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(generated from captions) faces and Are they

rescued. That's what the

lifeboats are for. Not all the passengers are on the poet at

the same time. At no stage are

all the peace jers on the board

on the statement. That's the

coal hold. That's where they

keep the coal. It

spontaneously come busts.

Within as the

identifyingberg. Out there

somewhere. How could they not

see that. It was a very thick

fog. What's that there. Their the fog production unit.

They produced a fog you

couldn't see through. Yes.

God Lord. They are a fire. Who

was in charge? Ill /* you

were. All these people there

have been put there by. That's

the way the construction

works. Good Lord. Can we

change? It is a bit late now.

It's confidential in coral. It

is broken and sitting on thing

bottom of the ocean. That's

an old car. An old car. Bobbing

around in the water. All sorts

of crap down there. It is

probably the biggest disaster

in the history of

mankind. Mmm. It's

tragic. Fascinating

though. Deeply fascinating but

terribly sad. I think the band

still playing though. That's

the program for tonight. Tune

in tomorrow night for your

State's 7.30. Goodnight.

Closed Captions by CSI the lives of patients in trauma, VOICEOVER: Ahead on Catalyst, saving match-making Pygmy-possums, flood impact on the coast, and the physics of Slinkys. over two-way radio) (Man speaks indistinctly WOMAN: It's just a typical call-out Medical Service, for the Helicopter Emergency into the world of trauma. but for me, it's a confronting step for some graphic scenes. Prepare yourself to go to Menangle Road MAN: We've got a call that there is a truck rollover. chest and abdominal injuries. One of the patients has head, in Australians under 45, Trauma is the leading cause of death that can kill you - but it's not just the injuries it's what happens to your blood. Calm down, it's OK. (Woman screams) Where is it sore? Where are you sore? Oh. It's alright, darling. badly enough Any one of us who is injured can develop a mysterious condition fails to clot properly. where the blood major trauma patients, It affects up to one in four is nearly impossible to control. and it means bleeding 'acute traumatic coagulopathy', It's called from blood loss by around 400%. and it raises your chances of dying that is very bad, If they have coagulopathy, is certainly quite high. and their mortality there's no easy diagnosis The problem is and no quick fix. offers severe bleeders new hope. But an overlooked common drug Normally, when you cut yourself, called thrombin an enzyme in the blood of a blood clot. triggers the formation clumped together with cell fragments A sticky, stringy plug of fibrin, called platelets. anti-clotting agents At the same time, thrombin activates from spreading too far. to stop the clot severe injury can tip the balance. But it's been discovered are overproduced, Anti-clotting agents and can't stem the flow of blood. clots become extremely weak at a cellular level DR BURNS: It seems to occur and or severe brain injury due to severe shock to large tissue trauma, and often due at them that they have coagulopathy. but it's hard to tell by looking The new understanding of bleeding trauma patients are treated. has changed the way Just a few years ago, full of saline a bleeding patient would be pumped and restore blood pressure. to reverse shock make blood thinner But it's now realised cold drips and less likely to clot. for bleeding patients. It can be fatal to get quickly to a trauma centre Their best chance is and into damage control. is a top priority. Restoring blood clotting is left till later. All non-vital surgery coagulopathic blood. This is a thin, non-clotting, This is our enemy. Right. This is what we would like to stop. from everywhere, This patient just bleed like hell and the problem with this actually everything worse. that more surgery do you make in this situation, We would like to do, just to stop the bleeding really the minimum and keep the patients alive. used to contain mainly red blood... Blood transfusions of the blood, plasma and platelets, ..but it's the other components which are essential for clotting. than ever before. These are now given in higher ratios we tend to give clotting factors These days, to stop the coagulopathy, earlier than blood itself reserve in terms of red blood cells, because the patients have enough the coagulation factors. but they run out of Yep. It is pretty dry. There's no further oozing. and everything worked. So the factors platelets come with their own risks, Although higher ratios of plasma and such as multiple organ failure, are far greater. the risks of not giving them it all comes too late. But for some patients, (Crash!) (Car horn honks) in Australia Long distances to travel to reach a trauma centre. means it often takes hours PROFESSOR BALOGH: In major bleeding, by 3% during every minute. the chances to survive decreases of acute ongoing bleeding, So that means that within 30 minutes you won't have a patient alive. Clearly, finding a quicker way is critical, to help patients clot properly a cheap, well-known injectable drug but, oddly enough, it might be the extra time they need. that can give bleeding patients trauma patients across 40 countries, In a groundbreaking trial on 20,000 of a drug called tranexamic acid investigators looked at the effects on major bleeding. the breakdown of clots The drug, which helps prevent is so safe and easy to administer, in some countries. it's sold over the counter It's a very cheap drug. in various types of surgery, It's been shown to decrease bleeding a big study in trauma patients. but no-one had ever yet done The trial was a major success. The earlier the drug was given, the greater the drop in deaths from bleeding. For those who receive tranexamic acid in the first hour, deaths from bleeding dropped by a huge 32%. I think that is why this drug is most effective early, because we're dealing with that right from the beginning, the traumatic coagulopathy. Despite the success of the trial, only three trauma centres in Australia currently use tranexamic acid. But with early treatment saving more lives, shouldn't the drug be given to patients before they reach hospital? In Australia, there are about 1,200 young patients who bleed to death from injuries annually. Many of them die before they get to hospital. So if the results from this trial translate to Australia, how many lives could be saved? Probably around 300, 400 young lives would be saved annually. WOMAN: Ow, my leg. The side? OK. DR BURNS: The mentality is there that disease only happens when they get to the hospital and that's when the treatment starts, but certainly time zero is when they get injured. We are looking at introducing freeze-dried plasma into the Service, and then in the future, we would aim to have tranexamic acid to try and combat this issue. We've got something that we've shown to save lives, we've shown that it decreases the bleeding from trauma if given early, we've shown that there are very, very few side effects, so it's a really... It's almost a no-brainer that there's very little harm, there's a lot of potential benefit, and it's cheap. Why aren't we doing it? It's just a matter of time before the drug is trialled in the Australian Rescue Services, but in trauma, time is something many people don't have. MAN: If you're a snow bunny, ski runs are great fun, but if you're a Mountain Pygmy-possum, they're not so good. Over the last decade, possum numbers at Mount Buller have been decimated. MAN: This population has experienced one of the most rapid declines in genetic variation that's been recorded. MAN: It's staggering, really. By 2006, it was estimated there was only about 30 individuals, and from that, they were mostly all females. There was very, very few males on the mountain. In fact, there might have been just one male left. Now, if you think this is just another story about little creature facing extinction because of unstoppable development, you're wrong. Scientists here are trialling a very different method for saving threatened species. In fact, it's never been done anywhere else in Australia. The traditional approach is to breed up threatened species in captivity, then release them into the wild. The new idea, called 'translocation', involves going to another mountain, Hotham, where there are similar, although not identical, possums, and catching some of the males. So bringing some males from Mount Hotham and move them over to Mount Buller and see whether they could mate with the females on Mount Buller. And then we let natural selection take its course. That's the whole process that we thing works best. A few months ago, the Hotham blokes were released here at Buller. The radio-tracking tags they were fitted with certainly show they're hanging out with the Buller girls, but have any hybrid babies been made? The only way to find out is to lay some traps and catch some baby possums. Next morning, I join some excited researchers to scour the mountain. MAN: Got a possum, mate? Yeah, there's something. I don't know what it is, though. Yeah, it's a possum. Dean and I have snared one too. Will she come onto my hand? (Chuckles) Hello. (Laughs) Oh, what a sweet thing. She's so light. Nimble little feet. So what I'll do is I'll just have a quick look to see if it's got a pouch, and it does, so it's a female. She's got contracted mammary glands or stretched mammary glands, which suggests that she's probably had four young and they've sort of recently become independent. OK, so maybe if her four young are here somewhere, we might catch them. Yeah, that's right. There could be four little ones running around. There she goes. Deep into the rocks and off to find some bogong moths. Mountain Pygmy-possums don't live in trees. These rocks are home. Fields of boulders packed with bogong moths, the possum's main source of food. They eat up big in summer to get through the winter hibernation. We know in the possum's case that they're really sensitive to temperature changes, and the reason why they live in the boulder field is that it provides the most static temperature across the year, so it's warm in winter and cool in summer. And this is the problem at Buller. Boulder fields have been cleared to make ski fields. Ski runs crisscrossing the mountain break up the habitat, because boulder-free areas are no-go zones for possums. The remedy has been these artificial boulder fields. The little possums happily scurry around deep beneath these rocks, but they're terrified of open areas like this ski field. So what they've done is built a tunnel of these rocks right underneath the ski field, the possums will crawl under that and pop out the other side. These tunnels reconnect the possum's habitat, therefore improving their breeding. Meanwhile, back at the traps, there's been success. Hey, this one doesn't look like he's got an ear tag, Dean. It looks quite small, so, look, I'd say... You reckon it's a juvenile? Probably a juvenile. Fantastic. There's a chance this is a Hotham-Buller cross. Most of the juveniles at this time of the year weigh overall about 25g. Yep. Alright, so we'll just wriggle in the right spot. Let's get that DNA sample, get some hairs. A little bit of this fur. Enticingly, more juveniles were caught throughout the week. Now, it's results time in the lab. A hair sample from every juvenile caught on the mountain has its DNA extracted. That will give away whether Dad was from Buller or Hotham. And the results were stunning. Of the 16 juveniles that we collected, eight of those were fathered by a male from Mount Hotham. We popped a bottle of champagne immediately afterwards, It was a fantastic result and totally unexpected that we'd get such a high rate of incorporation of the Mount Hotham genes. It's great news for the possum's future at Mount Buller. And it's not just Buller possums that might be saved. Translocation could be a powerful new tool. What we're doing here is really trying to establish a way forward for a lot of small mammals that are currently on the brink of extinction in Australia. Then our uniquely Australian species will be here for many generations to come. In January, 2011, this whole place was underwater. The normally tranquil Brisbane River had transformed into a surging torrent of destruction. Lives were lost and tens of thousands were affected. The media captured incredible pictures of the river, now a vast brown plume of mud as it headed for Moreton Bay. Scientists looked on in horror. You spend a lot of your time trying to protect these ecosystems and then one flood with all that mud, it just gets washed out. It was here in the Moreton Bay Marine Park that sediment ended up. A little over a year later, I'm here to find out how this beautiful bay is faring. And we're going to be in for a few surprises. Moreton Bay Marine Park covers about 3,500km sq between the Gold and Sunshine Coasts. It's enclosed to the east by islands, and it's in the west, close to the city, that the Brisbane River enters the bay. DR UDY: Brisbane and South East Queensland is in the subtropics where we expect to get big floods. The catchments deliver a lot of mud with the floodwaters and it's the mud that causes the problem when it smothers the marine ecosystems. That's basically mud that will have come down from the 2011 flood. Oh, goodness. And you can see how this area may have been sandy previously, but now, it's basically all mud, and you can feel when we're walking in it how you sink in now. I'm going way under. Yeah. In pre-European times, it's estimated the Brisbane River carried 20,000 tonnes of sediment every year - a much lower figure compared to today. And so how much mud comes out of the river in a year? A normal year, maybe about half a million tonnes. Right. That last flood, we estimate something over 10 million tonnes of mud. 10 million tonnes? So that's nearly 20 years' worth of mud. Pretty much. 20 years' worth. The difference that's happened in the last century is the land clearing and the way we use our landscape. The mud's made up of really fine sediment that may have come from highly productive agricultural land or it may have come from a construction site. I'm, um... I'm sinking right down here. Let me have a look at this stuff. It's really quite gross, isn't it? Yeah, it's really fine and gets re-suspended in the water column really easily. Professor Rod Connolly is leading a team of scientists who are monitoring the effects of the sediment on the health of the bay. Tell us a bit about this place. So the way to think about Moreton Bay, Ruben, is that away on the east, it's relatively pristine, the ecosystem is in good health. And then here on the west, we're at the mouth of the Brisbane River, and every year, there's some sort of impact from the river water coming out of the catchment and delivering things like sediment and silt. So what did you think was going to happen when you saw the floods? We expected that the main impact on the ecosystem would be near the mouth of the Brisbane River. We expected that seagrasses in particular would be negatively affected, and they might be gone and not be back for years. Sea grass plays a critical role in the health of the ecosystem. It provides food for dugongs and turtles, and habitat for lots of other creatures. MAN: Floods affect seagrasses in different ways. It can effectively smother the seagrass, so just sit on top of it, or it can stay in the water column, so it decreases the light environment, so it makes it poorer light conditions for seagrass to photosynthesise. Seagrass meadows are found right across Moreton Bay. Beautiful. Here in the east is one of Paul Maxwell's study sites. So how's this seagrass looking, Paul? Well, it's very difficult to see by visual means, but we can tell by looking at the energy levels that are inside these root systems down here. So we can compare them across the bay and understand how the seagrass's internal pulses are going. Right, so it's kind of... it's a little reserve in there, what it's got stored up. And what Paul's finding is unexpected. We've been seeing the seagrasses on the western side of the bay have been doing a lot better in terms of their energy stores than the ones on the eastern side of the bay where it's clearer. It was a bit of a shock to us. We thought the ones on the west where it's dirtier would fall over a lot faster, but they didn't do that. Yeah, that's really surprising. It's so beautiful over here and yet, this seagrass is not doing as well as the grubby-looking stuff over there. That's right. That's really weird. It's these depleted areas in the east that provide the most significant meadows in the bay. And since dugongs eat only seagrass, they're particularly vulnerable to any impact. DR UDY: What we did find during 2011 after the flood, is that the number of strandings or deaths was definitely up on previous years. What we don't know is the longer-term impact yet, and I think it really is a bit early to say. The rich ecosystem of Moreton Bay also includes over 60 species of coral. Research scientist Andrew Olds is assessing how they're faring. ANDREW: When coral is impacted from an event like the flooding that we saw last year, the corals become stressed. It could be to do with nutrients, sediments or fresh water or all of the above. This stress can sometimes lead to coral bleaching, like here in the east. It's amazing. I've never seen a bleached coral like that before, but there's not many of them. No, there's not. No. A small amount of the coral in the bay bleached, and it was relatively consistent across the bay, but this side had some of the most bleached coral in Moreton Bay. Yeah, right. Well, let's look at some more. Sounds good. The floods caused 2% to 10% of the coral across Moreton Bay to bleach, and only a really small proportion of this bleached coral to actually die. Just as they found with seagrass, the results are showing that despite taking more of a hammering than the east, the west has coped better. What do you think is the reason for that? I think one way to look at it is if you think about, would you expect an individual, a human, that is in very good health, to be better able to ward off disease? And you'd probably think, 'Well, yes, you would.' But, in fact, with the ecosystem, it's the part of the ecosystem here on the western side that's been having little bits of suffering year in, year out, was better able to cope this time when the major flood came. Longer-term, we have to be very mindful of what we're doing on the land that comes swishing out into Moreton Bay and will affect the ecosystem for now and in the future. This time, Moreton Bay fared surprisingly well, but with climate change, we expect bigger floods more often. And while this ecosystem has proved more resilient than expected, it can take. nobody knows how much more too beautiful to risk finding out. The one thing that's certain, it's Now, at some point growing up, by one of these - a Slinky. most of us have been captivated one of the most mesmerising things But recently, I found out is something I'd never seen before - about how it moves how it falls. a falling Slinky? So what's so surprising about Wasn't what I expected. BOTH: Oh! is physicist Rod Cross. Well, to help explain of the Slinky like this The idea is that I hold the top end and then let the bottom end dangle. So the Slinky's dangling freely. the Slinky. And then I'm going to drop going to happen. But I want you to predict what's Will the top end fall first? Will the bottom end fall first? Will both ends fall together? approach each other in the middle? Or will the two ends That is a tough question. what does the bottom do? When I let go, Shoot up? It's actually gonna fall? Yeah. It's gonna fall. It's gravity. It might come up together. Bottom goes up, top goes down. come down to the middle You're gonna see the top and the bottom come up to top. Trrr.. Come to meet it and then drop. faster than the bottom. The top will accelerate will stay there, I reckon that bottom and then they'll both fall. this will come down to there why don't we give it a shot here? Alright, well, the whole Slinky as it falls I want you to try to watch to see what it's doing. Three, two, one. Let's count it down. Ready? to tell with the naked eye The problem is it's a bit hard just what's happening. I think it came up. I have no idea. I couldn't be sure. The bottom come up? It's all too fast. (Laughs) the physics involved, To really appreciate you need to see it in slow-motion. Oh, man. Gosh, that's great. That's unbelievable. That's weird. It does. It does stay there! MAN AND WOMAN: Ah. like, in mid-air. GIRL: It just stays there, What? It's suspended. How does that work? It doesn't move at all.

How do you explain that? happening at the bottom end. Well, you've gotta look at what's the bottom end down, Gravity is pulling tension's pulling the bottom end up, are equal and opposite, the two forces so the bottom end remains at rest. Then I let go at the top end. but it propagates down the spring, The tension in the spring changes, until it reaches the bottom end, coil by coil, a quarter of a second. and that takes about And then the bottom end falls. change at the bottom end So the tension doesn't actually has collapsed. until the rest of the Slinky Correct. to sporting equipment, The same principle applies like tennis racquets or golf clubs. a wave travels up the shaft, When contact is made with the ball, don't feel the hit so the golfer's hands is already on its way to the hole. until after the ball on this experiment, Now, as a final extension to the base of the Slinky. we've tied a tennis ball and see what happens this time. We're gonna drop it Incredibly, the same thing happens. has simply stretched further, That's because the slinky and reached a new equilibrium equals the tension force up. where the gravitational force down It didn't make a difference. what makes physics so interesting, It is counterintuitive, but that's like this. that's why I keep doing experiments internet addiction... VOICEOVER: Next time on Catalyst, should a parent worry? So at what point are dying... ..why trees around the world took hundreds of years to grow, This big eucalypt and died in just a couple of weeks. win over the ladies. ..and how dolphins Closed Captions by CSI


Good evening. Virginia Haussegger

with an ABC news update. The Prime

Minister has pushed the case for an

interest rate cut. The Government

been criticised by business, unions interest rate cut. The Government has

and welfare groups over its pursuit

of a budget surplus at all costs.

Julia Gillard says a surplus is an

economic imperative that will give

the Reserve Bank room to cut

rates and deliver some relief to the Reserve Bank room to cut interest

families and business. The Pentagon

has again had to condemn the actions

of some of its soldiers in

Afghanistan this time grisly

photographs have emerged of soldiers

posing with the body parts of dead

insurgents. The White House says the

conduct in the photos is

reprehensible. India has

launched a long-range missile reprehensible. India has successfully

of reaching Asia and Europe. India launched a long-range missile capable

has joined China, Russia, France,

US and UK, Who also possess has joined China, Russia, France, the

inter-continental ballistic missiles.

The test is seen as a step in

efforts to become a regional power. The test is seen as a step in India's

Canberrans are just as wasteful as

they've ever been. The latest state

of the environment report found

landfill waste has increased 28

per-cent faster than population

growth. And residents are consuming

natural resources at an

rate. To Canberra's weather. A natural resources at an unsustainable

possible shower and a top of 22

degrees, with a low of nine. Sydney.

26 Melbourne 22 Adelaide 29. More

news in an hour. Gentlemen, what is the verdict? I'm innocent! Order! Order! Order! Tell me what I've heard isn't true. and amount to treason. These actions are seditious In the 19th century, the course of Australian history. three epic trials changed were of bad character, Even if the girl outraged as if she were a beast. that did not entitle her to be men were on trial for their lives. In each case, were guilty of murder, I knew the men hanged for killing a black. but I would never see a white man And in each courtroom, in its hands. a jury held the future of Australia is based on actual court reports, This series the very basis of colonial society which show how was being challenged. the wealth in this colony, It is landowners who generate and I shall do as I damn well see fit! The court's decisions still resonate today. God help you to repent for these crimes. The Myall Creek Massacre took place