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World Youth Day security deemed excessive

World Youth Day security deemed excessive

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:10:00

Reporter: Barbara Miller

ELEANOR HALL: The Pope isn't due to arrive in Sydney for another two weeks but from today,
Sydneysiders will be subject to special security regulations brought in by the New South Wales
government for the Catholic World Youth Day event.

The new powers allow police to arrest people for "causing annoyance" to the Catholic pilgrims.

Police say the regulations don't prevent people from exercising their democratic right to protest
against the Pope's visit.

But legal experts, civil libertarians and the Greens say the measures are unnecessary and
draconian.

In Sydney, Barbara Miller reports.

BARBARA MILLER: The New South Wales police say there is nothing unusual about the World Youth Day
regulations which have come into force today.

Under them, anyone deemed to be causing annoyance to World Youth Day participants could be stopped
and even fined up to $5,500.

And that is annoying the New South Wales Greens MP Lee Rhiannon.

LEE RHIANNON: The new World Youth Day police powers are not about managing public safety. It does
appear it is more about shutting down protests and quarantining the Pope and visiting Catholics
away from messages the authorities don't approve of.

BARBARA MILLER: Lee Rhiannon is just one of a string of people lining up today to criticise the new
regulations.

Anna Katzmann, the President of the New South Wales Bar Association, describes them as unnecessary
and repugnant:

ANNA KATZMANN: Who knows what would cause annoyance or inconvenience to an individual participating
in a World Youth Day event and we should remember that these World Youth Day declared areas are
numerous and they encompass places like Sydney University, the Opera House - places that you and I
would travel to, regularly. Not just churches or church schools.

BARBARA MILLER: What would you like the New South Wales government and police to do; to cancel
these new regulations?

ANNA KATZMANN: Absolutely. They are not necessary. Why were they introduced and why were they
introduced with the level of secrecy that attends these. Why are they introduced at the last
minute?

BARBARA MILLER: The police say the measures are simply designed to ensure that World Youth Day
passes off peacefully.

Dave Owens is the NSW Deputy Police Commissioner:

DAVE OWENS: If people wish to lawfully protest, we will facilitate those protests as long as they
are law abiding.

BARBARA MILLER: What if someone wears a t-shirt criticising the Pope or some of his policies?

DAVE OWENS: My police are not fashion police. What it is about is police officers always maintain a
discretion and I expect them to use that discretion.

BARBARA MILLER: Could someone be apprehended for wearing a t-shirt for example promoting the use of
condoms?

DAVE OWENS: There are... each individual circumstance will have to be dealt with individually.

BARBARA MILLER: But Rachel Evans from the No to Pope protest group says people are worried that
they won't be able to express their opinion freely.

RACHEL EVANS: Look I can't say that we are not concerned. We are concerned. We know that the police
have the right to search, to stop and search anyone and to move them on and that of course, is a
breach of our ability to move freely across Sydney.

BARBARA MILLER: Hugh Macken, the President of the New South Wales Law Society, is also worried
about what he describes as an erosion of civil rights.

HUGH MACKEN: They were bought in without much discussion. They don't particularly seem to achieve
anything other than creating some uncertainty in respect to the law and we have reservations and
concerns about some of these regulations - particularly the new definition of 'conduct which is
causes an inconvenience or an annoyance'.

Just what that means, I am a bit unsure about.

BARBARA MILLER: These regulations are already in place but if yesterday I had walked down the
street wearing a t-shirt which was considered very offensive to the Pope or to a religious group,
could police have stopped me?

HUGH MACKEN: Well, if it was an obscene t-shirt they could have stopped you yesterday. Now your
t-shirt need only cause an annoyance and that is the great uncertainty. No-one can really establish
what causing an annoyance is.

I have got six sisters. They can be very annoying. Whether or not they conducted themselves in
their usual way at the Opera House during World Youth Day, the police would arrest them is a
question I can't answer.

BARBARA MILLER: This morning the World Youth Day Cross left Wollongong on a two week journey to
Sydney to mark the countdown to the event.

Organisers say they believe the Cross' movements will generate the same enthusiasm that the Olympic
torch did in the year 2000.

But if today's bad publicity for the event continues, that's looking like a vain hope.

ELEANOR HALL: Barbara Miller reporting.

Cape begins welfare reform

Cape begins welfare reform

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:14:00

Reporter: Donna Field

ELEANOR HALL: An historic welfare reform trial will begin in four Queensland Indigenous communities
today - tying welfare payments to responsible behaviour.

Opponents say it's the Queensland Government's version of the emergency federal intervention in the
Northern Territory.

But while the Family Responsibilities Commission will have wide-ranging powers, the move will see
Indigenous elders dealing out the tough love in their communities as Donna Field reports.

DONNA FIELD: The $100-million joint State/Commonwealth initiative will tie welfare cheques to a set
of standards in four Cape York communities.

The Queensland Government says the idea which was devised by Noel Pearson's Cape York Institute is
a significant and radical departure from existing social security arrangements.

And Federal Indigenous Affairs Minister Jenny Macklin says it's just the start.

JENNY MACKLIN: It's going to go for four years. There is a lot of money being invested. It's all
about the wellbeing of children. We want to make sure that we learn from this trial and anything
that comes out of it, of course, we will be looking to expand elsewhere if it works.

DONNA FIELD: Under the new system people must meet a set of standards to qualify for welfare. They
include children going to school and their general welfare, home maintenance and keeping out of
trouble with police.

When those standards aren't met, the Commission can transfer welfare payments to a responsible
person to administer.

Community elders will sit on the Commission which will be headed by former Magistrate David
Glasgow.

DAVID GLASGOW: I'm one of three Commissioners. We can make a majority decision. That means two
Commissioners can out-vote me. So each of the local elders and respected people who are our
Commissioners, will be the main decision makers and what will happen is that people from that
community have come forward and are saying to me and are saying to their community, it is time for
those of you amongst us, and you may be only a small number but it is time for those of you amongst
us to change your ways. If you don't we will go along with the system of having your income
managed.

DONNA FIELD: One of the communities taking part in the trial is Hopevale. Its mayor Greg McLean
says the community commissioners will be under a great deal of pressure.

GREG MCLEAN: What they have to work with is with the people and they have got to understand that
this is all about being fair and all about making sure that the people get the service that is
required and make sure that they don't run into sticky situations where people are going to play
them off.

DONNA FIELD: Queensland is also toughening alcohol restrictions in several Indigenous communities
from today with Woorabinda in the state's centre the first to have a complete alcohol ban.

Aboriginal Partnerships Minister Lindy Nelson-Carr says it's about reducing violence which is 30
times higher than the rest of the state.

LINDY NELSON-CARR: There's an enormous amount of hope and I think that you will find that the
children and the families, particularly the women, in most of these communities have welcomed this
with open arms.

Living in an unsafe environment and being abused by somebody who is violent as a result of drinking
is no place for anybody to want to live.

DONNA FIELD: The head of the Families Responsibilities Commission David Glasgow isn't a supporter
of prohibition but he says alcohol is one of the key problems.

DAVID GLASGOW: What we are really trying to achieve, it is to get people to be more responsible as
adults and carers and parents.

And if that means that they have to give up an unacceptable life of drinking, gambling or drug
taking or a combination of those or just irresponsible behaviour, that is what they have got to do.

Now we will work with those people and we will give them a number of opportunities to change and if
they ignore us or they fail to comply with any of the orders or agreements we make, they run the
real risk of having their income managed.

Now we won't, don't expect it will change people's lives overnight but we will have at least a fair
input into those that are constantly breaching these norms that we would find acceptable.

DONNA FIELD: As you've travelled around the community since your appointment a couple of months
ago, what has been the level of support for this trial?

DAVID GLASGOW: From within the community? Well, there has been some mixed reaction. There has been
a little bit of concern. There has been a lack of understanding about what we are out to achieve
and we have done our best to indicate to people we are not there to take their children or to take
their money. What we are there to do is to suggest clearly that they have responsibilities and
provided they work towards those and work with the counselling and other services which are
currently available and those that will come on board in the next few months, then we will give
them an opportunity to change.

DONNA FIELD: And Commissioner Glasgow says it's his understanding that if the trial's a success it
may be expanded to the general community.

ELEANOR HALL: Donna Field reporting.

The end is nigh, says world's central bank

The end is nigh, says world's central bank

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:18:00

Reporter: Stephen Long

ELEANOR HALL: The Board of the Reserve Bank will almost certainly have decided to leave interest
rates on hold this morning at a 12-year high.

But there would have been no shortage of issues to discuss at the meeting.

In particular the release of a disturbing assessment of the state of the world economy by the
central bank for central banks.

The economic forecast by the Swiss-based Bank for International Settlements is at odds with the
RBA's more rosy outlook.

With more we are joined now by economics correspondent Stephen Long.

Stephen, most economists have been predicting that the Reserve Bank Board will leave interest rates
on hold this morning but is there anything in this international report to change that?

STEPHEN LONG: No Eleanor. I think in many ways this report is actually implicit endorsement for the
stance that has been taken by Glenn Stevens as the head of the Reserve Bank of Australia of keeping
rates relatively high - at 12 year highs and really pushing against inflation in the face of some
pretty strong criticism.

Now it doesn't go to whether rates should move today obviously a global report like this but it is
highly critical of the stance that central banks took around the world in recent years of having
rates quite low when inflation seemed to be benign and what they are arguing, what the Bank for
International Settlements, the central bank for central banks is arguing is that that fuelled the
credit binge and the inflation pressures that we have in the world today and that central banks
should really have been leaning against the credit excesses to stop them happening and that indeed
is what they should do now.

ELEANOR HALL: But inflation was low during much of this decade around the world, so is this central
bank for central banks suggesting that they should have been lifting rates or doing something
different?

STEPHEN LONG: It is very much a suggestion that central banks and policy makers got it wrong. What
it argues is that there a number of cascading and overlapping forces that gave rise to this crisis
but at the heart of it was loose credit and credit binge.

I will quote one section where it says "a powerful interaction between financial market innovation,
lacks internal and external governance banks and easy global monetary conditions over many years
has led us to today's predicament".

So what they're saying is that we should have been having rates much higher when things looked fine
because they weren't. In fact we actually had an economic shock ironically coming from the cheap
imports coming from China because that was unsustainable.

China and the developing world were keeping their currencies artificially low fuelling cheap
imports which led to supposedly low inflation in the West which made everyone think things were
hunky-dory when they weren't.

ELEANOR HALL: So what does the Bank for International Settlements see as the biggest threat the
world economy; the global credit crisis or rising inflation?

STEPHEN LONG: The key insight from this report is that the two forces are actually linked so you
can't look at them in isolation. In a binary opposition, we are either going to see the economy
tank or inflation, we've got to deal with one or the other - the financial crisis or the inflation
crisis.

ELEANOR HALL: And yet that is the way that central banks have been looking at it.

STEPHEN LONG: Very much so and there is an attack on some of the policies that have been pursued
lately. I think there is a implicit criticism of the Federal Reserve in the US with its bailing out
of private sector banks and its rate cuts.

But what they argue is that the excessive and impudent credit growth that has happened over a long
period was always going to unleash inflation as well as an unsustainable accumulation of debt.

The two go hand in hand. Now the difficult thing then coming out of that Eleanor, is that it says
there is no easy and simple policy solutions but very much they argue that really, we can't be
looking now as they are say in the US or have been until recently, to run negative real interest
rates to bail out the economy and keep on cutting them because it will lead to inflation.

Horns of a dilemma though, no easy answers. Pretty tough times.

ELEANOR HALL: Stephen Long, our economics correspondent, thank you.

Downer to bow out

Downer to bow out

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:22:00

Reporter: Lyndal Curtis

ELEANOR HALL: Alexander Downer is set to end months of speculation, later this week, by announcing
he will retire from federal politics.

Australia's longest serving Foreign Minister, and one of the shortest serving opposition leader is
about to become a United Nations special envoy for Cyprus and join an Adelaide-based consultancy
with former Labor Senator, Nick Bolkus.

The Prime Minister Kevin Rudd says he has spoken to the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon last
night, letting him know the Federal Government fully supports the Liberal backbencher's
appointment.

In Canberra, chief political correspondent Lyndal Curtis reports.

LYNDAL CURTIS: Alexander Downer has been in Parliament since 1984 but after the Coalition's loss in
last years election, Mr Downer has finally decided it's time to go.

While he hasn't yet formally resigned he's told The Australian that he will be accepting a role as
the United Nations special envoy for Cyprus.

This morning the Opposition Leader Brendan Nelson paid tribute to Mr Downer saying he's been an
outstanding servant of the Australian people.

Mr Downer's South Australian colleagues Nick Minchin and Christopher Pyne have also paid tribute.

NICK MINCHIN: Look, I wish him well and I congratulate him on this UN position and I gather he is
joining Ian Smith's new business so I wish him very well in it because he has had 24 years in
Parliament and made an enormous contribution but obviously he has been a great asset to the Liberal
Party and we will miss him.

CHRISTOPHER PYNE: I'm very sorry that Alexander Downer is retiring. I think he has been a
tremendous colleague. A marvellous fighter for South Australia and a good friend in Canberra and a
good ally in many of the philosophical debates about the direction of the Liberal Party and I am
very sorry to see him retiring.

LYNDAL CURTIS: Senator Minchin did express disappointment at Mr Downer's comments in the newspaper
that the Opposition hasn't developed a better narrative saying it's one thing to start barking on
about reducing fuel excise by five cents but what's your point.

NICK MINCHIN: Yeah, with great respect to Alexander, you know one of the things that annoys me is
this introduction of this term "narrative" for describing what politicians talk about. That always
leaves me a bit perplexed.

I was a bit disappointed that Alexander raised his reservations about our policy of cutting the
fuel excise by five cents. I think that is a very good policy. It is completely consistent with the
Liberal Party's strong position of being the lower-tax Party.

LYNDAL CURTIS: The former foreign minister's decision will result in a by-election for his seat of
Mayo.

The Labor Party isn't saying whether it will run a candidate after it's drubbing in the Gippsland
by-election.

Senator Minchin has warned that although the seat is considered safe, a strong independent
candidate could spell trouble and he's called on major party figures such as himself to stay out of
the pre-selection process for a Liberal candidate.

NICK MINCHIN: A safe seat if the other party, in this case the Labor Party runs dead and there is a
high profile independent or minor party candidate that picks up, can get ahead of Labor and get
Labor's preference, then you know, even a safe seat, either for Labor or Liberal can become risky.

LYNDAL CURTIS: The Prime Minister Kevin Rudd has also wished Mr Downer well and has already spoken
to the United Nations Secretary-General about his appointment

KEVIN RUDD: I would simply wish Mr Downer well in his career post-politics. The Secretary-General
of the United Nations and I spoke last night about his appointment as a UN special envoy on Cyprus.
This has been the subject of previous discussions between the Australian Government and the United
Nations.

I have indicated before to the Secretary-General that the Australian government fully supports Mr
Downer's appointment.

LYNDAL CURTIS: Mr Downer will miss the significant debate already underway about climate change and
an emissions trading scheme.

All sides of politics are gearing up for the draft report of Professor Ross Garnaut this Friday and
the Green paper which will follow it.

A Newspoll today shows most people are in favour of the scheme although the climate change Minister
Penny Wong told AM the government does have more work ahead to inform people about it.

PENNY WONG: There is a lot of discussion within the community. A lot of dialogue with the
Australian people that needs to take place as we move forward and that is why we have put out, we
will be putting out a Green paper

LYNDAL CURTIS: Mr Rudd is continuing to try to ease fears people will face large price rises.

KEVIN RUDD: We have also said that through an emissions trading scheme we would be providing
support for families, pensioners, carers in adjustment cost. Also providing support to Australian
industry for adjustment costs as well.

LYNDAL CURTIS: The Greens, whose votes the government will need to pass any climate change
legislation in the Senate, are calling for any compensation not to be delivered as a straight
payment into people's pockets.

Senator Christine Milne says there are other things the government should be doing.

CHRISTINE MILNE: And there has to be compensation particularly for low-income earners but the
question is how is that compensation paid?. Is it paid in a cheque or is it paid by providing
public transport and energy efficiency and my preferred position is for the Government to roll out
massively in those areas to permanently reduce costs - not just give people cheques which don't
reduce their demand and therefore give them ongoing higher prices.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Senator Christine Milne ending that report by Lyndal Curtis.

Party time for Greens on Franklin's anniversary

Party time for Greens on Franklin's anniversary

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:26:00

Reporter: Felicity Ogilvie

ELEANOR HALL: A quarter of a century ago today Australia's High Court ended one of this country's
most passionate and divisive environmental campaigns by stopping the Tasmanian government from the
damming the Franklin River.

That campaign saw the new Federal Labor government of Bob Hawke take on the Tasmanian government
and it also launched the political career of the man who is now likely to be a thorn in the side of
the Rudd Labor Government.

From today, the leader of the Australian Greens, Senator Bob Brown, will share the balance of power
in the Senate and the Government will be courting his vote. But already some are questioning
whether the Greens will exercise that power responsibly.

Felicity Ogilvie reports.

FELICITY OGILVIE: From today Senator Bob Brown will have one of the most powerful positions in the
country but will he use that power for causes other than the environmental activism that launched
his political career?

BOB BROWN: It was a delicious double celebration that that monumental decision which empowered the
Hawke government to save the Franklin and was celebrated right across the country back in 1983,
falls on the same day that we ascend into full party status in the Senate now 25 years later. I
think Mother Nature is having a little hand in politics here.

FELICITY OGILVIE: You started off as an environmentalist and became a politician - are you an
environmentalist or a politician or still a bit of both?

BOB BROWN: (laughs) I hope a thoughtful human being because there's a bit of environmentalist in
everybody but maybe there is a bit of politician is everybody.

FELICITY OGILVIE: The journey that led him to the Senate began in 1976 when he rafted down the
Franklin River.

BOB BROWN: It was transforming. Sea eagles, platypuses, waterfalls and when we got to the end and
came round the corner into the Gordon River, jackhammers, explosives and the work camps where they
were trying to find an anchor point for a dam.

FELICITY OGILVIE: After his trip down the Franklin, Bob Brown quit his job and moved to Hobart to
co-ordinate the Wilderness Society's campaign to stop the Franklin Gordon Dam.

The anti-dam campaign lasted years culminating with a protest on the river in the summer of 1982 to
1983.

It was called the Blockade and the Wilderness Society says 1217 protesters were arrested. Bob Brown
was one of them.

BOB BROWN: I must say the young constable was very nervous about this and I gave him a steadying
hand because we were on the top of a bank and quite a long fall into the river.

FELICITY OGILVIE: While he was being held in prison he decided to take a seat in the Tasmanian
Parliament.

BOB BROWN: In Risden we were locked in single cells for 14 hours a night so 10 hours out, 14 hours
in and it gave you lots of time and I tossed and turned and each day somebody would come in and say
you have got to stand to fill Norm Sanders place and others would say, you have got to come out and
keep helping to co-ordinate this massive protest that we had underway.

But I finally decided that I would take Norm's place in the Parliament and on a recount, I came out
of jail on the 5th of January and was almost directly elected into the House of Assembly.

FELICITY OGILVIE: Even in his new role, Bob Brown's first priority was to continue to lobby against
the dam and instigate national support for the cause.

Within six months Labor was elected with a promise that the new Prime Minister, Bob Hawke would
stop the dam but the Tasmanian Liberal Premier, Robin Gray, was defiant.

ROBIN GRAY: The environmental significance of that area has been grossly overstated. For 11 months
of the year, the Franklin River is nothing but a brown ditch, leech-ridden, unattractive to the
majority of people.

FELICITY OGILVIE: The dispute was settled in the High Court on the 1st July, 1983.

ARCHIVAL EXTRACT: The High Court in Brisbane has ruled that the Gordon below Franklin dam can not
be built.

(Sounds of cheering)

FELICITY OGILVIE: While environmentalists celebrate Bob Brown's role in stopping the dam, he has
plenty of critics.

In the 1989 state election, the Liberals won more seats but Labor formed government by aligning
with the Greens.

The Labor Premier Michael Field tells a cautionary tale.

MICHAEL FIELD: Well, Bob always goes to beyond the last minute. That is he will hold people hanging
and he'll squeeze every little bit of publicity and every little bit of bargaining power and not
agree until the last minute on any changes.

They acted as though they were a pressure group rather than a political party.

FELICITY OGILVIE: What do you mean by a pressure group because the Greens are a political party in
their own right?

MICHAEL FIELD: Well, they see themselves as bargaining with the government in order to get
concessions, particularly on forestry matters and their support base is predicated on them being
very radical in that regard.

FELICITY OGILVIE: A disagreement about forestry broke the Labor Green accord.

Soon after Bob Brown made the switch to Canberra.

He is now one of five Greens sharing the balance of power in the Senate and he plans to use that
power for more than environmental reform.

BOB BROWN: I'll be pursuing legislation to restore to both the Territories, the ACT and the
Northern Territory, their right to legislate on dignity in dieing. That is the euthanasia laws.
That was taken off them by the Howard government.

FELICITY OGILVIE: Richard Herr is as Associate Professor of Politics at the University of Tasmania.

Despite their recent success, he is unsure if the Greens will ever become a major political party.

RICHARD HERR: Well they have certainly tried to broaden their agenda from the purely environment
focus. The problem that third parties like the Greens have, and indeed as the Democrats had is that
at a certain point, if you don't cross that threshold of becoming a challenger for government, your
agenda tends to be taken over by other parties.

FELICITY OGILVIE: Bob Brown disagrees.

BOB BROWN: The big old parties put on green spots in Opposition and they shed them in government
and we have to get in there and keep on our green policies and be an alternative voice because
those big parties simply are so conditioned by the last century, they can not give the environment
its due.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Green Senator Bob Brown ending that report from Felicity Ogilvie.

Luxury brands sue eBay

Luxury brands sue eBay

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:30:00

Reporter: Jennifer Macey

ELEANOR HALL: A French court has ordered the online auction site eBay to pay $65-million to a
luxury brands group for allowing the sale of fake goods online.

The company which represents Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior and Givenchy complained that eBay
operators did not do enough to stop the sale of counterfeit products.

But eBay is appealing the ruling and hitting back at the luxury brands group, accusing it of
anti-competitive behaviour.

Jennifer Macey has our report.

JENNIFER MACEY: On the Australian eBay site an item of women's clothing sells every eight second
and countless fake designer handbags and perfume are sold worldwide, alongside the usual array of
second-hand goods.

But now six designer and luxury brands have had enough.

They've sued the world's biggest online auctioneer for negligence and have won $65-million in a
French commercial court.

EBay spokesman Daniel Feiler says the company will be appealing the decision.

DANIEL FEILER: Today's ruling is not about eBay's fight against counterfeit products. Today's
ruling is about an attempt by LVMH to protect their own commercial practices at the expense of
consumer choice and the livelihood of law-abiding sellers that sell on eBay every day.

JENNIFER MACEY: The luxury brand group LVMH represents Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior, Givenchy and
Kenzo.

They argued their case on two fronts.

That eBay did not do enough to stop the sale of counterfeit products and that even those auctions
that sold a legitimate item was illegal as only specialist dealers are permitted to sell them.

But Daniel Feiler says eBay has done a lot to stamp out the sale of fake goods.

DANIEL FEILER: EBay invested more than $20-million a year to ensure that counterfeit goods are
found and removed.

EBay partners with over 18,000 brand owners around the world and those brand owners identify and
help us therefore successfully remove counterfeit goods.

There is over 2,000 people in eBay's Trust and Safety team who carry out the fight against
counterfeits on a daily basis and when we find counterfeit goods on eBay sites, we take them down.

JENNIFER MACEY: Ebay is also facing a similar court case in the US where the jewellery company
Tiffany and Co has described the site as a "rats nest" of fake goods.

Dr Alan Davidson a senior law lecturer at the University of Queensland says this ruling is a
massive blow to eBay.

ALAN DAVIDSON: My first reaction is that they should appeal it because it does have such a dramatic
impact on them and on many other companies as well. They have actually been looking at their
practices since 2006 and as I understand it, they have suspended at least 40,000 sales on the basis
that they have been selling undesirable items or items which might be breaching intellectual
property provisions but it doesn't go wide enough because they don't look at every individual sale.
It is more of a conduit.

But this case means that they might have to put up their fees because they need to put in place a
policing system.

JENNIFER MACEY: The luxury brands group has welcomed the decision saying its now protected brands
considered an important part of French heritage.

Intellectual copyright expert Dr Matthew Rimmer from the ANU College of Law in Canberra says it is
a landmark ruling. He says it could have wider ramifications for the protection of trademarks
worldwide.

MATTHEW RIMMER: At the moment, members of the G8 are busy negotiating an anti-counterfeiting trade
agreement including Australia as one of the participating nations in relation to that and I guess
the concern is that if trademark holders like LVMH can strongly enforce their trademark rights in
relation to famous trademarks, they will be able to divide up geographical markets around the world
and charge very high prices.

JENNIFER MACEY: He says this decision will hurt consumers and small business owners who regularly
use eBay.

MATTHEW RIMMER: But I think there is a big debate about whether eBay has become a pirate bazaar or
whether it is really a fair and open marketplace. I guess I am concerned that trademark holders are
really using counterfeiting or bringing actions in relation to counterfeiting in ways that might
have detrimental impacts upon consumers.

The concern is that eBay, to some extent, allows so much greater competition in terms of pricing of
luxury goods like Givenchy and Kenso and Christian Dior.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Dr Matthew Rimmer from the ANU college of Law ending that report by Jennifer
Macey.

Aussie scientists in allergy breakthrough

Aussie scientists in allergy breakthrough

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:34:00

Reporter: Emma Alberici

ELEANOR HALL: Allergies are a growing problem worldwide but now extreme allergic reactions could
become a thing of the past, thanks to a discovery by Australian scientists.

Researchers from the Garvan Institute have identified two molecules which combine to create an
allergic reaction 10 times more powerful than anything one molecule could create on its own.

They say that turning one of these molecules off could mean that the most severe of allergic
reactions could be avoided.

Emma Alberici has our report.

EMMA ALBERICI: According to the World Allergy Organisation, allergies are now the most frequent
reasons patients seek medical care.

In its inaugural state of world allergy report, the organisation states that even the less severe
allergic diseases can have a major adverse effect on the health of hundreds of millions of people
and diminish quality of life and worker productivity.

Now a world first study from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research is providing hope for people
suffering even the most extreme allergic reactions.

Dr Stuart Tangye led the team that has identified two molecules which, when they meet, create a
reaction 10 times more powerful than that produced by a single molecule on its own.

STUART TANGYE: It is fairly significant because for a long time we have known about some of the
factors that are involved in the production of IGE by the immune system but discovering another one
and quite a potent one is important because it tells us that we have to think about other targets
and so on for treating allergic diseases.

EMMA ALBERICI: An estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. It's one of the most
common chronic respiratory diseases in childhood but also affects adults.

The global affects of asthma, morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with it have
increased sharply over the past 40 years.

The prevalence alone of asthma has increased by 50 per cent every decade.

Of those who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health survey, up to 70 per cent of
those who said they suffered asthma also reported having hay fever.

Stuart Tangye is excited by what implications his research will have on these patients

STUART TANGYE: I think it is very exciting because it really has revealed to us another molecule
that could be really involved in the allergic processes.

Now that we have identified these couple of molecules, they represent targets that we could go
after to try to treat people who suffer from different allergic conditions.

EMMA ALBERICI: So how much better could this discovery make those symptoms they are feeling?

STUART TANGYE: Well, a lot of the symptoms that we see in these conditions are triggered by the
action of the antibody molecule IGE which is what we have been studying so by reducing the amount
of that IGE that is produced should attenuate many of the symptoms so hopefully it would give a
great deal of quality of life to these patients.

EMMA ALBERICI: Rob Loblay of the Australian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy remains
unconvinced that this development will translate into concrete solutions for patients.

ROB LOBLAY: I mean human disease is a lot more complicated than what you find in tissue culture
found in mice and a lot of the basic biology is done first in mice or in tissue culture and doesn't
always translate into living people.

And then even when it does translate into living people and you have got a drug that looks really
good or a treatment that looks really good in animals and people get very excited then, nine out of
10 drugs that are exciting in animals, turn out not to work in humans.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Rob Loblay from the Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology ending Emma
Alberici's report.

When Bottlemania came to town

When Bottlemania came to town

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:38:00

Reporter: Eleanor Hall

ELEANOR HALL: It is one of the most remarkable marketing coups of the last quarter of a century-
the explosion in bottled water sales in a country where a safer, better tasting alternative is
available for a fraction of the cost on tap.

In her book, Bottlemania New York investigative journalist, Elizabeth Royte details just how some
of the biggest companies in the world managed to build a market in the United States and its impact
on the environment.

Earlier today Elizabeth Royte spoke to me from New York.

ELIZABETH ROYTE: The short answer is marketing and three very large food companies, Coke, Pepsi and
Nestle spent hundreds of millions of dollars telling us that their water was healthful and natural
and that it would make us feel better and look better and they used athletes to link their water
with wellness and they used celebrities and models and the advertising worked.

But while they were pushing all these ads on us, there was a total lack of criticism of the bottled
water industry until quite recently and there was also no marketing competition from tap water.
Utilities don't have a lot of extra money in PR budgets to tell us that we should drink a lot of
tap water and it will help us do our yoga poses better.

So you had all these things working together which created this juggernaut.

ELEANOR HALL: It is an extraordinary marketing coup, isn't it when you consider that the explosion
in bottled water continued, even after Perrier which began the trend, was discovered to have some
cancer causing chemicals in it.

ELIZABETH ROYTE: Right. That sort of path, unnoticed. That was in 1990, there was a benzine scare
and that crisis for Perrier was an opportunity for Evian which really took off then.

There was another big change. It was sort of a technological thing but in 1989 it became possible
to put the bottled water into very inexpensive clear plastic bottles made of PET plaster whereas
before they had been in the glass and they had been in PVC plastic so now it was very much cheaper
for these companies to get their beverages out there.

And then as I said before, Coke and Pepsi got into the game with their millions of dollars in
marketing muscle and their very complex distribution network. They had, you know, they control a
lot of shelf space in supermarkets and in corner stores and gas stations and vending machines so it
was quite easy for them to get their new water product out into those spaces.

ELEANOR HALL: And how does tap water compare in terms of quality and taste in the United States
which is the biggest bottled water market in the world?

ELIZABETH ROYTE: Right, by and large the waters are fairly similar in quality. The big difference
is in how often bottled water is inspected. Tap water is tested tens of thousands, if not hundreds
of thousands of times a year and bottled water which is regulated by the FDA (Food and Drug
Authority) as a food product gets an inspector less than one time a year. In some cases a plant can
go unvisited for five years by an FDA inspector.

ELEANOR HALL: So tap water is safer. We don't need to drink bottled water. Even so, I guess, we
would all be drinking water from somewhere. Does it really make a difference then to the
environment if companies make a big profit out of water first?

ELIZABETH ROYTE: It does a big difference. I don't want to say that bottled water isn't safe in
itself. It is inspected less often and it sits around in plastic bottles and there is some evidence
that shows that some chemicals can leach from the plastic into the water but by and large bottled
water is pretty safe when it comes out of the plants.

But back to the environmental footprint of it, yes, it is significant in this country at least
where we drink so much water. About 50-billion bottles of it a year. It takes about 17-million
barrels of oil to make the bottles just used in this country and that is not counting the oil it
takes to transport it around across the country or import it by plane or on ship and then to keep
the water cold and then to collect all those empty bottles and send them either to recycling
centres or to the dumps.

So yes, it has a significant carbon impact.

ELEANOR HALL: So that is the packaging of the bottled water but in terms of the water itself, it is
using only .02 per cent of the ground water supply and industry and agriculture already use much
more than that. Aren't you blaming the bottled water industry for a much wider problem?

ELIZABETH ROYTE: Well, that .02 it comes from only a very few places and some places where they're
pumping water, spring water for bottling, complain that there has been environmental impact.

They are also moving that water around. When farmers use water, it goes back into the same
water-shed but the water being used for bottling is moving away from the water-shed, it is not
returning to that ecosystem there and that is what people are complaining about.

In addition to their fears that the pumping has dried up surrounding wetlands and lowered levels in
streams and lakes but I don't think bottled water is the worst thing in the world but if more
people and more and more people drink bottled water, they are not supporting tap water and our
political leaders need to know that we care about tap water and protecting water-sheds and taking
care of our infrastructure.

And it is a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy - the more bottled water we drink, the more bottled
water we are going to have to drink as municipal water supplies decline in quality.

ELEANOR HALL: That is investigative journalist, Elizabeth Royte, talking about her book,
Botttlemania.

Blood doping on the rise

Blood doping on the rise

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:42:00

Reporter: Simon Santow

ELEANOR HALL: When the Olympic Games begin next month, there's little doubt they will be
accompanied by questions about performance enhancing drugs.

But in Australia some of the stars of Rugby League and AFL are already raising eyebrows with a new
performance enhancing technique - they are injecting calves' blood to help them recover faster from
injuries.

Authorities say that the practice is legal but some sports medicine experts disagree as Simon
Santow reports.

SIMON SANTOW: The Manly Warringah Sea Eagles flew high in the NRL last year finishing runners up to
the Melbourne Storm.

This year they're again at the top of the table and reports suggest some of that high performance
is down to the use of calves' blood extract.

Actovegin is injected into the player who then supposedly benefits through improved stamina.

And, if injured, the player uses the substance to recover faster.

Robin Parisotto is a scientist, specialising in sport.

ROBIN PARISOTTO: The benefits are two-fold. Whether they actually work or not, no-one has actually
I guess, put it to the test under actual scientific study to study to prove it.

SIMON SANTOW: Would you say that it is increasingly popular? That it becoming the drug treatment of
choice for athletes?

ROBIN PARISOTTO: Look any drug that is not banned will be a source of temptation for any athlete
and any drug or supplement or pill or potion - every athlete will look at it as a potential source
or method to improve their performance.

SIMON SANTOW: Although you wouldn't expect athletes to be taking it if it didn't have a positive
effect.

ROBIN PARISOTTO: That is absolutely correct and with any substance, whatever, an athlete is not
going to continue to use it if it certainly detracts from their performance.

SIMON SANTOW: Are you aware Robin Parisotto of any side effects that this drug might have?

ROBIN PARISOTTO: My mind goes back to one of the cyclists in the Tour de France 2003. A Spanish
cyclist by the name of Jesus Manzano who took Actovegin. It was a concoction of Actovegin with
caffeine and a few other drugs and he claimed that after he took that concoction which included
Actovegin, soon after he began the race he actually collapsed during one of the hill climbs and he
put it down to the fact that the concoction had actually caused his collapse.

SIMON SANTOW: In AFL, some players have travelled to Germany to get access to doctors who use
Actovegin.

The World Today contacted several NRL clubs - most said they'd considered using calves' blood but,
in the end, were happy to stick with their existing training methods.

Jeremy Hickmans is the Performance Director of the Brisbane Broncos Rugby league team.

JEREMY HICKMANS: You are always looking for that edge but you know, I think you have got to make
sure you get all the basics right first and any edge you are looking for is proven and has got a
good amount of research behind it.

SIMON SANTOW: And in this case, Actovegin have the Brisbane Broncos looked at using it?

JEREMY HICKMANS: Yeah, well it is one of those things that has been investigated in the past but a
lot of the research that I personally have seen isn't conclusive into the benefits of it. You know,
it is obviously something we do keep in mind but not something we use at present.

SIMON SANTOW: Many clubs said that so long as the World Anti-Doping Agency, or WADA, approved the
drug for use by athletes, they would have no problem with Manly or anyone else using it to get an
advantage.

Richard Ings is with the Australian Sports Anti Doping Authority.

He says the rules are relatively clear.

RICHARD INGS: Actovegin is not on the prohibited list therefore it is not a prohibited substance.
However any athlete using Actovegin intravenously could be classed as using a prohibited method and
a possible doping violation.

SIMON SANTOW: So in what way is it legal for Athletes to take Actovegin?

RICHARD INGS: Well, not being a prohibited substance, an athlete could take Actovegin as an
intra-muscular injection.

SIMON SANTOW: Sports Medicine expert Doctor Peter Larkins takes a much harder line.

PETER LARKINS: The IOC placed it on its banned list on 2000 because they were aware of widespread
use of Actovegin in Europe particularly in sports like cycling in the late 1990s and it is broadly
covered by the WADA guidelines because there is a clause that says anything that has the potential
to include or improve oxygen transport and one of the claims of this product by the manufacturer is
that it improves oxygen transport in the body.

SIMON SANTOW: So the fact that at least one rugby league team seems to be using it in Australia at
an elite level, what would that say to competitors of that team?

PETER LARKINS: Look, I believe that the product is being used very broadly around Australia by a
number of sporting teams, not just one particular team in Sydney.

It tells me that this particular product is being sought by athletes as a way of trying to gain a
benefit.

ELEANOR HALL: That is Sports Medicine expert, Dr Peter Larkins, speaking there with Simon Santow.

Hewitt bowed, but not broken

Hewitt bowed, but not broken

The World Today - Tuesday, 1 July , 2008 12:46:00

Reporter: Rafael Epstein

ELEANOR HALL: The reigning Wimbledon champion Roger Federer barely raised a sweat as he knocked
Australia's Lleyton Hewitt out of the tournament last night.

He beat Hewitt in straight sets and remains on track to claim a record equalling six straight
Wimbledon titles.

But Federer did have some positive words for the Australian who was the last player to win
Wimbledon before Federer began his run of victories as Europe correspondent Rafael Epstein reports.

(Sound of tennis ball being hit)

RAFAEL EPSTEIN: Lleyton Hewitt is sometimes described as the unfortunate number one.

When he was at the peak of his game, Pete Sampras was bowing out, and Roger Federer was arriving
and this year Federer simply swept the Australian aside.

TENNIS UMPIRE: Game, set, match to Federer. 7-6, 6-2, 6-4.

RAFAEL EPSTEIN: Lleyton Hewitt won't say where or whether he'll play in the next few months. He is
taking advice on how to best heal his hip injury.

Still, he think's he's close to the top 5 in the world.

LLEYTON HEWITT: Yeah, I didn't feel like I was that far away but then the big points he played a
lot better than I did. Obviously he, Djokovic and Nadal are the three stand outs at the moment. I
don't feel like I am that far away.

RAFAEL EPSTEIN: I just wonder, is the daunting thing about playing him, he obviously gets the shots
in so well, or is there also a psychological barrier there for everyone that he ...

LLEYTON HEWITT: Oh, you don't focus too much on that. Once you go out there to play, it is about
what you can do to try and upset his rhythm and not play into his comfort zone too much.

RAFAEL EPSTEIN: That must get very dispiriting. It seems like every time you get a bit closer, he
is always able to step up another level. Does it get you down when you are playing like that?

LLEYTON HEWITT: Oh, I don't know about another level. He stayed pretty similar the whole way
through but it was just the last five years or so he has played the big points extremely well so
you know, that is where the difference is.

RAFAEL EPSTEIN: At his best, Hewitt was one of the faster and more powerful players. Now Roger
Federer, Rafael Nadal and players like Novak Djokovic have sometimes even more strength and speed
and they can pull off great shots.

Roger Federer seems able to put the ball wherever he chooses. Federer says that Hewitt - who's only
six months older than him, has a simple problem. Hewitt, he says, is injured, so he can't play as
many games as he needs to, to rebuild his world ranking.

ROGER FEDERER: Well I think for him the recent years have been more of an injury problem really
getting over that and being able to play a proper schedule from January to November but the thing
is as well, I don't think he cares that much about his ranking anymore so I think he has the
potential obviously to be top 10, top 5.

RAFAEL EPSTEIN: Can he make the same sort of shots that the others can?

ROGER FEDERER: Well, the thing is, I don't think the ranking is his driving thing here. I think it
is about being in the Slam. Playing me and then hopefully beating me which didn't happen today
because I think he was a bit hurt you know, but I can tell I think if he would play 25 tournaments
a year and be on top of his game, yes he has absolutely the chance to be at the top, you know.

ELEANOR HALL: That is the reigning Wimbledon champion, Roger Federer, ending that report from our
Europe correspondent, Rafael Epstein.