiton spokesman says the
company will not debate issues associated with the uranium mine's expansion in the media.

Documentary maker David Bradbury says the company must not ignore the issue of radioactive tailings
in its revised Environment Impact Statement.

DAVID BRADBURY: It takes precious little amounts of radiation, once inside the body, to actually
trigger cancer and birth defects. And these genetics can be passed on to the children's children
generation as well.

Now what the science is saying is that we're living under a false regime of our public health
authorities are telling us is a safe level - inverted commas on "safe level" - of radiation that we
can be exposed to, not only miners but the general population.

Because once inside the body the alpha radiation - and it's alpha radiation we're dealing here in
the case of the tailings dust that is going to be dumped at Roxby, and the radon gas that's
released when they mine uranium as well.

Alpha radiation inside the body has a hitting power of 20 times that of other forms of radiation -
gamma and beta radiation in particular.

KIRSTEN AIKEN: BHP Billiton is expected to lodge its revised Environment Impact Statement next
year.

SHANE MCLEOD: Kirsten Aiken reporting.

Pam in Fashion Week cover-up

Pam in Fashion Week cover-up

Kerri Ritchie reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:46:00

SHANE MCLEOD: It's Fashion Week in New Zealand but across the Tasman it's someone's lack of
clothing that has everyone talking.

American actress Pamela Anderson has been flown to Auckland to be the event's star attraction.

But some of the country's most fashionable are a bit bewildered by the choice, especially after Ms
Anderson fronted her press conference wearing nothing but a scarf.

New Zealand correspondent Kerri Ritchie reports.

(Baywatch theme "I'll be there")

KERRI RITCHIE: I'll be there. That's exactly what former Baywatch babe Pamela Anderson said when
the publicist for New Zealand's Fashion Week invited her to Auckland.

She got a free first class plane ticket and the promise of as much champagne as she could drink.

Ms Anderson arrived at her first public appearance fashionably late.

PAMELA ANDERSON: You guys just wanted us to be late so we could drink more champagne, which we did.

(Laughter)

KERRI RITCHIE: Pamela Anderson's outfit was a bit of a risk. She'd wrapped a hot pink scarf around
herself and spent the entire press conference holding it together at her chest.

PAMELA ANDERSON: Where's the rugby players?

(Loud cheering)

Don't you guys have a good rugby team? We hear they're hot, too. Where are they?

KERRI RITCHIE: Joined by her fashion designer pal Richie Rich, Pamela Anderson is in Auckland to
flog her own range of clothing which not surprisingly consists mainly of swim suits.

The 42-year-old told journalists that her pieces are eco-friendly because she's "all about" animal
rights.

PAMELA ANDERSON: Would you like a vegetarian appetiser? Without the mueslying?

KERRI RITCHIE: I think she means mulesing.

RICHIE RICH: Yeah, don't hurt the sheep. We are upset about that.

PAMELA ANDERSON: Yeah, no sheep or pig hurting.

KERRI RITCHIE: Many New Zealanders are a bit baffled why Pamela Anderson was invited to be a VIP
guest at their biggest fashion event of the year.

Ms Anderson is known for her lack of clothes. She made it pretty clear at the press conference that
she doesn't take fashion seriously.

PAMELA ANDERSON: Well I mean I think I'd rather be naked than wear even a bikini.

KERRI RITCHIE: But one thing's for sure, Fashion Week media conferences in New Zealand have never
attracted so many men.

VOX POP: And I've loved watching her, growing up and stuff. She's cool.

KERRI RITCHIE: But not everyone is impressed.

Denise L'Estrange Corbet is an Auckland based fashion designer.

DENISE L'ESTRANGE CORBET: You know, Pamela Anderson is Pamela Anderson. So I guess none of us
really expected her to wear very much anyway. And I believe she turned up in a scarf for her press
meeting which is you know, great.

But really I mean, she hasn't got a lot of clothes I suppose, after the red swimsuit.

KERRI RITCHIE: Her label World will be 21 next year but Denise L'Estrange Corbet isn't taking part
in Fashion Week. She doesn't get along with one of the event's managers.

She says getting Pamela Anderson over was a very odd decision.

DENISE L'ESTRANGE CORBET: The point of Fashion Week is that we sell our product to overseas buyers.
They don't come to sell their things to us. (Laughs)

And it's just a PR stunt. I mean that's what it is. Get Pamela Anderson over. All the media are
just going to go wild and want to photograph her and talk about it. And it's really that.

I think the clothes are just a very small part of her being here. It's Pamela Anderson the enigma
that everybody wants to see, and you know - the huge breasts, are they really real and do they
stand up on their own?

I think the money would have been better spent bringing really great buyers out from overseas who
could then buy the New Zealand designers product and take it back to their stores.

But I would have hoped that we could have had some, you know, proper buyers and maybe more
international media to cover the event and see what New Zealand designers do. That's where the
money should be placed.

Because I'm sure Pamela wasn't cheap. (Laughs)

KERRI RITCHIE: No, what's the rumour about how much she cost?

DENISE L'ESTRANGE CORBET: I don't know how much it would be but I can imagine it ain't $2.50.

KERRI RITCHIE: A spokeswoman for New Zealand Fashion Week says Pamela Anderson will not receive a
big cheque. She's just getting free flights and accommodation.

The spokeswoman also denied the actress is the star attraction. She said Pamela Anderson is really
just like any other designer.

This is Kerri Ritchie in Auckland reporting for The World Today.

Melbourne in meltdown mode over GF 2009

Melbourne in meltdown mode over GF 2009

Alison Caldwell reported this story on Friday, September 25, 2009 12:50:00

SHANE MCLEOD: There are just 24 hours until the first bounce in the AFL Grand Final.

Saint Kilda and Geelong are as ready as two teams can be and the fans are beside themselves,
rather, with excitement.

The centre of Melbourne is a sea of red, white and black interspersed with the odd dash of blue and
white.

It's been 12 years since the Saints have been in a grand final and 43 years since they won; while
for Geelong fans are desperately wanting the team to make amends for last year's heartbreak.

The forecast for the weather isn't too good. A storm is predicted to hit Melbourne tomorrow
afternoon.

Alison Caldwell reports.

(Music: "Up There, Cazaly")

ALISON CALDWELL: The centre of Melbourne is buzzing with grand final anticipation.

Thousands of people dressed in their teams' colours line the footpaths, with Collins Street a sea
of red, white and black, and plenty of blue and white.

BROADCASTER: St Kilda road blocked at the Arts Centre - now that could be what's causing our
dramas. Kingsway and Queens...

ALISON CALDWELL: This morning traffic brought the city to a standstill.

Peter Schwab is the CEO of the AFL in Victoria. He played for Hawthorn in the 80s and he says
today, Grand Final Eve, is an event in itself.

PETER SCHWAB: Oh on the day it's just a marvellous build up. It really comes for a few weeks I
believe. Victoria and Melbourne in particular is obsessed by the game at all levels and that's even
community footy right through.

But when you come down to the second-last day on a Friday and there's a 100,000 people in the city,
most of them either wearing colours of the two teams that are playing or at least very, very
interested in the two teams that are playing, I just think it's a wonderful part of Melbourne and
being involved in this city.

I was involved 20-odd years ago and it was, you could sense the anticipation then. But it's nowhere
near what it's become. And it's one of those things about Melbourne as I said that's just so
important to the culture and the feel about the city.

ALISON CALDWELL: Grand Final Eve is one of the busiest days of the year for the home of the final,
the MCG. Stephen Gough is the CEO of the Melbourne Cricket Club.

STEPHEN GOUGH: Very, very hectic at the moment as you can imagine. The ground is in great
condition. It's looking really good.

We're comfortable with whatever the weather brings us but we're hoping that it will remain fine, at
least during the game.

ALISON CALDWELL: Grand finalists can have access to the MCG in the lead up to the final for a last
minute training run. But this year Stephen Gough says neither team has done so.

STEPHEN GOUGH: This year it's quite unusual, neither team took up the option.

GREG WESTAWAY: Yes, quite nervous - excited probably more than I am nervous, yeah.

ALISON CALDWELL: Greg Westaway is the president of the St Kilda Football Club. He admits he's
slightly superstitious.

GREG WESTAWAY: No I've got a little bit of a superstition.

My wife, when in England on my 60th birthday bought me some cufflinks in Billington Arcade. And
I've worn them to every game this year and I'm not going to wear them anymore, so... (Laughs)

I'll have them on on Saturday.

FRANK COSTA: And when he's not looking, I'll pinch it. (Laughs)

ALISON CALDWELL: Geelong's president Frank Costa says he's confident his team will emerge
victorious.

FRANK COSTA: Only because we've finally got our top players back and we've had a lot injuries over
the last half of the season.

We've got them all back at the critical time and they've just run into form and I think the way
they finished last week against Collingwood gives me the confidence that we can go on with it.

ALISON CALDWELL: But after waiting for 43 years, St Kilda is the sentimental favourite to win the
final. Barry Breen kicked the winning point for St Kilda in 1966.

BARRY BREEN: I just think they have to take advantage of the moment that they have and play the way
they have all year. History doesn't mean a lot, whether you've played in the Grand Final prior or
whatever it is. It's now and it's how you play on Saturday - this Saturday - that is going to make
the difference, not what happened last year or 43 years ago.

ALISON CALDWELL: But Cats fans are hoping Brownlow medallist Gary Ablett junior will help bring
home the ultimate prize.

GARY ABLETT: (Screams in the background) We're confident, we know we've got the talent and the
ability to do it, but, you know, it's whether we put it together on the day as a team and we've
just to make sure we you know we really concentrate on what we're going to do and stay focussed
and, yeah.

SHANE MCLEOD: Geelong's Gary Ablett ending that report from Alison Caldwell.