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Proposed security laws may affect email privacy

Proposed security laws may affect email privacy

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:10:00

Reporter: Samantha Hawley

LISA MILLAR: The Federal Government says a growing threat to national security has forced it to
consider allowing companies to intercept workers' emails, without their consent.

The Attorney-General Robert McClelland says the Government's considering new laws to counter
cyber-attacks that could target the nation's critical infrastructure.

Current laws only allow security agencies to monitor individual employee communications. But Mr
McClelland says companies providing important services to the community may need that power too.

It's a move that's outraged civil liberty groups.

From Canberra, Samantha Hawley reports.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: The Federal Government says the nation needs tougher laws so employees up to no
good can be stopped.

JULIA GILLARD: I promise we're not interested in the email you send out about who did what at the
Christmas party.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: Speaking on Channel 9, the Deputy Prime Minister Julia Gillard defended the need
for even greater anti-terrorism measures.

JULIA GILLARD: What this is about is looking at our critical infrastructure. Now, when we think
infrastructure, we think of roads and bridges and big things, but our technology is big
infrastructure issue these days. If our banking system collapsed, if our government electronic
systems collapsed, obviously that would have huge implications for society.

So, we want to make sure that they are safe from terrorist attack. Part of doing that is to make
sure we've got the right powers to ensure that we can tell if there's something unusual going on in
the system. So it's a national security move, not a move about, you know, an unseemly interest in
people's private emails.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: In fact, the Government says it has advice that an attack on the computer systems
sustaining the stock exchange, electricity grids and wider financial systems could have far greater
economic damage than a physical terrorist attack.

And it insists there's a growing threat of that happening.

JULIA GILLARD: We're obviously looking at this as we do with the rest of security interventions.
We're monitoring risk when risk is heightened.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: The Government says the best way forward is to introduce new laws to allow
companies involved in the running of critical infrastructure to access the emails of their staff.

It says it could stop unwanted viruses entering the system.

The shadow attorney-general George Brandis says he's concerned by the planned laws.

GEORGE BRANDIS: There seems to be a suggestion that the onus is going to shift in some unspecified
way onto employers to act, in effect, as a quasi law-enforcement of investigative authority. Now,
this is the job of the Australian Federal Police, first and foremost.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: The Attorney-General Robert McClelland says it's just proposal and he will consult
widely with privacy experts before introducing any new laws.

ROBERT MCCLELLAND: This is a very important discussion to have. Obviously you would be looking at
excluding use of personal information for any other form of, any other purpose, such as for
instance, disciplinary matters regarding the employee's conduct, or any other privacy issues,
whether it's from... in other words you're not interested in communications from employee's friends,
their children, other family members.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: But already civil liberty groups are putting up a fight.

TERRY O'GORMAN: This government particularly has to make out a case why such a draconian proposal
is needed.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: The head of the Council of Civil Liberties, Terry O'Gorman, says there are already
enough anti-terrorism laws in place.

TERRY O'GORMAN: We've got the stage in Australia where we have passed so many laws in the name of
fighting terrorism that we're at serious risk of losing the balance between giving the intelligence
services sufficient powers to fight terrorism, while at the same time keeping long-standing and
cherished civil liberties.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: The chair of the Privacy Foundation Roger Clarke agrees that there's no need for
new laws. And he argues there are no new threats.

ROGER CLARKE: We have been depending on computers for 40 years. We have been using email since
1972. In the event that there were real possibilities of major interruptions based in some way
through emails, then those things would have already happened. Those things haven't happened.

The Government is, if they're pursuing this line, is making up a Hemera, making up a mythology in
order to justify greater powers, and it does not makes sense.

SAMANTHA HAWLEY: But Robert McClelland says in Estonia last year, hackers effectively shut down the
Government there for almost a fortnight.

He says that's proof it can be done.

LISA MILLAR: Samantha Hawley reporting.

Inquiry into Stolen Generations' compo begins

Inquiry into Stolen Generations' compo begins

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:14:00

Reporter: Sabra Lane

LISA MILLAR: First the apology, now the discussion over compensation. A Senate inquiry will start
holding public hearings into what form a compensation scheme for the Stolen Generations might take.

The inquiry's already received more than 70 submissions, many of them in favour of awarding
payments to those who were forcibly taken from their families.

Some argue Kevin Rudd's apology earlier this year was an important first step in working towards
reconciliation, but say compensation remains important unfinished business and may help solve much
of the dysfunction in Indigenous communities.

From Canberra, Sabra Lane reports.

SABRA LANE: On 26 May 1997, the "Bringing Them Home" report on the removal of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander children from their families was tabled in Federal Parliament.

It made 54 recommendations. It took nearly 11 years to deliver one of its most important findings:
an apology for what happened. The report also recommended compensation.

But The Prime Minister said while an apology was important, he said his government wasn't
interested in compensation, saying that practical measures, like closing the 17-year life
expectancy gap between black and white Australians was more important.

Democrats Senator Andrew Bartlett has proposed a compensation scheme, his private member's bill is
the subject of a Senate inquiry which will hold public hearings in Darwin and Sydney this week.

ANDREW BARTLETT: It is modelled loosely on the approach that's already been implemented in
Tasmania. A much less legalistic model that's much quicker and less expensive that enables people
to make their case using whatever evidence they can pull together to justify it, to indicate that
they've been affected directly by practices of the Stolen Generations.

SABRA LANE: The inquiry's received more than 70 submissions.

Senator Bartlett's scheme proposes a payment of $20,000 to each victim, with an additional sum of
$3,000 for each year of institutionalisation.

ANDREW BARTLETT: I really want the broad principle and concept of a compensation mechanism, as has
been done in Tasmania, to be considered at a national level or even to re-establish the case for
states to follow Tasmania's lead as well.

I just think it needs to be more fully examined and the way things were going at federal level, the
Federal Government basically made its apology and said, "You know, that's it, let's move on," and I
don't think yet that it is appropriate to move on without fully examining all of the other
unfinished business from the "Bringing Them Home" report, particularly the recommendations relating
to compensation which were intertwined and part of a coherent package of which the apology was just
one part.

SABRA LANE: The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission has also lodged a submission. It says
failure to adequately compensate those who were removed from their families remains a significant
human rights issue.

It says the bill should be passed and the Council of Australian Governments should establish a
scheme with territory and state governments contributing funds, as well as churches and
non-government agencies, who played a role in removing Aboriginal children from their families.

Civil rights lawyer Julian Burnside has also sent a submission to the inquiry.

JULIAN BURNSIDE: The Prime Minister's apology to the Stolen Generations on 13 February,
acknowledged what I think is evident to most people that the removal of children from their parents
was a terrible wrong. Now, it may have been done for benign reasons at the time, but we can see now
that it was a wrong thing to do and it was foreseeable at the time that doing that would cause harm
to the children.

I think acknowledging that harm was caused, and was caused by wrongful acts, lead to pretty
obviously to a requirement that there should be some compensation from the harm caused.

SABRA LANE: Mr Burnside's views are shaped by his involvement as counsel for Bruce Trevorrow, a man
who successfully sued the South Australian Government for the injury he endured as a result of
being taken from his family when he was just 13-months-old.

He received damages of $800,000. The State Government's legal costs ran to nearly $4 million.

JULIAN BURNSIDE: Of course it's possible for members of the Stolen Generations to bring cases in
court, but the problem is, that litigation is a terribly clumsy and expensive way of proving their
claims... the reality is that the people who are eligible are likely to spend the best, part of the
rest of their lives fighting for compensation.

It's hugely expensive for governments and it's gruelling in the extreme for the person affected.
Now, if we acknowledge that they have been wronged, I think we should provide a simple form of
compensation.

SABRA LANE: Mr Burnside says compensation could be crucial in solving the dysfunction evident in so
many Indigenous communities now.

JULIAN BURNSIDE: I don't think it's any great accident that you've got a lot of dysfunctional
Aboriginal adults in their middle years now, because many of them are like that because they were
removed.

The scientific evidence about the consequence of separating a child from his or her parents in
their early years is really very clear, and the forms of harm which are likely to be experienced
are exactly the sorts of things that we're seeing now in people; dysfunctional people, people with
no sense of their own identity and who seek some sort of comfort in alcohol and drugs, but these
are absolutely typical, the harms caused by people who are removed.

So, I think fixing the consequences of removal will actually help address the causes of the present
problems in the Indigenous community.

LISA MILLAR: That's lawyer Julian Burnside ending that report by Sabra Lane.

Vic nurses shortage causes infant surgery delays

Vic nurses shortage causes infant surgery delays

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:18:00

Reporter: Alison Caldwell

LISA MILLAR: A shortage of intensive care nurses in Victoria means babies are waiting months for
urgent open heart surgery, according to the chief of surgery at the Royal Children's Hospital.

Cancellations have more than doubled over the past year and in some cases children have had their
operations postponed seven times. Parents are being told funding shortfalls and too much red tape
are to blame.

The Brumby Government is passing on that blame, claiming the Howard Government continually
neglected the number of places made available for training.

Alison Caldwell reports.

ALISON CALDWELL: Karina Innes' eight-year-old son Kevin has a hole in his heart.

KARINA INNES: He's very small for his age. He spends a lot of the energy he uses is basically just
on breathing.

ALISON CALDWELL: Diagnosed last July, his surgery has been cancelled twice. A private patient,
Karina Innes says he's been bumped down the waiting list in favour of younger children and babies,
but in the meantime, his condition is deteriorating.

KARINA INNES: In the last six months, Kevin stops breathing at night, and you were saying, "At
eight o'clock, okay, let's get ready for school," and he's tired. There's some weeks where he can
only manage school two days a week.

ALISON CALDWELL: Melbourne's Royal Children's Hospital treats babies and young children not only
from Victoria, but South Australia, Tasmania and New South Wales as well.

Heartkids Victoria supports families whose children need cardiac surgery. President Scott Reinke
says cancellations have increased dramatically over the past 12 months.

SCOTT REINKE: The normal level of cancellations runs at about seven a week, this year we seem to be
more to around 16 and in this month alone we're up to 30 already. So, we're getting a lot of
children having to have their operations cancelled, sometimes up to four or even seven times and
it's causing a lot of distress for families, but also medical concern issues.

The longer it's delayed, sometimes the worse the condition can be for the child, so they start
deteriorating.

LEO DONNAN: At present, it is just under control, but if the day-to-day almost hour-to-hour juggle
that we continue.

ALISON CALDWELL: That's the chief of surgery at the Royal Children's Hospital, Dr Leo Donnan. He
says the problem isn't with beds, but with a shortage of nurses.

LEO DONNAN: It's not because of a lack of theatre times, not because of lack of surgeons and not
because of lack of the ability to do the work, it's really because we haven't got the staff to open
those beds up, although we are at currently at full capacity.

ALISON CALDWELL: Dr Donnan puts it down to the so called baby boom and says the hospital has gone
on a recruitment drive for an extra 14 nurses before winter.

The State's Health Minister Daniel Andrews wasn't available for an interview.

A spokesman accused the former Howard government of neglecting training places for over a decade.
He said the Brumby Government was now working with the Rudd Government to tackle skills shortages,
including specialist nursing staff.

The Opposition's Health spokeswoman Helen Shardey said the problem is symptomatic of an overall
failure on the part of the Brumby Government to provide for the future of Victoria's hospitals.

HELEN SHARDEY: Victorians are heartily sick of the blame game. There has been a disgraceful neglect
and poor funding of our hospitals and of course this is now causing a major problem for the sickest
in our community and the youngest.

ALISON CALDWELL: The hospital's chief of surgery says this is about a shortage of nurses. The
Brumby Government points to what it says is the Howard Government's neglect of skills training.

HELEN SHARDEY: The issue of nursing, as I understand it from hospital sources, is that there is a
problem with retention of nurses, that is, keeping nurses in the system. The policy taken to the
last election by the Liberal Party would have offered better pay and conditions, particularly for
ICU (Intensive Care Unit) nurses, so that they will stay in their jobs and provide the service
needed for our children.

ALISON CALDWELL: But that's little comfort for Karina Innes and her son Kevin, who's still waiting
for an operation.

KARINA INNES: We're yet to get a new date for his surgery, and it's just frustrating because we
know what the problem is, we know how to fix it, but we can't, we're stuck in, we're stuck in the
cake, basically.

LISA MILLAR: Karina Innes, ending Alison Caldwell's report.

Home mortgage sales plummet

Home mortgage sales plummet

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:22:00

Reporter: Stephen Long

LISA MILLAR: To the economy now and fresh evidence that rates rises are killing off home sales. The
latest official estimates of housing finance show a significant fall.

After adjusting for seasonal factors, overall finance was down more than seven per cent. Lending
for owner-occupied housing was down nearly six per cent.

The news comes as Australia's biggest mortgage broker reports an unprecedented drop in mortgage
sales.

Joining me now with more details is economics correspondent, Stephen Long.

Stephen, what do you make of the fall?

STEPHEN LONG: Well Lisa, they suggest that the rates rises are really taking the wind out of the
housing market big time. The expectations among economists was that we would see a slight rise in
housing finance. Instead, it's gone very much the other way with these sizeable falls. No-one was
really expecting that we'd see a six per cent fall in finance for owner-occupied housing.

Bear in mind that these figures are for February and we've had further rates pains since then and
you've got to really, a multiple series of rates rises by the Reserve Bank plus extra rises on top,
imposed by lending institutions to cover their increased cost of finance.

You'd have to imagine that this is only the start and it's likely to get worse. Now, that trend is
being suggested by figures from AFG, which is Australia's biggest mortgage broking company. They've
been compiling statistics on their sales for a while. Now, put this in context, mortgage brokers
are losing market share to banks at the moment, so that may have something to do with it.

Nonetheless, they've seen an unprecedented fall in the finance sales that are coming through their
books, in an index that they compile. I spoke to Mark Hewitt, their general manager of sales, and
this is what he had to say.

MARK HEWITT: The first time since we've been keeping this data, we had a decline in say, a
quarterly decline in sales which is unprecedented in our history and it just tells us that people
are very concerned about committing to mortgages, into investment loans and really putting things
on hold until they see how the current economic situation pans out.

STEPHEN LONG: What do you think is driving that? Is it rates or uncertainty about the economy or
both?

MARK HEWITT: I think it's primarily rates. We've had a large number of consecutive rate increases
and people are concerned about the future. They're probably not wanting to commit themselves and
get themselves out of their depth.

LISA MILLAR: That was Mark Hewitt from AFG, which is Australia's biggest mortgage broker. Stephen,
why is housing finance falling, despite all the talk of a rental crisis. Wouldn't that be
encouraging more people to invest in property?

STEPHEN LONG: In the long run, Lisa, it will, but as the famous economist John Maynard Keynes said,
"In the long-run, we're all dead." In the short-run, people have to finance their purchases and the
multiple rates rises are just really whacking it.

If you look at the broad scheme of history, I mean, one of the core factors that's overlooked in
the extraordinary rise in asset prices and housing in particular that we saw over the past decade,
was the availability of cheap credit. The cheap credit dries up, the asset prices can go the other
way.

And so yes, in the long-run, and of course in the short-run, this is going to be more pain for
renters and we're already seeing significant issues with a lack of affordability in that market as
well as the overall housing market.

LISA MILLAR: So do the figures we see today, are they likely to influence sentiment of the Reserve
Bank, does it mean that rates will be on hold now?

STEPHEN LONG: This is one of a number of indicators that suggest that the dose of medicine that the
Reserve Bank has handed out with the multiple rates rises is actually working to slow the economy.

I'll tell you something interesting that works the other way though. There were some wages figures
out today and they showed a seven per cent increase in mean wages over the past year. This is a
series on wages that includes compositional change so people moving to higher paid jobs. So, might
not be quite that bad as the raw number suggests, but you know, the Reserve still has concerns.

It will all turn really, on the inflation data that we get out in late April. We're unlikely to get
a rates rise unless that's really off the planet, off the dial.

LISA MILLAR: And Stephen, just briefly, any other economic news out this week?

STEPHEN LONG: Tomorrow the Reserve Bank releases the minutes of its last board meeting and although
they are heavily sanitised, that should give us some insight into the thinking of the Reserve Bank
and why they left rates on hold last time.

LISA MILLAR: Economics correspondent Stephen Long, thank you.

We want you Bin Brother

We want you Bin Brother

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:26:00

Reporter: Karen Barlow

LISA MILLAR: You might think your waste is tossed away never to be seen again, but a new tracking
device on rubbish bins could mean your garbage comes back to bite.

Two Sydney councils are now weighing thousands of residential bins through the use of tiny radio
frequency identification tags hidden on the rim. The idea is to improve recycling rates by
identifying the amount and location of excess waste.

The councils are touting the measure as part of their green credentials, but one prominent
environmentalist says it is purely a commercial activity which doesn't go far enough.

Karen Barlow reports.

KAREN BARLOW: There is revolution going on in waste management, which Big Brother would be proud
of.

Tucked away under the rim of wheelie bins found in two Sydney councils, are small radio frequency
tracking devices collecting information on a household's waste habits.

The Mayor of Randwick, Bruce Notley-Smith, says they're the way of the future.

BRUCE NOTLEY-SMITH: We will be able to find out the weights of the various bins and collect the
data, the entire amount, as opposed to the quantities that's recyclable.

KAREN BARLOW: So this is working in concert with the actual garbage truck?

BRUCE NOTLEY-SMITH: That's right. The garbage truck reads the data on the bin and weighs the bin
and that is collated on a computer.

KAREN BARLOW: How do you see that as coming back to the individual and affecting what they do?

BRUCE NOTLEY-SMITH: We've aimed to increase or target problem areas in the city where there's a
lower level of recycling. The fact is that 50 per cent of the city of Randwick is multi-unit
dwellings and we have faced a number of challenges there with getting compliance with recycling.

KAREN BARLOW: So, you already have a fairly good idea of who to target, you're just sort of proving
it through these devices?

BRUCE NOTLEY-SMITH: Pretty much so.

KAREN BARLOW: Ryde is the other council using the tracking devices. It has done so since 2006 and
says it has helped to raise local recycling rates to about 48 per cent.

But champions of recycling are underwhelmed. The founder of Clean Up Australia is Ian Kiernan.

IAN KIERNAN: I don't believe they deserve huge praise for an environmental initiative because I
don't think it is that. I think it's simply a somewhat effective commercial move. It's like when
you have metered electricity, you can look at your metre and see how you can count it back.

But this information is not going back to the consumer, to the rubbish producer, the householder,
it is simply for that particular waste company to keep a track of its bins.

KAREN BARLOW: The data collected by the tracking devices is supposed to stay between the council
and the contractor, WSN Environmental Solutions, due to privacy concerns.

Ian Kiernan says the information should be shared with the garbage thrower.

IAN KIERNAN: They could say, "We've got to cut down on what we're paying to get rid of your
rubbish. Where obviously need to remove some of the recycling that's going into the waste stream,
or we've got to look at our purchasing so we're buying less packaging." And so many things that you
can do in that little household audit, if, once you have the data.

KAREN BARLOW: But Randwick's Mayor Bruce Notley-Smith says he is not in it to make money for the
Council.

BRUCE NOTLEY-SMITH: I don't know, certainly make a great deal of money out of recyclables. That's
for the market to decide, it's our obligation to actually collect as much as for our recyclable
material as we possibly can and reduce as much as we can the amount of waste going into landfill.

KAREN BARLOW: Well this contractor must be making some sort of money out of the situation. I mean,
the information is not being shared with the individual; it's between council and the contractor.

BRUCE NOTLEY-SMITH: The commercial imperative is not the issue here, it's a, we're trying to
minimise the amount of waste which is going into landfill. The contractor, what they actually do
with the recyclable material, that's for the market to decide.

KAREN BARLOW: Recycling can be big business. It is no surprise that one of Australia's richest men
is the 'Cardboard King', Richard Pratt.

Ian Kiernan says more needs to be done on the individual, government and business level to reduce
waste.

IAN KIERNAN: A large, or some proportion of what is recyclable is actually going to landfill
because it's convenient and it can be cheaper than recycling. Now, I haven't tracked down the
validity of those claims, but we've just got to realise that we have got to improve our waste
management.

And the good operators are doing it, they're looking to how they do it everyday. But just putting
tags on bins is not a huge stride forward in the name of the environment.

LISA MILLAR: That's the founder and chairman of Clean Up Australia, Ian Kiernan, ending that report
from Karen Barlow.

Zimbabwe opposition's legal challenge to recount

Zimbabwe opposition's legal challenge to recount

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:30:00

Reporter: Ashley Hall

LISA MILLAR: Opposition supporters in Zimbabwe are again pinning their hopes on the High Court to
help settle the political stalemate the country has endured since the election more than two weeks
ago.

This time they're challenging the legality of a government plan to recount the votes in 23
parliamentary constituencies next Saturday.

The Government blames its loss of a parliamentary majority on widespread electoral fraud, and has
arrested 11 election officials to make the point.

The High Court is expected to announce its decision to an earlier petition lodged by the Opposition
to force the immediate release of the presidential election results.

Ashley Hall reports.

ASHLEY HALL: It's becoming a well-trod path to the High Court from the offices of Zimbabwe's
opposition Movement for Democratic Change.

This time, the MDC wants the Court to intervene to stop a planned recount of 23 of Zimbabwe's 210
parliamentary constituencies.

Nelson Chamisa is an MDC spokesman.

NELSON CHAMISA: It is not legal, on the simple reason that Zanu-PF and ZEC (Zimbabwe Electoral
Commission) have already stuffed the ballot boxes. In fact, they've tampered through the ballot
boxes for the past 12 days, they have not released the results. So we are not going to be that
foolish to just walk into a trap.

ASHLEY HALL: The electoral commission or ZEC's results gave the Opposition 109 seats, allowing it
to take control of Parliament. Robert Mugabe's ruling Zanu-PF party only won 97 seats.

But the Government claims the MDC bribed election officials to rig the votes, and has arrested 11
people. It says a recount in 23 seats would correct the bias.

The MDC's Nelson Chamisa says it's a chance for the Government to engineer the recount and steal
back its majority in Parliament.

NELSON CHAMISA: It is a serious trap, they would want to reverse the people's vote, they would want
to discount the people's vote and the people's verdict and that is why we are not going to allow
and accept this situation whereby they're talking about a recount.

ASHLEY HALL: The political analyst John Makumbe says there's no justification for the recounts.

JOHN MAKUMBE: It is really unfortunate because the ballots were counted in the presence of all the
agents and it is really a fiction to say the ZEC officials miscounted deliberately to make the MDC
win.

ASHLEY HALL: The MDC was last in the High Court more than a week ago, asking a judge to force the
electoral commission to release the results of the presidential election. A decision in that case
is expected today.

Jamie Williams, of the Zimbabwean women's organisation Rise Up says it's not before time.

JAMIE WILLIAMS: What kind of a court then takes a long time to hear the case and then gives us
another four days to utter a ruling. What kind of a court is that? Is that a court representing the
Zimbabwean people, or is it a court wanting to facilitate a continued state by an illegitimate
regime.

ASHLEY HALL: The MDC's Morgan Tsvangirai has claimed victory in the presidential race, but the
Zanu-PF party says neither Mr Tsvangirai nor President Mugabe won an absolute majority, so a
run-off election should be held.

Mr Tsvangirai is hoping pressure from outside the country will help unseat Mr Mugabe.

But there was no tough talk from southern African leaders at an emergency summit over the weekend
in Zambia's capital, Lusaka. They issued a four-page statement which only called for the
presidential poll results to be delivered "expeditiously".

It may be no surprise. At the last summit of the leaders seven months ago, Mr Mugabe was given a
standing ovation. And on the way to the summit, South Africa's President Thabo Mbeki, tried to talk
down Zimbabwe's problems.

THABO MBEKI: There has been an electoral process taking place in Zimbabwe, we are waiting,
everybody, everybody's waiting for the Zimbabwean Electoral Commission to announce all the results
that are outstanding. I wouldn't describe that as a crisis.

ASHLEY HALL: The Opposition accuses Robert Mugabe of running a military junta and using the army to
violently intimidate his opponents since the election.

But the Government says soldiers remain in their barracks and it says they won't intervene in the
country's political crisis.

That resolve may be tested tomorrow, when the MDC has called for an indefinite general strike.

LISA MILLAR: Ashley Hall reporting.

Kenya's Kibaki names Odinga as successor

Kenya's Kibaki names Odinga as successor

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:35:00

Reporter: Lindy Kerin

LISA MILLAR: Uncertainty in Zimbabwe, but to the north in Kenya, there's been a significant
breakthrough.

The country's President Mwai Kibaki has named his political opponent Raila Odinga as prime
minister. The announcement ends weeks of anxiety and implements a power-sharing deal the two rivals
signed more than a month ago to resolve a political crisis.

Mwai Kibaki unveiled the 40 Cabinet ministers a day after holding secret talks with his political
rival.

Lindy Kerin reports.

(Sound of the Kenyan national anthem)

LINDY KERIN: With great ceremony, the Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki announced the power-sharing
deal. He named his political opponent Raila Odinga, as the Prime Minister-elect.

MWAI KIBAKI: Prime Minister, the Honourable Raila Amolo Odinga.

LINDY KERIN: The deal brings an end to the east African nation's post-election crisis.

More than 1,000 people were killed and hundreds of thousands were displaced last year, after the
disputed presidential election erupted in deadly violence.

Mwai Kibaki told national television, compromises had been made in the interests of Kenyan people.

MWAI KIBAKI: Fellow Kenyans, the outcome of the general elections brought to the fore an
unprecedented political challenges. The situation has required statesmanship and sacrifices for the
sake of the national peace and unity.

LINDY KERIN: Intense negotiations have taken place over the make up of the 40-member Cabinet, with
both sides trying to secure the most powerful portfolios.

But it's been revealed the ministries will be split equally between the President's Party of
National Unity and its allied parties, and Raila Odinga's Orange Democratic Movement.

Kenyans have celebrated the news, like this man waving posters of Raila Odinga.

KENYAN CITIZEN (translated): This is what we were waiting for, for them to name the Cabinet so that
Kenyans can see development. If our economy is doing badly they should work on it for us. We voted
for them, they are our leaders, we rely on them, we depend on them as our leaders. Let them not
shame us again.

LINDY KERIN: But there are concerns about the size of the Cabinet. Kenyans have protested against
having 40 ministers in government.

Professor David Dorward is an African Studies analyst at the La Trobe University.

DAVID DORWARD: The thing about it is I think Raila Odinga, in getting the prime ministership has
cut a deal where an awful lot of the power really remains with President Kibaki's Party for
National Unity. They have retained almost all of the really key ministries.

So, though there's a split in the Cabinet 50-50, and it's a grossly over-inflated cabinet, in order
to accommodate the former Opposition, the Orange Democratic Movement it doesn't really bode well
for the longer-term in truth.

LINDY KERIN: Joseph Warungu from the Focus on Africa magazine agrees. He's told the BBC it could
take a long time to resolve outstanding problems with such a large cabinet.

JOSEPH WARUNGU: You've got to resettle these people. They're still in camps, they're still in need
of food, at the moment there's the long rains which are affecting the country, they're even
possibilities of flooding. It's the humanitarian crisis that this government's got to turn its
attention to.

Unfortunately, at the moment, it's about satisfying their own...the politicians' own needs and people
are worried, "How long is it going to take you to do that before you can turn yourself to actually
healing the country?" Everything is on hold waiting for whatever key or message that these leaders
were going to send if it was back to Boer War or back to violence.

So, everybody's waiting to see how long and how quickly can they get on their feet and they've
shared their ministries, they've shared out the resources, the key thing is not resettle the people
and then show that they can have, they can rebuild a country, remove the atmosphere of deep
mistrust that has affected Kenya.

LINDY KERIN: For now, President Kibaki, and Prime Minister Odinga must now begin drafting a new
constitution.

The President hopes the new deal signals a new era for Kenya.

MWAI KIBAKI: Let us put politics aside and get to work. Let us build a new Kenya where justice is
our shield and defender and where peace, liberty and plenty will be found throughout our country.

LISA MILLAR: Kenya's President Mwai Kibaki ending Lindy Kerin's report.

Churchie 'still in the early 20th century'

Churchie 'still in the early 20th century'

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:40:00

Reporter: Matt Wordsworth

LISA MILLAR: A new battleground in gay and lesbian rights has opened up in Queensland after a
Brisbane private school banned gay students from taking male partners to the school formal.

The school says the formal is an interaction between girls and boys but Queensland's
Anti-Discrimination Commissioner says it may be breaching the Anti-Discrimination Act.

Matt Wordsworth reports.

MATT WORDSWORTH: Anglican Church Grammar School, or "Churchie" as it more commonly known, is one of
Queensland's top schools and is set to turn out 215 boys from Year 12 this year.

But a storm has erupted over the crowning event, the school formal, and the request for gay
students to bring male partners. It's been turned down.

Anglican Archbishop Phillip Aspinall is president of the school council. He says the church does
support gay people but it's the first time this dilemma has been faced and is supporting the
headmaster's decision.

PHILLIP ASPINALL: I have no personal objection to a school deciding to allow boys to take friends
who are boys or girls to take friends who are girls to school formals. But I understand in this
particular instance the school has decided that its approach is to emphasise the interaction of
young men and young women and providing them with an opportunity to do that in this kind of formal
setting. And I have not objection to that either. I think that's a reasonable and legitimate
approach.

MATT WORDSWORTH: Rev. Anne James from the Metropolitan Community Church, which broke away over gay
rights, says it's a damaging for the students.

ANNE JAMES: These are kids that were born gay, they didn't choose it, they're not choosing to be
contrary to the norm, or anything like that. They were born gay, just as much as people are born
left-handed or they're born with curly hair or something like that.

So, they're kids that are born that way and by refusing them the right to take their male partners
in the same way that other heterosexual young men are allowed to take their female partners, by
doing that, they're giving those kids the message that they're not okay. And I find that really
regrettable, really sad, it makes me quite angry, it's horrible to give any kid a message that
they're not okay just because of who they are.

MATT WORDSWORTH: Is there space within the Anglican Church for these students to be gay and take
gay partners to a school formal?

ANNE JAMES: I would like to think there is. I think regrettably the church hasn't yet reached the
point where it is prepared to take that stand. It's still back in the 20th, instead of the 21st
century. It's still back at the beginning of the 20th century.

MATT WORDSWORTH: Are these students able to know what their sexuality is at this stage in their
life?

ANNE JAMES: Absolutely, absolutely. You will find that just as young men have an interest in young
girls as soon as they reach puberty, so young men who are gay have an interest in other young men
when they hit puberty.

MATT WORDSWORTH: Denise Maxwell, a lawyer with an interest in same-sex issues, says there are other
private schools who allow same sex partners. Brisbane Boys Grammar is believed to have allowed a
gay student to bring a partner while the all-girls school Stuartholme allows girls to take
schoolmates.

DENISE MAXWELL: It takes a lot of courage for young men and women to come out as gay or lesbian
when they're still at school and it takes a lot more courage, I think, than I had at that age to
say that you want to take your partner to the school formal.

MATT WORDSWORTH: Queensland's anti-Discrimination Commissioner, Susan Booth, says there are
exemptions from the Anti-Discrimination Act for private schools but only for the purpose of
enrolling students from one gender or religious background.

SUSAN BOOTH: Oh look, the laws pretty simple here in Queensland. Sexual discrimination is unlawful
and it applies to schools, it applies to both public and private schools and so that type of
discrimination is unlawful.

MATT WORDSWORTH: The boy in question has not made a complaint to the commission yet but it has
stirred controversy at the school.

The Archbishop has appealed for tolerance.

PHILLIP ASPINALL: Any gay students at any school should be treated with the upmost respect and
care. There certainly should be no vilification or putting down of those people or any emotional
violence let alone physical violence.

LISA MILLAR: Archbishop Phillip Aspinall ending that report from Matt Wordsworth.

Climate change, household's and Govt's responsibility: report

Climate change, household's and Govt's responsibility: report

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:46:00

Reporter: Barbara Miller

LISA MILLAR: Concern among Australians about climate change has apparently evolved over the past
year into solid support for action to curb greenhouse gas emissions.

That's the conclusion of a report released today by the Climate Institute, which found that 94 per
cent of Australians now accept they need to make changes in their own lives to prevent further
climate change.

The overwhelming majority of respondents said they believed the government also needed to make
major changes to address the issue.

John Connor is the CEO of the Climate Institute. He's speaking here to our reporter Barbara Miller.

BARBARA MILLER: John Connor, this is your second "Climate of the Nation" report. What has changed
over the past year in terms of people's attitude towards climate change?

JOHN CONNOR: I guess we're most worried that with the election of Kevin Rudd and the ratification
of Kyoto and some range(phonetic) in northern Australia that actually concerned my drop(phonetic),
but we've still got historically high levels of concern about climate change and Australians are
hungry for action.

Kyoto ratification was given a big tick but they actually want more action from their government in
terms of cutting greenhouse pollution and making the switch to clean energy.

BARBARA MILLER: What sort of action do they want?

JOHN CONNOR: They want to see all new electricity come from clean energy. It's round about
three-quarters of Australians support that, for example. People are keen for greater energy
efficiency in their homes and their cars.

And one of the interesting things here has been some dispute about this and there's certainly
people are prepared to take some action themselves, almost nine out of ten, well around nine out of
10 Australians recognise that they've got to take some action. But of course they know, they also
know that governments need to lead the way.

BARBARA MILLER: What you say nine out of ten know that they have to take some action, did you get
any sense about whether people are prepared to suffer financially by taking action, for example?

JOHN CONNOR: Yeah, we've looked at this a couple of ways and one of the ways we did this back in
November, in some marginal seats just before the election where we gave them a range of price
options and 72 per cent were prepared to at least 10 bucks a month more for clean energy.

But we've also looked at other things and what they're prepared to do. People are prepared to fix
their lighting, get more energy efficiency in their homes, get more energy efficient appliances.
There are a range of things that people are prepared to do but I think they also understand that
some of the big decisions, some of the big infrastructure decisions, like with our electricity
generation, that's going to need government leadership.

BARBARA MILLER: Do you get the sense that people would be more likely to act if they were forced
to, that they expect the Government really to tell them what they have to do?

JOHN CONNOR: I think there's an understanding there that there's a mix. There are some things that
they can be in control of, but there are other things which they can't. They obviously can't make
the decision about whether we should be building a new traditional coal-fired power station or not.

So there are some things here in making the switch to a low-carbon or a clean energy economy, it's
just not going to be a matter of household, a consumer decision. These are going to be policy
decisions.

BARBARA MILLER: You said that you'd also identified a growing scepticism about the major political
parties' ability to deliver change which will affect climate change. Can you just explain that
finding?

JOHN CONNOR: Yeah, we're a little surprised that, for example, that the ALP hadn't increased it's
standing significantly. It certainly increased somewhat and it certainly got a leadership in terms
of the better party for climate change. But we still have a majority, a slim majority, of people
who can't see the difference between the major parties.

So, it really shows the climate leadership is still up for grabs, but of course the Coalition has
actually gone back substantially from when we asked this question last year from the 15 to seven
per cent. So we've got a much more work to do but nor should the ALP will be resting on its
laurels.

LISA MILLAR: That's John Connor speaking there to Barbara Miller.

Rainwater tanks could pose health risks: study

Rainwater tanks could pose health risks: study

The World Today - Monday, 14 April , 2008 12:53:00

Reporter: Rachael Brown

LISA MILLAR: Australians have been encouraged to embrace rainwater tanks to do their bit for the
planet but a study shows the tanks could prove a danger to your health.

A joint research study by Melbourne Monash University and the CSIRO has found rainwater tanks are
commonly contaminated with high levels of lead and other heavy metals.

Rachael Brown reports.

RACHAEL BROWN: A third of the Melbourne suburban rainwater tanks studied have revealed heavy lead
levels, above the Australian drinking water guidelines.

The task for researchers now is to pinpoint the source of that lead.

GRACE MITCELL: It can be environmental or atmospheric, so you could potentially have lead
associated with the dust that blows around an urban area. I mean we, up until relatively recently
used a lot of lead in our petrol, so, you know, that's the sorts of sources, environmental sources.
There can be also lead flashing on roofs that haven't been properly coated, so it actually could
leach lead.

There may be lead solder associated with some of the pipes. And then there are a kind of, you may
find other environmental sources of lead, so, I mean, there can be some industrial processes that
may be emitting lead. But on the whole thing, things like EPA seems to control those quite well.

RACHAEL BROWN: Dr Grace Mitchell, a senior research fellow at Monash University, says traces of
other heavy metals were also found.

GRACE MITCELL: There was cadmium, was occasionally high.

RACHAEL BROWN: What effects can these contaminants have on people's health?

GRACE MITCELL: The lead doesn't have any effect if you're not ingesting the water, so if you're not
drinking the water. But the lead, if you're drinking the water, and can have, the main concern with
lead is the developmental delays with children. The lead levels and the Australian drinking water
guidelines are set at a level that is assuming you're drinking a reasonable amount of the water
everyday.

RACHAEL BROWN: Dr Mitchell says one household's tank contained lead concentrations that exceed safe
drinking levels by 35 times. But it, like most households, only uses tank water for its washing,
garden and toilet.

She says only a few households reported drinking from their lead-contaminated tanks.

GRACE MITCELL: By memory, it was maybe two or three and none of those people, when tested their
blood-lead had a blood-lead levels of concern.

RACHAEL BROWN: The Australian Bureau of Statistics reports 20 per cent of homes now have rainwater
tanks, up from 15 per cent three years ago.

Most have been installed for conservation reasons and others to service properties not connected to
mains water. South Australia has recorded the highest uptake, with almost half of all its
households sourcing some water from tanks.

Given the surprisingly large incidence of lead contamination revealed in the Melbourne study, Dr
Mitchell is urging people to stick with drinking mains water, and to save their tank water for
washing or watering.

GRACE MITCELL: I'd encourage them to go for the other uses first that use more water so they're
going to get more savings and also doesn't have kind of potential concerns from a health point of
view.

LISA MILLAR: That's Dr Grace Mitchell from Monash University ending Rachael Brown's report.