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Protester dies as G20 leaders gather to fight the financial storm

Reporter: Eleanor Hall

ELEANOR HALL: We go first to London where a protester has died during a day of demonstrations as
world leaders gathered in the UK for the G20 summit.

Police tried to resuscitate the man but came under a hail of bottles as the protests against the
financial system turned violent. At one stage, about 4,000 protesters gathered outside the Bank of
England in the centre of London, while others shattered windows of a nearby branch of the Royal
Bank of Scotland.

(Sounds of protesters)

ELEANOR HALL: And that is the sound of protesters outside the G20 meeting in London. And there
appear to be more disputes within the summit. The French president, Nicholas Sarkozy, has
threatened to walk out if the G20 leaders don't come up with real solutions to the global
recession.

The British Prime Minister Gordon Brown and host of the summit, is insisting that the disagreements
over government stimulus packages are minor and US President Barack Obama is calling on all
participants to show leadership.

But while they are playing down the divisions, many of the political leaders at the G20 summit are
also attempting to dampen expectations about what it can achieve. Michael Fullilove is the director
of global issues at the Lowy Institute and he spoke to me a short time ago about the diplomatic and
political manoeuvring at the G20.

Michael Fullilove, this is Barack Obama's first official trip as US President. How important is it
for him that his G20 meeting be seen as a success?

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: I don't think the whole weight of the G20 falls on the shoulders, the slim
shoulders of Barack Obama. He is going to be around for a long time. He wants it to be perceived as
a success but the responsibility I think is shared with other leaders, in particular Gordon Brown.

I think what it is an interesting test of is whether Obama's enormous popularity can be converted
into leverage. He is more popular with European publics than most European leaders. He is linked by
his father to Africa, by his middle name to the Islamic world, by his childhood to Asia. He is very
popular around the world but can he convert that into actual assistance on the part of those
countries' leaders to share burdens with the United States and to go along with his policies. This
will be the first test of his ability to do that.

ELEANOR HALL: So to what extent does that set him up for a fall? I mean how much pressure is on him
to generate unity out of this meeting?

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: I don't think he is seen as the second coming and I think people recognise that
it is very difficult to get agreement at enormous, broadly based international summits like this.

It is not all down to Obama. He wants it to be a success but I don't think in the end this is make
or break for Obama in the way for example that it is for Gordon Brown.

ELEANOR HALL: How badly would it reflect on both Barack Obama and Gordon Brown if the French
president Nicholas Sarkozy were to carry out his threat and walk out?

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: I would be amazed if Sarkozy walked out and I think if he did, it would reflect
more poorly on Sarkozy than it would on Brown or Obama. But he won't because Sarkozy likes Obama.
He was rooting for Obama. They are kindred spirits in a way, they are both energetic celebrities
with famous and beautiful wives.

I don't believe this is the beginning of a Chirac-Bush relationship. I think Sarkozy wants
attention and he wants to get his way on certain issues such as the financial regulation but I
would be amazed if Sarkozy were to walk out of the conference. It would not be in his political
interest or in France's national interest.

ELEANOR HALL: Can Barack Obama or indeed Gordon Brown portray this G20 meeting as a success if
there is no significant agreement on dealing with the global economic crisis?

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: Well, I think the expectation management has begun. I think everybody is aware
of the divergence - that the Europeans want greater regulation of the financial industries, the
banks and hedge funds and so on, than some of the Anglo-sphere countries. They are also
interestingly arguing against an Anglo-American push for more financial stimulus which is something
of a historical reversal.

So I think everybody knows where the lines of division are but I think they will still come
together and put out a communique which is relatively strong. It is not going to solve all these
issues. It will shelve some of them but I think it will be enough for people to claim credit.

ELEANOR HALL: Now you say a lot is at stake for Gordon Brown. What is at stake for him this week?

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: Well, he is at the opposite end of the arc from Obama. This is Obama's first
major overseas trip at the very beginning of a promising presidency. For Brown this is potentially
the last major meeting that he hosts as the British Prime Minister, the last throw of the dice for
him.

The British economy is in very poor shape which reflects poorly on Brown who made his name as the
'Iron Chancellor of the Exchequer'. The British polls are down; the British people are even more
negative than usual.

So, on top of that they are now faced with a $40-million bill for the security at this summit so I
think there is a lot more at stake for Brown than there is for Obama.

ELEANOR HALL: Now Australia's Prime Minister Kevin Rudd seems to be feted by the leaders in both
the UK and the US. What do you make of his prominence in the lead-up to this G20?

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: I think it is an impressive performance from Rudd. He is engaged in ideas-based
diplomacy. He is obviously completely across his brief. I think he takes an expansive view of
Australia's interests and Australia's role in the world and that will be a key debating point in
the future of Australian foreign policy.

A lot of conservatives are saying for example that he is trying to do too much. That he is Mr
Everywhere. He has got views on everything from Chinese representation at the IMF to nuclear
weapons to the Security Council and so on and he is losing sight of core Australian interests.

ELEANOR HALL: Isn't there a risk he could be seen as overreaching and being a little bit too
ambitious about Australia's role in the world?

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: There is always a risk of that. At the moment I think it is refreshing to see
somebody who is right in the middle of things and I think that is one point that strikes me very
much this week, Eleanor, how quickly Australia's position has changed.

It is only a couple of years ago that we were locked out of this kind of economic and financial
diplomacy which was all done at the G8 level. Now we are at the heart of it. That is not all down
to Kevin Rudd. It is also down to Peter Costello who worked very hard to elevate the G20 as a forum
for finance ministers.

What Rudd has done is take the ball that Costello passed him and run with it and work hard to
elevate the G20 to a leaders' summit as well and then to be right in the thick of the mix.

ELEANOR HALL: Michael Fullilove, thanks very much for joining us.

MICHAEL FULLILOVE: Thank you Eleanor.

ELEANOR HALL: That's Michael Fullilove, the director of global issues at the Lowy Institute.

Employer confidence hits new low

Reporter: Sue Lannin

ELEANOR HALL: As the world's leaders meet in London, back home employer confidence has hit a new
low.

A survey by the recruitment company, Hudson, shows that confidence fell for the fifth quarter in a
row to the lowest level in 10 years. The survey of more than 6,000 employers found that 18 per cent
of them plan to lay off staff over the next few months.

While another survey of chief executives says that more than half think the economy will return to
normal next year, Federal Treasurer Wayne Swan says that unemployment will rise beyond the
Government's previous estimate of 7 per cent in 2010.

Hudson's chief executive for Australia and New Zealand, Mark Steyn told finance reporter, Sue
Lannin, that he thinks unemployment could rise to 9 per cent next year.

MARK STEYN: The great uncertainty that we are seeing in the marketplace is driving the declining
confidence. This is a forward-looking projection - it is looking out to Q2 this year so basically
from April through to June this year and it is the uncertainty about, you know, the forward
projection about what is going to happen there.

SUE LANNIN: Which states are the worst?

MARK STEYN: The biggest decline we've seen this quarter has been in the two resources states and
really that has brought Queensland and WA back into line with the rest of the country. For the
confidence in Queensland and WA has dropped 14 per cent this quarter. Year on year, Queensland is
down 37 per cent in line with the national average. Year on year Western Australia is down 48 per
cent.

These two states with the lowest confidence overall are our two biggest states. New South Wales
with negative hiring intentions of 1.1 per cent overall and Victoria which has moved into the
negative territory for the first time at -2.7 per cent.

SUE LANNIN: Now the Federal Treasurer Wayne Swan says unemployment will rise above the Government's
latest forecast of 7 per cent next year. How high do you think it will go?

MARK STEYN: I think, you know, what you are seeing in the unemployment figures actually masks what
is happening in the permanent space. I would say at this stage we are predicting unemployment to be
somewhere between seven-and-a-half and nine-and-a-half per cent by the end of the year.

SUE LANNIN: In the latest job figures we saw a rise in part-time jobs but a fall in full-time jobs
so do you expect that trend to continue?

MARK STEYN: Absolutely and there is a couple of things driving it. It is obviously, people who have
lost their jobs are taking any work they can and more often than not that is contracting or
temporary work.

We have also seen a return to the workforce of our aging population and those that have been
impacted by the decline in their superannuation balances.

In addition we are seeing partners in a relationship returning to the workforce in a part-time
capacity given the uncertainty about the primary income-earners' job security.

SUE LANNIN: You say that sacking workers is not the only choice in a downturn. Do you think that
too many employers see redundancies as an easier option?

MARK STEYN: I think, you know given the uncertainty and the volatility in the market, it is a very
fine balancing act.

On the one hand organisations are absolutely looking to reduce costs to reflect what is happening
in terms of their forward outlook, what is happening in terms of the orders. You know, they have
got to right-size their business. A primary responsibility is to maintain the health of the
organisation that they are responsible for. They are also looking at driving productivity.

On the other hand retaining talented employees is an absolutely key challenge for them. Building
the leadership capability they need to see them through these tough times and maintaining the
morale and focus of their staff to get through these difficult and uncertain times is a key
challenge.

What we can say and what we're absolutely sure of is that the fundamentals underpinning Australia's
long-term talent shortage haven't gone away.

SUE LANNIN: There are reports today of a third stimulus package as well as a plan to help small
business in the Federal Budget. Will that give employers more confidence?

MARK STEYN: People are being very cautious at the moment. They are adopting a wait-and-see
approach. They are waiting to see what happens in the interbank lending market and once credit
starts to free up.

Once that happens then you will start to see potentially more investment but I don't see that
necessarily happening through the short-term stimulus package.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Mark Steyn, the chief executive of Hudson Australia New Zealand. He was
speaking to Sue Lannin.

Good news on the trade front

Reporter: Stephen Long

ELEANOR HALL: Well now for a change to some good economic news. Australia has achieved a trade
surplus of more than $2-billion. And the slump in exports that had dogged the economy appears to
have stopped, at least for now.

Joining me with the details is economics correspondent Stephen Long. So Stephen, take us through
these trade numbers.

STEPHEN LONG: Well they are surprisingly positive Eleanor. The market economists, most of whom once
again got it wrong, you might as well rely on a fortune teller, were tipping, the medium forecast
was for an increase in the surplus of about $700-million after seasonal adjustment - slicing and
dicing for the seasonal factors.

And instead we got $2.1-billion surplus in February. Now if that was all driven just by a collapse
in consumption then we might have a problem Houston, but instead we have seen some tentative signs
of a turnaround in exports.

Exports had fallen 10 per cent since the peak and they have been falling since November but this
month they rose by a small amount mainly because of rural goods from the farm. Very, very small
increase in mineral exports but any increase in exports given what we are seeing out there is good
news.

ELEANOR HALL: How much of this $2-billion surplus though, is driven by a collapse in imports as
consumption wanes?

STEPHEN LONG: Well, there is some weird one-offs in these numbers that do give you pause for
caution apart from the import/export balance because there was one big gold transaction.

Someone, I don't know who, imported nearly $800-million worth of gold and then exported it again at
a profit and that has kind of skewed the numbers a little bit.

But even adjusting for that, yes we have seen a big fall in imports. A fall seasonally adjusted in
consumption goods of about 13 per cent and a third or more of that is cars so clearly people are
cutting back on discretionary spending on those big, big-ticket items which is a sign of the
economic circumstances we are in.

But, it is very, very positive that we have seen also an increase in capital goods coming into the
country which might suggest that we are actually gearing up for some production. Again, let's just
put a few words of caution around this though. This is one month's numbers and you would have to
drill down more than I could do in the available time on the statistics that we have at hand to
explain this.

But that is a good sign and also the fact that we are exporting goods, both farm goods and a small
increase in mineral exports.

ELEANOR HALL: So given, what is going on in the world economy, what is behind the improvement in
exports, particularly mineral exports?

STEPHEN LONG: Well, to be honest I am at a loss to say. It seems very counterintuitive. One might
suppose that it could suggest, could suggest possibly, that some of the stimulus packages overseas
are having some effect but I am cautious about that.

It seems puzzling that we are seeing this. We will have to see whether the figures are revised but
taking them on face value, at least we have got something to smile about Eleanor.

ELEANOR HALL: Stephen Long, our economics correspondent, thank you.

Widow wins $155-million from tobacco company

Reporter: Jennifer Macey

ELEANOR HALL: Australian lawyers say the US Supreme Court's decision to uphold a $115-million
damages claim against the tobacco giant Philip Morris is a massive victory for consumers.

Mayola Williams is the widow of a chain smoker and she has been fighting for 10 years to get
compensation for her husband, who died from lung cancer in 1997. She initially won the case but the
tobacco company appealed three times. Now the US Supreme Court has upheld the initial decision and
ordered Philip Morris to pay the damages plus interest.

Jennifer Macey has our report.

JENNIFER MACEY: Jesse Williams, a janitor from Portland in the US, began smoking in the early 1950s
while in the army. This turned into a three packets of Marlboros a day habit and in 1997 he died
from lung cancer.

His widow, Mayola Williams sued the cigarette manufacturer Philip Morris for fraud on behalf of her
husband and after 10 years she's been awarded $115-million in punitive damages.

Leon Zwier from the Melbourne legal firm Arnold Bloch and Leibler says it's a significant win.

LEON ZWIER: The Williams case is a demonstration of human perseverance. The Williams family
commenced this litigation in 1999 and 10 years later obtained the judgement after numerous appeals
and numerous applications and after Mr Williams had died in 1997 - 12 years of battle with a
multinational giant. I regard it as remarkable.

JENNIFER MACEY: Philip Morris had taken the case to the US highest judicial body the Supreme Court,
three times. But in the final hearing the court ruled in Mrs Williams favour and ordered the
company to pay interest on top of her damages.

Simon Chapman is a professor of public health at the University of Sydney. He says it's a big blow
to the tobacco industry.

SIMON CHAPMAN: There is no point in levelling small fines at large companies like Philip Morris
because they would just regard that as part of the cost of doing business. So whacking them hard
like this with punitive damages sends a very, very strong signal that these sort of cases can
succeed and will be punished.

JENNIFER MACEY: But he doesn't think it will set a legal precedent.

SIMON CHAPMAN: Well interestingly the court dismissed the Philip Morris appeal without an opinion
and unfortunately this does not set an ideal legal precedent of the arguments which would have been
used in the dismissal.

JENNIFER MACEY: However barrister Peter Semmler QC disagrees.

PETER SEMMLER: I think it will encourage others because finally someone has actually achieved a
very substantial result and although a jury doesn't give reasons, nevertheless, I think others will
be encouraged to seek the same kind of redress against the tobacco industry.

JENNIFER MACEY: Peter Semmler represented Marlene Sharp a non-smoker who won compensation against
the Port Kembla RSL after she developed cancer from passive smoking. He says it's very difficult to
mount a case against a tobacco company in Australia.

PETER SEMMLER: Yup and that's my experience of the way that the tobacco industry conducts its
litigation in this country as well. It is generally a war of attrition. Their resources seem to be
almost unlimited and the ability of any individual to mount a successful court case against them is
obviously very limited.

They will take every point that they are entitled to. They will take appeal points. They will,
inevitably the litigation will be very prolonged and expensive and most individuals simply can't
afford that.

JENNIFER MACEY: In Australia the only person to win against a tobacco company, Rolah McCabe lost
the case on appeal in 2002. That same year, she died of lung cancer. Now her family are again
taking up legal proceedings against British American Tobacco.

Leon Zwier is representing the estate of Rolah McCabe. He says the aggressive legal tactics used in
the US are similar to experiences here.

LEON ZWIER: Well I think that it is a matter of public notoriety that tobacco litigation is
scorched-earth litigation. The tobacco companies leave no stone left unturned. No application not
made. No appeal not pursued. They take a scorched-earth approach to the way they fight in court. It
is heady, hard and expensive and I think that is a matter of public record.

JENNIFER MACEY: Professor Simon Chapman says many people simply don't have the resources to take
tobacco companies to court.

SIMON CHAPMAN: Under the Australian legal system unless a person has got basically no assets that
can be raided if they were to lose a case, no estate, no house, that sort of thing. Anyone who is
concerned about the possibility of having to turn over their assets in the event that a case was
lost, would be very dissuaded in an Australian environment from going ahead.

JENNIFER MACEY: But in the Williams case, Philip Morris is seeking a new trial through the Oregon
Supreme state court saying that the court's decision doesn't end the dispute and that Oregon State
law requires that 60 per cent of any punitive damages awarded be paid to the state.

ELEANOR HALL: Jennifer Macey reporting.

Socceroos shore up hosting bid with latest success

Reporter: Michael Vincent

ELEANOR HALL: The Football Federation says the Socceroos qualification for the next World Cup will
strengthen its bid to host the event in 2018. After defeating Uzbekistan two-nil last night, the
national team is just one point away from officially qualifying for the next World Cup in South
Africa.

But some commentators say that the way Australia played in last night's match, particularly in the
first half, shows that the team does have to evolve if it is to succeed in South Africa.

Michael Vincent has our report.

SPORTS COMMENTATOR: It is mission accomplished for Australia. The Socceroos surely are on their way
to the World Cup.

MICHAEL VINCENT: The Football Federation says it is not quite time to shower the Socceroos with
champagne.

BEN BUCKLEY: (Laughs) Yes, we've got a bottle on ice but it has not been cracked yet.

MICHAEL VINCENT: FFA CEO Ben Buckley.

BEN BUCKLEY: Whilst we haven't crossed the line and qualified yet, we couldn't be in a better
position so we are delighted with the result and a big congratulations to the team and the coaching
staff and all of the support staff for a great job.

MICHAEL VINCENT: The success of the national team alone will be enough to concern rival football
codes. But the Socceroos' pulling power is so strong that even on a wet and windy weekday night and
with tickets costing up to $110 each -- 57,000 people still turned out to watch the match.

SPORTS COMMENTATOR: What a night to remember. The dream is all but a reality.

MICHAEL VINCENT: And as far as Fox Sports commentator and football writer for 'The Sydney Morning
Herald' Mike Cockerill is concerned those watching last night saw Australia qualify for next year's
World Cup.

MIKE COCKERILL: The mathematicians will tell you otherwise. You will never get anyone from Football
Federation Australia saying that we're there. I can tell you we are there. It would take an
incredible sequence of events for Australia to miss out.

We have a nine-point gap over the bottom team. We have a six-point gap over Bahrain who can only
get six points. We have a plus-10 goal difference I think. So you add all that into the equation
and Australia can still lose their last three qualifiers and still feel very confident about
qualifying.

So to all intents and purposes, we are going to the World Cup.

MICHAEL VINCENT: Is Australia playing the style of football that you think the supporters want to
see or is it a pretty much workman-like approach in these games that have got us these wins?

MIKE COCKERILL: I think the latter. Definitely workman-like. Pim Verbeek is a results-orientated
coach and he makes no apologies for that.

The debate that is going on at the moment about the style of the team is the same debate that was
going on in South Korea when he was in charge of their team. That is what Pim Verbeek is. He has
been employed to do a job by FFA and that is to get Australia to the World Cup. He has got us to
the World Cup so mission accomplished as far as Pim is concerned and the debate about the style
will rumble on.

He is not inclined, it seems, to worry too much about the debate or at least pander to that debate.
He is very much focused on the bottom line which is getting results and look, the stats have been
enormous. So we have qualified with three games to spare. We've kept five clean sheets in a row. We
are on top of the group. Ahead of Japan. It is pretty impressive stuff.

MICHAEL VINCENT: Mike Cockerill says the Australian team now has to evolve its attacking options
and coach Pim Verbeek has a year to trial fresh faces.

The current team is largely unchanged from those who played in the 2006 World Cup. Last night's
match didn't include any current players from the local competition though Jason Culina will play
in the A-league next season.

And the FFA needs a strong Socceroos performance in South Africa to help its bid to secure the
hosting rights to the 2018 World Cup which will be decided after next year's event.

Ben Buckley.

BEN BUCKLEY: Having a presence at the World Cup helps in any credentials that we put forward for
hosting the World Cup so we are certainly on the list of things to achieve as we go into the
bidding process for the World Cup so we are not there yet but we are pretty close.

MICHAEL VINCENT: Is that simply a logistical thing? It means if you get to the World Cup it means
Australian officials can then rub shoulders with other officials from other countries and make that
lobbying effort much easier than having to approach them individually, go continent to continent as
such?

BEN BUCKLEY: Less so that than, because those opportunities exist anyway, but less so that than
actually establishing our bona fides and our credentials at being a genuine football nation - a
nation that can sit within the top 30 countries in the world and a country that has got the
pedigree to host the World Cup.

So I think that in 2006 the world of football suddenly stood up and took notice that Australia was
a genuine and serious football nation and to be able to do that and go back to back would certainly
help our cause no end.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Football Federation of Australia CEO Ben Buckley ending that report from
Michael Vincent.

Former East Timorese militia leader to run for office

Reporter: Margie Smithurst

ELEANOR HALL: He was jailed by the Indonesian Government for his role in a massacre of 12 East
Timorese protesters in the pro-independence uprisings of 1999. Now Eurico Guterres, the former
leader of a pro-Indonesian East Timor militia, is running in the Indonesian national elections
seeking a seat in the province of West Timor.

He's counting on the support of about 100,000 pro-integrationist East Timorese who fled over the
border after East Timor won its independence.

Margie Smithurst spoke about the move to Timor analyst, Dr Clinton Fernandes:

MARGIE SMITHURST: Dr Fernandes, you travelled recently to Kupang in West Timor and saw for yourself
Eurico Guterres' campaigning efforts for the Indonesian election, didn't you?

CLINTON FERNANDES: Yes, I did. Eurico Guterres is standing for election with the National Mandate
Party. His election posters are deployed quite prominently all around Kupang and elsewhere. The
slogan he uses is 'It is time for Timorese to speak up, to be strong, consistent and responsible'
and that is an obvious allusion to the fact that there are 100,000 East Timorese living in West
Timor.

These are people who were implicated in militia violence and other crimes and their families. So he
is appealing to them and that is why his election posters have that slogan on them.

MARGIE SMITHURST: Guterres is quoted as saying to a Fairfax journalist recently that he wants to
make sure that the East Timorese refugees living in West Timor who want to return to East Timor
will be accepted well. Now how would you view a statement like that?

CLINTON FERNANDES: Well, I think that he is trying to present himself as a representative of their
interests and trying to put himself in a position where he wants to deal on a one-on-one basis with
the Timorese Government. In other words he wants to negotiate directly with the Timorese
Government. Certainly I know for a fact that he has been making overtures to Xanana Gusmao himself
using indirect means.

These are not refugees who have fled because they are somehow in fear of their lives. They fled
because they were part of the forced deportation, ethnic cleansing campaign against the Timorese
and when the Australian military and the international force went in, in 1999, they left because
they were the ones committing the brutalities.

So yes, they are living in West Timor and what he wants is to organise them into a constituency to
negotiate directly with the Timor-Leste Government.

MARGIE SMITHURST: Well what are the implications? If Guterres does win and using this voting block,
what are the implications in your opinion for East Timor and in particular on that border area?

CLINTON FERNANDES: It is almost certain to me that if he were to become electorally significant,
even if he didn't win but delivered enough votes in his name, he would be in a position to exert
strong influence with the border police on the Indonesian side and to accelerate the human
trafficking, drug trafficking and smuggling activities that are going on in between East and West
Timor.

You see the border between the two halves of the island is very porous and it is quite easy to
smuggle drugs into East Timor.

MARGIE SMITHURST: But what about the idea that a man who was jailed for his leading role in the
killing of 12 people in the house of a pro-independence activist in East Timor in 1999, could be
the man in power just over the border?

CLINTON FERNANDES: It would be galling to many people in East Timor but it would also be a threat
to the country. Not just personally bad for the people who suffered but it would be a threat to the
country.

The thing is he doesn't actually need to win his seat in order to be a threat. Simply being able to
be a representative of 100,000 East Timorese in West Timor gives him significant negotiating clout
because they would then be in a position to control things like smuggling rackets, gambling
rackets, petty crime and so on.

MARGIE SMITHURST: Eurico Guterres is one of many candidates. What are his chances in your opinion?

CLINTON FERNANDES: Look, I don't know precisely what will happen on the 9th of April but he has a
very significant voting bloc. Whether they vote as a block or not will determine whether he wins.
If they all vote for him then definitely he is going to go to Parliament as one of the
representatives for West Timor.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Dr Clinton Fernandes from the University of New South Wales speaking to
Margie Smithurst.

NZ dad makes medical history as he saves son's life

Reporter: Kerri Ritchie

ELEANOR HALL: A New Zealand father has saved the life of his son and made medical history in the
process.

Wayne Pycroft is the first living New Zealander to donate two organs. He gave them to his son
Jessie who, at 11 years old, has become the youngest New Zealander to receive a double transplant.

New Zealand correspondent Kerri Ritchie has our report.

KERRI RITCHIE: Jessie Pycroft is a young man of very few words.

How are you feeling now?

JESSIE PYCROFT: Good.

KERRI RITCHIE: Jessie Pycroft has had to battle for most of his 11 years. He was born with a rare
genetic enzyme defect, which slowly destroyed his liver and kidneys. His mum says it's been
heartbreaking watching her son suffer.

FAITH PYCROFT: His immune system with the infections and with the bleeds and all that. It just
never ended, yeah.

KERRI RITCHIE: Last year when her son's health deteriorated further, Faith Pycroft and her husband
Wayne, decided one of them must donate two of their organs.

FAITH PYCROFT: It was either going to be me or Wayne. That was our boy. You know he was sick. When
you have got a child that sick like that, as a parent you want to do anything to correct it.

KERRI RITCHIE: Wayne Pycroft was the perfect match.

WAYNE PYCROFT: I mean I put up my hand, I mean it was either going to be Faith or I, but I put up
my hand from the start. There was just no thought, yeah, I'll go first and no fears.

KERRI RITCHIE: The dad had spent plenty of time in hospitals with his sick son - but he'd never
been a patient, and admits he was very nervous.

WAYNE PYCROFT: That was the first time, you know, being on a table. It made me very, very nervous,
very scared but still again not enough to hold back.

I mean they told me the risk. They sat down and told me the risk. You know I could die on the
table, you know, what is going to happen to your family if you die, things like that. But just
nothing to just hold me back. Yeah, just keep going forward for it. Just want to get our little boy
well again.

KERRI RITCHIE: Dr Stephen Munn carried out the surgery at an Auckland hospital.

STEPHEN MUNN: The risk can be as high as 1 in 200 to the life of the patient donating a piece of
liver but in this case it would be that risk plus the small add-on risk of donating a kidney as
well.

KERRI RITCHIE: Wayne Pycroft was out of hospital in seven days. His son wasn't so lucky. The
11-year-old's operation took hours longer than expected. At one point his heart stopped for several
minutes. Somehow he survived the surgery but then battled an infection for a month.

Dr Munn says Jessie Pycroft is one tough kid.

STEPHEN MUNN: We worked for many hours. Many hours longer than we anticipated trying to hook up the
artery with the piece of liver from his father and we were not successful in hooking up that artery
and despite, I think five attempts at hooking it up.

KERRI RITCHIE: Wayne Pycroft says he might be down a couple of organs but he has gained a much
healthier and happier son and the future looks bright.

WAYNE PYCROFT: They said it was going to take a wee while but he has come up quite bright now.
Really pleased to see him and you know, walk around.

Three months, I think from that stage up to now. He has gone a really long way. A really brave boy.
So he has fought the odds and probably, hopefully on track now and ready to go home.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Wayne Pycroft who donated two organs to his son. He was speaking to our New
Zealand correspondent, Kerri Ritchie.

Elliott's school of etiquette opens for business

Reporter: Rachael Brown

ELEANOR HALL: Would you take lessons in etiquette from a man who's perhaps most famous for the
colourful phrase 'pig's arse'?

The former president of both the Carlton Football Club and the Federal Liberal Party, John Elliott,
has launched his own website, to share his views on modern manners.

As Rachael Brown reports from Melbourne, Mr Elliott says there was a gap in the market, for a site
on restaurants, wine, politics, sport and manners.

JOHN ELLIOTT: Welcome to the John Elliott report. This is my new website which is covering sport,
business and politics.

In addition I've got a section on manners which is most important for many people because
Australians have some of the worst manners in the world - second only to the United States.

RACHAEL BROWN: This coming from a man who satirists attributed to the 'pigs arse' catchcry and who
ran into trouble when he patted a woman on the bum in a bar. Mr Elliott says there's a lot people
can learn from him

JOHN ELLIOTT: Our table manners aren't very good. They've all slipped. People don't even hold their
knife and fork correctly. I now observe that people who buy a sandwich or a roll at a take-away,
they eat their lunch walking down the street. I mean that is appalling. That is not good for your
digestion either.

I was on a tram yesterday and there was a pregnant lady got on the tram and there was two guys
sitting there. They didn't even stand up for her so we are not thinking of others like we used to.
We were brought up to behave better than that.

RACHAEL BROWN: Mr Elliott, what would you say to those critics who say you're not the best placed
person to be preaching about manners given that infamous 'pigs arse' comment?

JOHN ELLIOTT: See, I didn't ever make that comment. That was created by Steve Vizard in 'Rubbery
Figures' in the 1980s and I was always thinking of suing him but I didn't sue him but he got his
druthers on his own so that is nothing to do with me at all. I know I said, I mean everybody thinks
I said it.

RACHAEL BROWN: It's stuck though hasn't it?

JOHN ELLIOTT: Oh it has, yes, shocking.

RACHAEL BROWN: You'll never live that one down?

JOHN ELLIOTT: Oh well, I don't worry about it. There is nothing you can do about those things.

RACHAEL BROWN: Some have accused him of hypocrisy like Jess, who left a comment on his website.

JESS'S COMMENT (voiceover): I have been in the company of John Elliott. He is loud and obnoxious at
the dinner table. He gets drunk and offends people by crossing boundaries. He is a pig to women and
now he lectures on manners? What a joke.

RACHAEL BROWN: But Australia's leading etiquette coach June Dally-Watkins, says the site's tips on
manners are welcome and are on the money, despite their unlikely source.

JUNE DALLY WATKINS: That's why I thought it was April fool's day when I received this message but
maybe he now has learned by the error of his ways that he has to pull himself together. If this is
what he has learned worldwide then perhaps it would be good for other men who have behaved badly.

RACHAEL BROWN: Do you think Australians are more likely to listen to a character like this?

JUNE DALLY WATKINS: No, I think they will laugh at it but maybe they might read it and learn
something from it. You see Rachael, good things don't seem to attract much attention. If I wrote
all of this, who is going to take notice of me? And I think what John Elliott has said here, he is
absolutely quite right.

I think Australians are copying Americans. I think Americans are a very bad influence when it comes
to correct etiquette and bad manners.

RACHAEL BROWN: Manners aside, Mr Elliott's site also features on-camera restaurant reviews, the
first, from his seat in his favourite Italian restaurant in Melbourne.

JOHN ELLIOTT: I don't eat much pasta myself.

REPORTER: Why not?

JOHN ELLIOTT: Well because it's fattening

RACHAEL BROWN: And he'll be giving his wine tips.

JOHN ELLIOTT: I only drink '55 Grange when Carlton win a premiership or I have another child and I
think one of those has gone out the window.

RACHAEL BROWN: His other two loves also get a guernsey, the Carlton Blues and politics. The Former
Liberal Party president says Malcolm Turnball's doing a good job.

JOHN ELLIOTT: The worst job in Australia is to be leader of the Opposition and I have stated
publicly that I think it is time for Peter Costello to retire. He has had his chance. He could have
done a Keating, stood aside from Howard when they were in government but didn't. He was then handed
the leader of the Opposition on a plate and wouldn't take it. I think it is destabilising for him
to continue to stay there.

RACHAEL BROWN: Do you think even that speculation is damaging the party?

JOHN ELLIOTT: Well, it doesn't help, does it? You know it is really up to Peter. He has got to do
what he decides to do but I mean there are plenty of jobs for him in the real world.

RACHAEL BROWN: And just finally John moving onto sport - will there be enough in it for people who
aren't Carlton supporters? Will they notice a particular bias there or?

JOHN ELLIOTT: I am going to have different guests and they won't all be from Carlton so,no we will
give it a fair summary.

And we are discussing racing. I've tipped Real Saga to win the Golden Slipper this week. We'll
comment on other sports as well.

ELEANOR HALL: There you have it. The broad-ranging John Elliott, ending that report by Rachael
Brown.

Astronomers make a street map to the stars

Reporter: Karen Barlow

ELEANOR HALL: Now to our story about that map of the universe. Australian, British and American
astronomers have spent 10 years at the Anglo-Australian Observatory meticulously charting hundreds
of thousands of galaxies in our region of the universe.

The work has led to the first accurate estimate of the parts of the universe that can't be seen, as
Karen Barlow reports.

KAREN BARLOW: It is a street directory to the stars, 10 years in the making. Dr Heath Jones from
the Anglo-Australian Observatory says the map shows where galaxies are in respect to each other and
to our own.

HEATH JONES: Because of course we are looking into space, space is three dimensional and so really
to look at this, when we look at this map in a computer, we have to fly through the space between
the galaxies so we have to think of it as three dimensional space rather than a 2D roadmap.

KAREN BARLOW: Previously much astronomical energy was spent trying to find the most far out objects
in the universe. In this project, astronomers from Australia, the UK and the USA looked a little
closer to home. Dr Heath Jones says they looked at the nearest 100,000 galaxies or so.

HEATH JONES: The galaxies just aren't uniformly scattered throughout the universe. What we find is
that they tend to clump and cluster together.

So you'll get galaxies clustering along nice delicate filamentary chains. You'll get some galaxies
that will congregate in their clusters and you will get clusters of galaxies collecting in
super-clusters of galaxies so the universe that we see is really quite structured.

KAREN BARLOW: The clustering and intense speeds at which these galaxies are travelling in can't be
explained by the gravitational pull of ordinary visible matter. Dr Heath Jones says explaining dark
matter is one of the holy grails of science.

HEATH JONES: Astronomers know that this dark matter must exist in the universe. We can't see it
with our telescopes directly but by studying large objects like galaxies and how they move with
respect to each other we can infer its existence quite accurately.

KAREN BARLOW: It does seem weird, mapping what you can't see?

HEATH JONES: It does but I guess that is a lot of science. One has to infer the existence of things
that are at the very limits of what we can detect and I mean dark matter is a really important
ingredient of the universe.

I mean it seems to hold the galaxies together. It stops their constituent stars from flying off and
it seems to be driving the large-scale galaxy clusters and super-clusters. They are the largest
objects that we see in the universe.

KAREN BARLOW: The galactic neighbourhood census also confirmed the theory that the universe will
keep on expanding rather than eventually collapse under its own gravity.

HEATH JONES: One of the things we see with this survey is that galaxies are all getting further
apart from each other and that is the well known expansion of the universe, but in particular with
this survey, we are able to analyse the very individual motions of the galaxies on top of that.

What we call the peculiar motions of galaxies so that's, I guess that's one of the strengths of
this survey. We are able to look at many more peculiar motions of galaxies than has been done
before.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Dr Heath Jones from the Anglo-Australian Observatory ending that report from
Karen Barlow.

Going ape over a mobile

Reporter: Shane McLeod

ELEANOR HALL: The great apes of Africa have a new representative in Australia. Sydney ecologist Guy
Williams has been appointed as this region's ambassador in a United Nations-backed campaign to
boost awareness of the threats facing some of our closest relatives in the animal kingdom.

The threats include habitat destruction and hunting. But Guy Williams has been telling Shane McLeod
that there is a more unusual threat related to mobile phones.

GUY WILLIAMS: It is a bit of an obscure one for a lot of people, you buy products and you think it
is a lump of plastic and metal but in terms of each mobile phone within the transistor has a small
mineral called coltan - 80 per cent of the world's coltan, comes from the Democratic Republic of
Congo and over 95 per cent of that is mined illegally and it is mined directly from gorilla habitat
regions.

Miners go into these areas. People who are within national parks and other excluded reserve areas,
they clear the forest and actually scrape off the dirt off the surface after clearing the trees and
they go through and they shift out a small material which is called coltan.

That is distributed and then that goes into tantalum which is a transistor in all mobile phones and
a range of other electrical appliances.

So a couple of years ago some of the research that found in terms of what happens to this coltan
found that, associated with two things. One was the escalation of civil conflict within Rwanda and
the Democratic of Congo; for a large increase in this illegal harvesting and illegal mining of this
mineral which affected the world price for this product.

But also another interesting trend was the release of a Sony Playstation, the second Sony
Playstation tool saw a huge increase in demand for this transistor and as a result, an increased
pressure on the gorillas were being displaced for this mining activity.

SHANE MCLEOD: Coltan is found in not just mobile phones. Why are you focusing on the mobile phones?

GUY WILLIAMS: I think it comes down from my perspective in terms of mobile phones being a
technology which has I suppose, come onto the market, the consumer market very quickly.

Most people have a mobile phone, use a mobile phone but in addition to that, most people have
actually replaced their mobile phones if not once or twice then a couple of times since having
their first mobile phone whether it was five or 10 years ago so we realised that the majority of
people have a couple of old mobile phones, a couple of old clunky phones sitting in their bottom
drawers.

It is those mobile phones that could be actually involved in a pretty sizeable contribution towards
collecting some of that coltan material and that would supply essentially the world's coltan
requirements for the next 10 to 15 years.

SHANE MCLEOD: So your message is, recycle an old mobile phone.

GUY WILLIAMS: Yes, that is exactly right. There are two aspects to it. One obviously is in terms of
actually, a few of the large mobile phone companies are actually moving away from the use of coltan
in their transistors for mobile phones.

There is an alternative. There is a ceramic transistor which does the job equally well so one
aspect of it is similar to what they have done with tuna in terms of a dolphin-friendly labelling
system, there is scope through police in terms of the raising awareness about where this material
comes from in your mobile phone to possibly get to a level where we have got 'gorilla-friendly'
mobile phones - just to raise awareness.

And the second thing is in relation to recycling of these old mobile phones.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Guy Williams, an ecologist speaking to our environment reporter, Shane
McLeod.

Adelaide to premiere new Australian musical

Reporter: Nance Haxton

ELEANOR HALL: To Adelaide now where the State Theatre Company of South Australia is staging the
world premiere of a new Australian musical. It is called 'Metro Street' and Nance Haxton went along
to a preview.

(Musical excerpt from 'Metro Street')

NANCE HAXTON: World premieres of distinctly Australian musicals are not a common occurrence, and
the road to popular success is littered with many shows that tanked at the box office. But that
hasn't daunted Matthew Robinson, the creator of the new show 'Metro Street'.

MATTHEW ROBINSON: I grew up listening to a few things at once. I was very radio oriented. I watched
'Video Hits' religiously and at same time I was listening to 'Le Mis' and 'Phantom' and those sorts
of things. So the melodies they should feel familiar. They should feel very at home with you just
like the characters and the people that we're presenting.

(Musical excerpt from 'Metro Street')

NANCE HAXTON: Matthew Robinson is thrilled that the South Australian Theatre Company is taking a
risk on a new work such as 'Metro Street' from a relatively unknown writer. He's hoping to break
the trend of Australian musicals which have failed to fire on stage.

Some might even describe it as a bit of a curse trying to come up with this definitive Australian
musical?

MATTHEW ROBINSON: I'm not interested in coming up with the great Australian musical just like I
hope Americans aren't necessarily, want the great American musical. I think we just write what
means something to us and what we believe will mean something to other people.

NANCE HAXTON: 'Metro Street' won the Pratt Prize for best new theatrical composition in 2004 and it
defies the trend that has sunk some expensive Australian musical debuts. It doesn't trawl
Australian history for its subject matter.

Instead, Matthew Robinson has written a melting pot of comedy and drama straight from the suburbs -
and set it to contemporary music.

(Musical excerpt from 'Metro Street')

MATTHEW ROBINSON: What I want most of all is people to come along and think to themselves, oh my
lord, that is me, that is my mum, that is my boyfriend, that is my girlfriend, they are my
children.

NANCE HAXTON: So that is a bit of a perhaps a different approach to many of the musicals that we
have seen, particularly in recent years. People have tried to make this Australian musical work.

MATTHEW ROBINSON: Something that I wanted to do with this one is not so much look at Australiana
necessarily but look at what is inherently Australian in our modes of speech, in our humour, in our
candour.

(Musical excerpt from 'Metro Street')

NANCE HAXTON: Metro Street is in final rehearsals before its big debut. The show's attracted
well-known musical theatre doyenne Nancye Hayes and Debra Byrne to the cast.

(Excerpt from 'Metro Street')

NANCE HAXTON: Debra Byrne plays Sue, who is dealing with the breakdown of her marriage and a recent
diagnosis of breast cancer.

(Musical excerpt from 'Metro Street')

NANCE HAXTON: Verity Hunt-Ballard has come from the Melbourne production of 'Rocky Horror Picture
Show' to star in 'Metro Street' as the character Kerry. She says she's excited to be taking part in
a musical with a distinctly Australian voice.

VERITY HUNT-BALLARD: Whereas when you are in a commercial piece coming from the West End or from
Broadway, often you are stepping into a role that has been played 75 times or more overseas but
this is, you very much own it.

NANCE HAXTON: The show's creator Matthew Robinson is now holding his breath to see how 'Metro
Street' fares in Adelaide, as that will be the deciding factor as to whether it then tours other
Australian cities. He hopes that by telling everyday Australians' stories, 'Metro Street' will
reach a wider audience.

MATTHEW ROBINSON: One of the things it does well is reflect what we are currently going through and
musicals are no exception to that. They just happen to have that, you know, obvious musical element
which cuts right to the core of what it is to be alive.

ELEANOR HALL: Mathew Robinson, the creator of 'Metro Street' speaking to Nance Haxton.