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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) I can't tell you how proud I am. and said "Thank you. A girl just came up ever happens around here." "Nothing good for the rest of my life. I'll remember this Captions (c) SBS Australia 2012

Hello - I'm Ricardo Goncalves.

North Korea's much anticipated

rocket launch has failed - breaking

up over the Yellow Sea within

minutes of taking off.

But this one is a huge deal because

it is also Kim Jong Un's first

attempt at really showing his

muscle on the international stage.

The incident is in violation of two

UN resolutions. There are fears -

North Korea could be planning

another nuclear test. Bob Brown has

stepped down as the leader of the

Australian Greens. His deputy -

Christine Milne - has taken the

helm. David Cameron has become the

first serving British leader to

visit Burma since independence in

1948. He says the country is taking

the right steps towards democratic

reform but still has a long way to

go. And what a scream - one of the

world's most famous paintings - set

to go to auction. All the details -

on World News Australia at 1030. called Barnes Wallis has an idea. NARRATOR: In 1942, a man He will design a very special bomb. and destroy Nazi dams. A bomb that will skip across water of military engineering. It's one of the marvels exactly how Wallis did it. But today nobody knows appreciated one way: Its true brilliance can only be do it all over again from scratch. Fire. from Cambridge University Now an offbeat engineer pilot from the wilds of Canada is joining forces with a rugged bush and re-stage the raid. to rebuild the bomb "Gee, how do we make this work?" Every step of the way has been (UNINTELLIGIBLE) on this next drop, If there is a problem being cancelled. the whole thing's going to wind up Can history be repeated? Ambassador in Berlin This morning the British handed the German government a final note from them by 11 o'clock stating that unless we heard would exist between us. a state of war I have to tell you... most talented aircraft designers, Barnes Wallis is one of Britain's and fiercely patriotic. this country is at war with Germany. And that consequently that war is declared, On the very day an engineer's way of stopping it. he resolves to find on a series of massive dams He focuses his attention of the German industrial heartland that feed the factories

raw material: water. with their most valuable to make one ton of steel. It takes 150 tons of water If the British can turn off the tap, will grind to a halt. the Nazi war machine that it will be difficult Wallis knows the thin crest of a dam from the air. for bombers to hit a big torpedo instead. He considers using But the Germans have got there first to protect their dams. and have strung up steel nets is the stuff of legend: Wallis's solution a spinning drum of explosives and onto the dam. that will bounce over the nets Trinity College, Cambridge. for a modern day Barnes Wallis. A promising place to look

the highly individual Dr Hugh Hunt. And here he is,

Hello. Hello. to Nerve Centre. So this is Ground Control in the Department of Engineering Hugh is a senior lecturer and a fellow of the college. I think, to move the bombs out. Okay, so we're clear now, of spinning objects He's a world authority on the physics by the mysterious forces and he's fascinated they fly through the air. that affect the way So he's ideally placed the bouncing bomb challenge. to take on two, one, drop. Five, four, three, bouncing bomb story. I've heard of the Barnes Wallis I thought "Oh, that looks simple." And just like everybody else, be great. Let's just do it." And I thought "Yeah, that'd until we started doing it I just hadn't realised the whole thing is. just how bloody complicated that will allow him Hugh can find no country on earth from a civilian aircraft. to drop live bombs beautiful part of northwest Canada, So he has come to a remote and where he has special permission weight and size from the air. to drop heavy objects of equivalent Is that the dam site just ahead? I think it's dead ahead of you. Just below the treetops. Yeah, just right ahead. 60 feet, yeah. Yeah, that makes sense. Looks good. This will be Hugh's laboratory. He tasks a team of Canadian engineers next to an enormous lake. to build a concrete dam and unusual. The dam's design is clever Rather than damming up a river, right up to the lake, they'll dig a trench and then let the water in. sit their dam in it, If the dam is successfully breached, contained in the trench the flood of water will be safely and rip up the landscape. and will not rush over to get the dam built But there's precious little time before the Canadian winter closes in. It's looking good up to now, Arnie. What do you think, Alex? to try to bust Hugh's dam. These are the guys who are going can-do Arctic pilots. Tough, fearless, of Canada They keep the northern wilderness open through the extremes of winter, from treetop height. and in summer douse forest fires has 37,000 hours to his name. Pilot Arnie Schreder most experienced pilots in Canada. He is one of the for this giant experiment Command Central and home of Vancouver will lie 700 kilometres north in the outpost town of Mackenzie BC.

and local crew have little idea As yet, the pilot they're letting themselves in for. of what it's Buffalo 5721. Air traffic in Mackenzie downwind now for runway 1-6. We're joining a left-hand I want to show you a few things did back in 1942 and 1943. about what Barnes Wallis some of the trials they did. So here's Beautiful plane, isn't it. Here we go, here comes a Lancaster. And there goes the bomb, dropped. beautiful isn't it? Look at it. And there we go, bounce, Yeah. He cleared the wave. To... Oh (bleep)! That one went right up on the beach. There's a house there. Look at the chimney. You wouldn't want that coming through your living room door. Oh (bleep), yeah. And here we go, he's off again. And look what happens there. The splash. Yeah, it came off the plane. Off the plane? I don't know. How high do you reckon they were flying there? 50 to 60 feet. I'm going to show you another movie clip here. And this was after the War. What, he's gonna get he's gonna get nailed there, he's too close. He's very close. And look how... Ooooh! Look how high it goes.

Look how (bleep) high it goes. Because that angle came in at five degrees or less, you know. This is the view out of the back of the plane. Look at that. Look how high it goes. Close to the aeroplane. What about this one? How high do you reckon he's flying there?

Not very high, about 10-15 feet. And then... Yep, too low. You saw that coming from the previous clip. Oh yeah. What height do you reckon that was? Ten feet. On the movie it says nine feet.

Nine feet. 390 miles an hour. So that's one of the reasons for not flying too low. The thing is that we've got options. We've got flight speed, flight height, spin speed. The biggest risk is the bomb itself. It has the ability to bounce back and hit the airplane. Now, if you imagine 800 pounds of steel spinning at 1000 RPM, there's a lot of momentum there. So it'll do short work - it'd cut through this thing like butter. I'm concerned that we get the bounces right, so it hits the dam. That's the biggest thing. They do a lot of low level flying. They fight forest fires by flying low over the canopy of the forest and dumping water on it. So they're used to flying low. And we needed people who are used to flying low. The challenge is set. The programme of gruelling test flights begins tomorrow. VOICEOVER: The place you grew up in has a lot to do with who you become. Things you learn along the way stick with you, like a job well done is its own reward. We found it takes strength, pride, tenacity to make your mark,

to dare to be different. And while a place shapes people, it's the people that make a place what it is, who we are. You see, we grew up in Newcastle and for nearly 110 years, we've been developing smarter ways to grow your wealth, easier ways to do your banking, more affordable ways to own your own home, and keeping the banks honest along the way. Now, everywhere we go, around the state, the country, around the world,

we find people want the same things. When it comes to banking, you just want a fair go. And that's what we're here for. The adventure started for Hugh three months earlier in the Barnes Wallis archive. "The cylindrical form might be more effective than the spherical, "and it certainly looks much more practical "from the manufacturing point of view." June 1942. He's expecting to find the detail he needs from Wallis's original experiments. But he has a nasty shock. There were a few little diagrams and results, but what I wanted to see was calculations. I wanted to see his notes and the things that didn't work. I wanted to see the stuff that really went on in his mind. But they weren't in the archive. So I really have to do all this stuff again from scratch. It seems the vital papers he is hoping to find were lost in a flood in the 1960s. But he does find a tantalising photograph. Well, this picture from April 1942 shows the initial experiments in his back garden. Barnes Wallis with his kids. What looks like a catapult. I can't see it in detail. Firing over a laundry pail full of water. Looks great. Wallis's 83 year-old daughter Mary remembers posing for the photograph as if it was yesterday. Oh, there's the original marble snapshot. The lines along the top written by my mother say "Daddy plays marbles watched by us four." This one is Barnes, the oldest. That one is me. My brother's job was to count the marbles, because he was old enough and could measure things. And my sister's job was to find the marbles, because they were hers. And I don't think I had a job, except just admiring. While work on the secret project increasingly keeps their father away from home, the family have their own code for what he is doing. "Daddy plays marbles." That was my mother's phrase for the whole thing. You know "Daddy's just gone away. He's playing marbles again."

So it was always referred to as playing marbles. With little more than the grainy photograph as a reference, Hugh decides to mount his own version of Wallis's marble experiment. He drafts in his children as assistants, and a pair of trusty students and sets up on the banks of the River Cam at Trinity College. Both hands, Julian. Like Wallis, Hugh wants to explore how to get something that is round and heavy to bounce across water. Instead of a catapult, he uses a device used in cricket practice to fire balls at high speed. Barnes Wallis did tests on little marbles to start with. We've got this bowling machine.

Our starting point is a bit bigger than Barnes Wallis, but that's fine. It's still the same principle. Alright, here we go. Three, two, one. So that didn't bounce. Hugh starts to vary the speed of the ball and the angle at which it strikes the water. One thing I can try and do is get the angle shallower by moving this further back. Okay, let's increase the speed a bit as well. Okay, are we ready? Three, two, one. Fire. Well, that was a nice bounce. Okay, next one. Fire. Oh. He discovers that even generating a single bounce is surprisingly difficult.

Here of course we're only getting one bounce, and it's going to be pretty critical to the success of this project to get several bounces. Also to know how far it will bounce until it comes to rest. And we can't do those kinds of experiments here with just one little pool. In April 1942, Barnes Wallis scales up his experiment.

He builds an even larger catapult to fire bigger balls and sets it up on the shore of a lake. Hugh follows suit and chooses a Cambridge lido as his test bed. Three, two, one. Fire. Yeah, I'm having fun. Okay, let's go. When he launches his balls close to the surface of the water, Hugh gets multiple bounces very easily. But if translated to real world conditions, flying so low and so fast would be suicidal. Three, two one. Okay, that's 400 miles an hour at 35 feet. You're not going to get a pilot foolhardy enough to do it. But from the point of view of understanding what's going on, it's really helpful to know just how far away from the limits we are. But as soon as he raises his stand-in aeroplane to a more realistic height for flying there are problems. We're going to do 60 feet flying height, 200 miles per hour flight speed. Al, off you go. Three, two, one, go. Go. They're not bouncing. No matter how often he tries, the model bombs refuse to bounce. In wartime Britain, Barnes Wallis encounters the same problem and comes up with an ingenious solution. He discovers that if he spins the balls backwards as they leave the catapult, then they do bounce. Hugh tries the same trick. Now let's put some backspin on, see if we can get them to bounce. Fire. Hey, that's excellent. One, two, three, four, five bounces. The backspin pulls the oncoming air over the top of the ball. This creates an area of low pressure that sucks the ball upwards, helping it float in the air for longer and bounce better. The air is then deflected downwards, leaving a visible trail of disturbance on the water below. Fire! After two days of poolside trials, Hugh is able to predict how well a bomb will bounce by varying both the speed and height of his stand-in plane and the spin speed he applies to his model bombs. Fire. His new understanding of the relationships between all these variables will be crucial when he starts the full-scale trials in Canada. By early 1942, Barnes Wallis knows the allies are on the back foot. Europe is an impenetrable Nazi fortress and the beaches of Normandy are heavily protected. The Japanese have crushed British resistance in the Pacific. And in the Soviet Union, Hitler's tanks have charged across the steppes, pushing the Red Army back towards Moscow. These are dark days for Churchill. With the outlook so bleak, Wallis is driven

to devote his spare time from his designer's desk at Vickers-Armstrongs to working on his bouncing bomb. He has picked out prospective targets, including three giant dams in the Ruhr region. The most significant of these is the Moehne Dam. It is composed of giant granite blocks and weighs a staggering three quarters of a million tons. How is he to produce a bomb that is big enough to blow it up, but small enough to be carried by a plane?

30 metres down, inside the very foundations of the Moehne Dam, is another key member of Hugh's team, the designer of his replica dam. Rick Donnelly has come to confront the awesome reality of the German dam. It appears to be unbreakable. Barnes Wallis must have felt that he had a real engineering challenge. If you look at this structure here, it's absolutely massive, designed to withstand all the water forces,

plus earthquake forces and all kinds of other forces well in excess of what man can actually produce. I'd have many sleepless nights if I'd promised to blow this up. Look at this thing. If we drew the bomb to scale, it's a peanut. Wallis builds a scaled-down model of the Moehne Dam and had tries to work out how to destroy it with the smallest possible bomb. Very cleverly, he chooses to detonate his bombs underwater. Explosives expert Sidney Alford demonstrates why. Three, two, one.

Ah, here you can see an indentation there, which was covered by the explosive. When the charge went off, there was nothing denser than air to maintain the pressure, so the pressure dissipated very quickly, before the pressure had time to perforate the steel plate. He shows how a little water pressing against the charge can make all the difference. We now have a column of water surrounding the explosive. Since the extremely high pressure gas cannot escape, it will push on the surface of the steel for longer, and that increased duration of pulse will very probably push a disk out of the steel. Three, two, one. Ah, I'm a bit surprised at that, but there we are. Anyway, you can see a considerable difference caused by the prolonged pressure pulse. With help from Hugh, Sidney recreates Wallis's experiment. He wants to know how close a tiny charge needs to be to the dam to blow it up.

That's 50 grams of plastic explosive, and I propose to lower it that deep into the water. About 25-30 centimetres. About 30 centimetres. A bit like fishing. It is like fishing. Firing! Four, three, two, one.

It's still intact. He moves his model bomb a little closer. Shall I feed it? Firing! Failure again, even with the amplifying effect of the water on the blast. Third shot, up against it. Right.

Finally, Sidney gets Hugh to place the charge underwater, right up against the dam wall. Right. So we've got from being four metres away to two metres away, and now to... Zero metres. Firing! Three, two, one. It worked. Sidney, like Wallis before him, finds that a modest charge will only punch its way through solid masonry if the bomb is placed right up against the dam wall and then detonated underwater. So Wallis now knows that a tiny bomb can bust the Moehne Dam, but only if it bounces all the way up to the dam wall and then can somehow be made to hug the wall as it sinks. Hugh is facing a similar challenge. First he adds weight to his wooden balls to make them sink. Go. And then he finds that, once again, applying backspin provides the solution. Three, two, one, fire.

The backspin causes something magical to happen. What happened there was the backspin kept on going after it hit the dam.

And the backspin, it's called the Magnus Effect, brought the bouncing ball back onto the dam. Exploiting this effect, Wallis now has his plan. First his bomb will skip up to the dam, then backspin will bring it back onto the face of the wall. Thirty foot down, water pressure will cause it to explode.

Hugh is planning a similar feat. and the dummy bomb spins down and comes to rest against the dam wall, then the dummy will be replaced with a real bomb of equivalent size. Rick Donnelly and co-designer Alfred Breland visit their creation for the first time, and meet the man they've asked to build it - Jim Bellavance. Welcome to the pit. Welcome to the pit. Hey Jim, how's it going? Good to see you. Hey, Richard. It represents the central section of the Moehne Dam,

built from concrete blocks rather than granite. When it is finished it will stand ten metres tall, a quarter of the height of the original. I think it's the right thing to build for this simulation. It's an impressive size too.

If we added another couple of metres to it, it'd be classified as a large dam in the dam community. Rick has designed it to react to explosive forces

in a similar way to its big sister. Like the Moehne, it's a gravity dam, held in place by its own colossal weight. When we've got it finished we're going to have eight million pounds of concrete sitting here. That's a massive amount of volume. When you die, someone is going to miss you,

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an extra two years factory warranty and your first HoldenWise standard service for free, from only $21,990. See your Holden dealer today. By the beginning of 1943, Wallis's obsession with his target is beginning to deliver promising results. He builds his first half-sized bomb and puts it to the test. It bounces perfectly. He thought long and hard about this, so he was pretty sure he'd got the scaling from the small bombs, his small marbles, his small test balls to the larger ones,

he was pretty sure he'd got that right. But being pretty sure and being sure are different things, and if you're going to be risking people's lives, people's money,

if you're going to be risking these expensive airplanes, you've got to be sure. Wallis does have that confidence. His plans and a request for aeroplanes are submitted to the head of Bomber Command. Air Chief Marshal Arthur Harris, known as 'Bomber' Harris,

does not suffer gladly well-meaning civilians with crackpot ideas. HARRIS: This is tripe of the wildest description. There are so many ifs and ands that there's not the smallest chance of its working. But Wallis is not deterred. Eventually Harris watches the test footage... and is won over. Three Lancaster bombers are placed at Wallis's disposal. He is told to be ready to hit the German dams in just 12 weeks' time. I felt physically sick. Somebody had actually called my bluff. I realised the terrible responsibility of making good all my claims. The raid is set for mid May 1943, when a full moon will guide them in. By then, the extra water from the spring rains will be pushing on the dams, making them ripe for busting. In April 1943, the next chapter in the story of the Dambusters is played out beneath a ruined Norman church on a secluded beach at Reculver in Kent. Here Barnes Wallis gathers his team to witness the first drop of a full-size bomb. He turns a steel drum packed with explosives into a huge ball

by wrapping wooden staves around it. A wooden case will keep it light and help it to bounce. But in practice... it shatters. It is a major setback with so little time to go. One month to go, he knew D-Day, I mean, May 17th, full moon, full reservoir and all the rest of it. And there he was with the thing breaking to pieces in the sea. The casing split. Famous family saying... "Strengthen the casing." But Wallis isn't the kind of man to share any private worries he might have about the mission failing with his family.

He stays in touch with his beloved wife by letters sent in recycled sugar bags. "Sweetheart Darling, Just a brief line "to tell you that I am all alive and well. "I arrived by air late on Saturday "and had great difficulty in getting a room, "as the whole coast is more or less deserted, "shops boarded up and so on.

"I don't think it is worthwhile writing to me here "as I may return at any time - quite uncertain. "Your adoring husband, Barnes. And then "Oh my poor cold feet, where is thy hot bottle? "Oh my faithful pen, where is thine ink?" I just don't know how he did it. Back on the Kent coast, Wallis is turning setback to advantage. He sees how once the steel drums break away from their wooden casing they continue to bounce. He decides to simply abandon the troublesome spherical shell. But little does he know that the decision to go with naked cylinders

will come back to haunt him. Before Hugh settles on the design for his bouncing bomb, he has a close look at one of the Barnes Wallis originals. I like the simplicity of it. It's just a simple cylinder. I know that Barnes Wallis looked at the possibility of having barrel-shaped bombs and so on, but he ended up with a nice, simple cylinder, and simplicity in engineering is always the safest way to go. If you're stuck in a cornfield without an aeroplane, how do you investigate the properties of cylinders? If you're Hugh Hunt, you build a cannon. Firing. Three, two, one. One of the issues with a cylinder is that this can wobble. Now, we can see that wobble. If I toss this up in the air, we can see... See, there's a little bit of wobble. Hard as I might try, it's very hard to get that not to wobble. If it wobbles, then you can imagine it's going to go onto the water... towards the water like this, and if it hits at an angle like that, it's going to go off to one side. And the wobble will just get worse and worse. First, Hugh's team insert a special plug into the barrel to hold the cylinder sideways. Then they will spin it at high speed in the hope of eliminating the wobble. It's the same principle that keeps a child's spinning top from wobbling. Alright, we're ready to start gassing. They use an electric drill to spin up the cylinder through a hole in the side of the barrel. Speed! Fire! Three bounces! What did I say? No. Did you hear a clunk when James dropped the drill? What was that? That was James doing that as he pulled the drill out. With the drill coming away early, the bomb wasn't spinning fast enough to ensure a wobble-free flight. So Tod, spin as fast as we can go. Up to 2000 rpm? How fast do you reckon we can get? 2000, 2200. Hugh needs to work out the minimum spin speed required to get the bomb to fly straight and bounce successfully. And with a higher spin speed we should get more stabilisation, so it should hopefully bounce more cleanly for two or three bounces. Spinning up. Speed!

Fire. Beautiful! Now that one... Still spinning! Look! Still spinning. That one worked. Still spinning. Look. Yeah, yeah. Still spinning. Fantastic. Yellow, black, yellow, black. We got about six or seven bounces off that I think. Fantastic.

After a successful day's testing, Hugh decides to commit to the cylinder shape.

He works out that a full-sized bomb will need a spin speed of 700 revs per minute to bounce well. Hugh asks his Cambridge workshop to make up a prototype bomb

Now he can consider how his bomb should be rotated under a plane. Barnes Wallis had a motor. He needed one because he had to fly 2 to 3 hours to his destination. But we'll only be a few minutes away from our destination. So we've decided not to use a motor. For simplicity, we'll spin the bombs up on the runway before take-off. But I'm still a little bit concerned that actually this idea won't work. Are we ready? You're going anti-clockwise.

Yeah. To spin his bomb, Hugh has gone for the DIY approach. Knowing that the bomb will slow down on the journey from runway to dam, he wants to start it off spinning at a far higher speed than 700 RPM. I'd like to see if we can get this up to 1500 rpm. You can hear the hum of it. Stop that for a second. Put the microphone down near the thing. Can you hear the hum of it? DRONE That's the hum of the... And when it gets up to 1500, it'll go (hums). (Hum rises slightly in pitch) It's taken Hugh three months to get from paddling pool to prototype,

and he now feels ready to go flying. AIR RAID SIREN (READS) "And her quivering mouth, of some mysterious potion, "distorted by the acridity "with a sibilant intake of breath, came near to my face. "She would try to relieve the pain of love "by first roughly rubbing her dry lips against mine. "Then my darling would draw away with a nervous toss of her hair "and then again come darkly near "and let me feed on her open mouth..." (PRESSES BUZZER) "..while with a generosity "that was ready to offer her everything - "my heart, my throat, my entrails..." In March 1943, with only six weeks to go, Barnes Wallis is finally allocated the men who are to do his flying. As they report to a remote airfield in Lincolnshire, the men of the fledgling 617 squadron have little idea that they will be asked to fly dangerously low for long hours at night deep into enemy territory. It will take a rare breed of flyer to do this. The mission is almost suicidal. Bomb-aimer Johnny Johnson is among them. The first thing that one noticed was the number of experienced aircrews there. The number of people that had done their first tour. Some were in their second tour. There were some that hadn't, of course, but the majority seemed to be experienced people. The squadron's commanding officer is the charismatic Guy Gibson.

Although extremely young, he already has 170 operations behind him. When he joined 617, he was probably one of the most, if not the most, experienced bomber pilot in Bomber Command at that stage. At the age of? 24. That's extraordinary. Yeah. He was known as the arch-bastard. But he managed to get the squadron very much working together. In his welcoming address to his new squadron, Gibson is deliberately vague about the mission. GIBSON: You are here to do a special job,

which I'm told will have startling results. What the target is, I can't tell you. Nor can I tell you where it is. They will be kept in the dark until the night of the raid.

The 147 hand-picked fliers are aged between 20 and 32. As well as the British, there are men from Australia and New Zealand, and 30 are from Canada. The grand experiment is about to begin. Hugh is preparing to go flying with his Canadians. In 1943, 617 squadron had six weeks to train for their mission,

but Hugh's team has only six days. This is the theme from 'The Dambusters' movie, 1954. Sounds like a pretty low-budget movie. (Laughs) It is a low budget movie. For their trials they will use a vintage Douglas DC4. Beneath the modern paintwork is an aircraft built during the Second World War.

It's a good model for the Lancasters used by Barnes Wallis. It has the same top speed and can carry the same maximum payload. The man responsible for turning this civilian cargo plane into a bomber is Ryan Beaubien. We designed our test programme to ensure that there's no stability issues, not controllability issues on the aircraft. Because when you think about it, it's not as... It's not a safe sounding project. We want to fly low and drop bombs out of aircraft. The bombs Hugh will use are steel cylinders. This is his first sight of the rig that will release them. It had to be made in Canada, to meet exacting local safety standards. So it made sense for Ryan to design the rig around a component already approved for dropping loads from helicopters -

a special release hook. So when it releases it does...

And you see how that drops. That goes... But there hasn't been time for Ryan to test the rig in the air. This will prove to be their undoing. Pilot Arnie Schreder suspects nothing. CAMERAMAN: The moment of truth. The moment of truth. Well, I think it'll be uneventful. Hopefully. Right, we're warming up. It's smooth. Arnie thinks this first test flight should be a breeze. All he has to do is drop a dead weight from a comfortable height. We got V1. Here we go. V2 plus fifteen. There is to be no spinning or bouncing yet, so there's no need to fly low. Ploughing to right to climb. The point is simply to check that the rig will release its load cleanly. But for Hugh this is a huge moment. Everything we've been doing up until now has not been so critical. But now if this drop doesn't work,

we're in serious danger of end of mission. Okay, they're coming in. We're arming the system now. Okay, copy that Arnie. And as soon as I see the bomb I'll call 'bomb gone'. So this is going to be a drop. Whooo. Bombs away!

Bomb gone. Oh-hooo. She shouldn't make a splash, eh? Ah that - that was a - that was a splash. That was a splash. It didn't come out that clean, but it was okay. Well done, guys. Didn't come out that clean, eh?

Oh yeah. Can we do that slow? Unless they can work out what went wrong with Ryan's rig, the whole mission could end here. Yeah, this wasn't balanced, eh? No, it's... But is it heavier on one side? No. WOMAN: They're exactly the same. BLOND MAN: We tested this exact bomb on this exact rig like, ten times. Yeah, but we're in the air now. We got different shit happening. She was shaking a little bit. Okay, so there we go. Just frame by frame. One - now this is where the bomb release goes, there. They're both moving down. So what happens then after that? They both move down, that's one. Next one, they're both moving down. Yeah, next one. Coming down. Ahh. It looks to me as if the bomb is coming down, it pulls the cable, which pulls this up.

Hugh has spotted that the problem lies with the cable that controls the release mechanism. It's supposed to drop the arms that hold the bomb in place down together. But because it is too short, when it is released, as one arm drops down, the other is yanked up. Perhaps they should have based their design more closely on Wallis's original mechanism. His bomb is held between spring-loaded arms clamped in place by friction alone. So when it is released, it falls away cleanly. But it's too late for Hugh to redesign. He'll have to improvise. And he'll be given just one chance to get it right. If there's a problem on this next drop like this, the whole thing's gonna wind up being cancelled. Spinning a third of a tonne of steel and concrete under a plane

will prove to be difficult. (UNCLEAR) To solve some problems, Hugh will have to think out of the box. I've got a new name for him - Professor Screw-Loose. Arnie will try to emulate the feats of low-flying carried out by the original Dambusters.

And he will find that it is just as dangerous today. Building a leak-proof dam will prove a challenge too far for Jim Bellavance. Fill it in! Close it! Son of a bitch! If there's one guy in the world to make it happen, it's this guy, right? After all the setbacks, Arnie will finally get his opportunity to bust a dam. Captions (c) SBS Australia 2012 This program is captioned live.

Launch failure. A controversial

North Korea rocket disintegrates

and plunges into the sea. It is a

failure. There is obviously a gap

in the technology. End of an era.

Australian Greens leader Bob Brown

announces his retirement. I will be

a green until the day I die. COAG

cooperation, leaders reach

agreement on a new skill deal. Good

evening. North Korea's much-

anticipated rocket launch has ended

in failure. It was supposed to be

fired into space the Mark I 00

years since the birth of founding

leader job but it crashed into the

sea within minutes of taking off.

Despite the setback celebrations

continued in Pyongyang. Tens of

thousands lined the streets trying

to put the humiliating episode

behind them. Friday 13 not the most

Australia pitch yus day to tempt

fate a date sure to be etched on

the minds of North Korea's rocket

scientists. On previous occasions

North Korea has failed to inform

its citizens of bad news but with

more than 200 foreign journalists

in the country this time it had

little option but to come clean. An

extremely embarrassing moment

because all of this was meant to be

to The Glory of the founding father

of the country Kim Jong-Il the so

called great leader 100 years from

his birth and this was meant to to

be pinnacle of the sell bases. It

seems to have literally blown up in

their faces The north invited so

many journalists because it was

keen to emphasise the peaceful

nature of the launch and claims it

was simply attempting to put a

satellite in space but most of the

rest of the world believe it was a

thinly disguised test of its

missile technology. I would not

want to be the head of North

Korea's space agency right now. It

is a failure. There is obviously a

gap in the technology. Not a good

day for the new leader either. This

failure is a big deal. They have

had other launch failures as well

but this is a huge deal because it

is also the first attempt at

showing his muscle on the

international stage which also

failed North Korea has been testing

and improving its missile

technology for years. It bogan with

Scuds with a range of 700

kilometres then in 1998 it test

fired a missile with a range of

2200 kilometres, a new improved

version gave the north the

capability of hitting targets up to

4,000 kilometres away causing

widespread concern in those

countries suddenly in range. The

latest version tested today

bringing the north within striking

distance of Australia. In the

aftermath of the previous rocket

launchs the UN Security Council

passed resolutions banning any

future attempts. It will meet

overnight to consider its response

to this latest violation but it may

tread carefully. South Korea and

Japan in particular fearing a tough

response may push the fort to carry

out another test the of its nuclear

technology. For 16 years Bob Brown

has been synonymous with green

politics in Australia. Now that era

is over. Today the 67-year-old

announced he is retiring as the

leader of the Australian Greens. He

will be replaced by Christine Milne.

The Greens have a new leader with

Bob Brown bowing out. At 10:00 this

morninging I informed my partyroom

I was resigning as leader of the

Australian Greens in this

Parliament. He will depart the

Senate in a couple of months once

replacement has been found. I'm 67

and I'm aware that one should make

- always make room for renewal in politics His Majesty'sity,

Christine Milne, will take over the

leadership. He has contributed

enormously to the thinking of this

country and in particular to

highlighting the compassion that

exists in this country That come

passion was tested in recent times

t Greens helping the minority

Gillard Government form power.

Their agreement will Labor will

continue under Christine Milne and

her new deputy Adam Bandt. We would

expect them to conduct themselves

responsibly and Rhonde working with

the Government Bob Brown has been a

very strong force in Australian

politics in recent years. I would

say too strong a force. Bob Brown

was elected to the Senate in 1996

becoming gowns parliamentary leader

in 205. His campaign the stop

Tasmania's Franklin dam bolstered

his environmental credentials. His

party is currently tackling carbon

pricing, seeker seek and same-sex

marriage. He will now have more