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G'day. Welcome to a new series of Catalyst. Ahead, we explore psychopathic behaviour, and find out
how tell if there's a budding psychopath in your family. We travel through time and space for a
cool hook-up with Antarctica. And get set for some serious G-force as we take a ride on the next
generation of flight simulators.

Psychopath In The Family

Psychopath in the Family

Could you have a psychopath in your family? Jonica Newby explores the science behind psychopathic
behaviour, and ongoing trials to curb callous conduct in children.

TRANSCRIPT

Dr Jonica Newby

Apparently one in a hundred people can be defined as a psychopath. So that means you've probably
met one. You may even know one. Hell, you may even have a psychopath in the family.

NARRATION

So what if you have a potential psychopath child?

Prof Mark Dadds

Very challenging for their parents, very challenging in that we love to think that our children are
going to be caring, empathic people.

NARRATION

And is being a psychopath all bad?

Dr Jonica Newby

It's scary, murky research, but let's take a deep breath and confront the mind of the functional
psychopath.

NARRATION

And how appropriate to start near the old haunts of Jack the Ripper, where I'm meeting forensic
psychologist and author Dr Kevin Dutton.

Dr Jonica Newby

So you have a psychopath test with you?

Dr Kevin Dutton

I do, yeah. It's called the psychopathic personality inventory, the PPI.

Dr Jonica Newby

Yeah.

Dr Kevin Dutton

And what this test is looking at, we're picking up characteristics like fearlessness, ruthlessness,
social dominance, charisma, tough mindedness, those kind of things - impulsivity. So let's see how
you get on.

Dr Jonica Newby

Alright.

Dr Kevin Dutton

Okay. Um, 'I've never cared about society's values of right and wrong.' Is that false, mostly
false, mostly true or true?

Dr Jonica Newby

False.

Dr Kevin Dutton

False. Okay. Um, 'I don't let everyday hassles get on my nerves.'

Dr Jonica Newby

False.

Dr Kevin Dutton

False. And how about, 'If I want to, I can get people to do what I want without them ever knowing?'

Dr Jonica Newby

No, I don't have that skill. They know.

Dr Kevin Dutton

Well, you know what? I can honestly say you are a very bad psychopath.

NARRATION

This is just a small sub-section of the hundred-and-fifty question standard PPI. And despite common
perceptions, violence is not one of the defining features of a psychopath. Of course, if you
combine violence and psychopathy, well the outcome is chilling. But that's not the case for many we
classify as psychopathic.

Dr Jonica Newby

Well you've met a number of psychopaths, you've tested them. You admire them, don't you?

Dr Kevin Dutton

I do to some extent. I think that there are certain contexts in life where being a psychopath can
predispose you to great success. I've interviewed psychopathic special forces soldiers,
psychopathic surgeons. I've also interviewed a top barrister and he proved very high on the
psychopathic spectrum. Now he can cross-examine an alleged rape victim, for instance, and literally
destroy that person's life. But at the end of the day, he can go out for dinner with his wife and
not give it a second thought.

NARRATION

I'd hate to be married to him though. And it does make you wonder what they were like when they
were kids. Back here in Sydney is someone who knows.

Dr Jonica Newby

Now no psychologist will labela child a psychopath. That's because it's still potential at that
stage. What they say instead is that they score highly on 'callous unemotional traits'.

NARRATION

Professor Mark Dadds has helped develop powerful training programs to help kids with conduct
disorders, ten per cent of whom scored high on callous unemotional traits.

Prof Mark Dadds

All children make mistakes, they have times when they're aggressive and they lie and they
manipulate. It's just part of human nature. But the thing about children with these callous traits
at extremes, is that it's done deliberately - deliberately hurting the younger baby in the family,
or doing cruel acts to pets. And then when the parents try to talk to them about why that's wrong ...

Mother

Bradley, be gentle.

Prof Mark Dadds

... it's kind of staring at someone you realise doesn't care. And that moment when an adult sees a
child who seems not to really be connected to the pain of another person is a scary moment.

Mother

Go to your room. Go, go, go.

NARRATION

Even so, Professor Dadds' team was confident their powerful training program could change these
kids.

Prof Mark Dadds

We were kind of touring the country going, we can treat kids even with callous unemotional traits,
and when we looked at the data we were kind of a bit horrified.

NARRATION

The treatment didn't really work, which begged the question, why not? Back here in London is a
scientist who may just have the answer. In a world first, Dr Essi Viding has been imaging the
brains of children with callous unemotional traits.

Dr Essi Viding

So here we are focusing on an area of the brain called amygdala.

NARRATION

The amygdala is the part of the brain that processes fear and negative emotions.

Dr Essi Viding

We showed children pictures of other people in emotionally distressing situations. Typically
developing children have a strong amygdala response to other people's distress. Children who have
high levels of callous unemotional trait show no discernible amygdala response to other people in
distressing situations.

Dr Jonica Newby

So when I'm watching a film, if the character cries, I'll often cry. I guess that's my amygdala
resonating. Would these kids, or the psychopaths ... nothing?

Dr Essi Viding

Would not be bothered.

Dr Jonica Newby

Nothing?

Dr Essi Viding

Nothing.

Dr Jonica Newby

No wonder they're different.

Dr Essi Viding

Yes.

NARRATION

This is the first time such a study has been done in kids so young. But it reflects many other
studies done on adult psychopaths, and these findings are changing researchers' perception and
definition of psychopathy. Many now believe it is an under-arousal of the amygdala.

Prof Mark Dadds

So most of us learn to care about how other people feel by seeing the emotion and the fear in other
people. And then that causes our own discomfort. So if you don't feel discomfort or fear yourself,
or you don't notice it in other people, you're highly unlikely to develop the higher-order human
functions of empathy and moral conscience.

Mother

Come on! Bradley, Bradley, look at me.

NARRATION

And to be clear, this is a very different empathy disorder to autism spectrum.

Dr Jonica Newby

I think of it this way: empathy has two parts - feeling and understanding. Now with autism, you
resonate with other people's emotions, you just don't understand them. With psychopathy, you
understand other people's emotions, you just never feel them.

Dr Kevin Dutton

So that's one of the reasons why psychopaths make very good persuaders and very good manipulators.

NARRATION

The under-aroused amygdala theory would also help explain why Professor Dadds' parenting
intervention did not really work with the callous unemotional kids.

Mother

Play with him gently, softly. Bradley, look, go. Quick, go.

Prof Mark Dadds

The thing we found was that they were not at all perturbed by the time out, the discipline
strategy. These kids just seemed to be completely unmoved by it. Came back, did the same sort of
misbehaviour again. So that's very consistent with the idea that these callous unemotional, or cold
traits, are associated with punishment insensitivity. These kids are very reward-driven. But they
don't care about being chastised.

Martin Bryant, as people will recall, was one of Australia's worst mass-murderers.

File footage of Martin Byrant Interview

Interviewer

Martin, what happened to you?

Prof Mark Dadds

There's an extraordinary video about Marin Bryant when he was a little boy.

Martin Bryant

I had this coloured skyrocket and I wanted to see if the wick went quick, so I lit it.

Prof Mark Dadds

I believe he'd set fire to something and had actually hurt himself. And they were interviewing him
on local TV, and they said, 'Well you'll never do that again, will you?' Expecting him to say, 'Oh
no, no I was burnt.' And he looked at them and said ...

Martin Bryant

Yes.

Interviewer

Don't you think you've learnt a lesson from this?

Martin Bryant

Yes, but I'm still playing with it.

Prof Mark Dadds

Very, very interesting. Classic example of that fearlessness or that insensitivity to punishment,
where for most of us, you do something, something yucky happens, you learn not to do it again.

NARRATION

And the million-dollar question - is it hereditary?

Prof Mark Dadds

In kids with callous unemotional traits, the evidence is that it's more genetic.

Dr Jonica Newby

So it runs in families?

Prof Mark Dadds

So it probably runs in families.

NARRATION

So now what?

Dr Jonica Newby

Okay, so put yourself in this situation. You're a mother with regular empathy, and you have a kid
who's showing high signs of callous unemotional. Is there anything you can do? I mean, it's not
like you can cut and run.

Prof Mark Dadds

Go up to your son ...

Toby's mother

Yep.

Prof Mark Dadds

Look him in the eyes, which is comfortable and natural to you ...

NARRATION

Well despite his earlier setback, Mark Dadds is optimistic, and the reason is this experiment,
which sent a storm through psychopathy science when it was published last year. In this
re-enactment, the mother has been asked to look her child in the eye and show love.

Toby's mother

Toby, Toby, look at Mummy please, darling.

NARRATION

Look what the child does.

Toby's mother

Toby, I love you so much, Toby.

Prof Mark Dadds

Sure enough, the young kids with conduct problems and callous unemotional traits, rarely looked
their parents in the eyes.

Dr Jonica Newby

Why does that excite you?

Prof Mark Dadds

Well we think that eye contact is one of the critical early human behaviours that turns on those
emotional parts of the brain.

NARRATION

And if he can train the young kid to look at their parents, can he change their very development?

Toby's mother

What a good boy you've been today, but lots of things this afternoon. What would you like to do,
Toby?

NARRATION

Alongside modified versions of their parenting program, that's what they're working on now.

Toby's mother

Good boy. Look at Mum, look at Mum. I love you.

Dr Jonica Newby

Are you sure you won't just train them to be better manipulators earlier?

Prof Mark Dadds

There's a, there's a folklore in the area of adult psychopathy which is if you train them in
empathy or any kind of skills, they'll just use what you've trained them in to further their kind
of bad-ass tendencies and become better, more effective psychopaths. I don't think that there's any
chance of that happening with children. We wouldn't just be giving them verbal skills that they
could use to manipulate. We hope that we will fundamentally change the development of the neural
systems associated with emotion and empathy.

Dr Jonica Newby

You hope?

Prof Mark Dadds

We hope.

Dr Jonica Newby

Watch this space, I guess.

Prof Mark Dadds

Watch this space, yeah.

NARRATION

And if Kevin Dutton is to be believed, just slightly turning down the dial of psychopathy traits
could mean the difference between a criminal career and a high-flying one. The family psychopath
may yet make you proud.

Antarctic Broadband

Antarctic Broadband

Two satellites will soon sail into orbit to provide broadband internet for Antarctica. Once
sailing, scientific data collected from the region will be quickly distributed to scientists around
the world.

TRANSCRIPT

NARRATION

Back in 1912, one hundred years ago this week in fact, Norwegian explorer Amundsen told the world
that his expedition was the first to reach the South Pole. But before he could, it took three
months to get back to the nearest post office in Hobart, just to send a telegram. A century later,
communicating with the South Pole remains a challenge, one that's hindering the work of scientists
there.

Mark Horstman

This is the network operations centre at the Australian Antarctic Division near Hobart. They've
kindly lent me some of their bandwidth to chat via satellite with the United States Amundsen Scott
Station at the South Pole.

Man in Antarctica

Good day Australia from the South Pole.

NARRATION

And that's no mean feat.

Mark Horstman

The South Pole is still so remote, it's out of range of conventional satellites. Good afternoon.

Dr John Kovac

Hi, we use satellites that are quite old. The satellite we're talking on right now is probably
pushing thirty years old, and as satellites near the end of their operational life, to conserve
fuel they're allowed to drift off-station, and so they come into inclined orbits that are, are,
when they become inclined more than around nine degrees, ah, are visible to the South Pole, but
only for a few hours a day. It's a bit nerve-wracking though, to know that our link to the outside
world relies on these extremely old satellites that could fail at any time.

NARRATION

Coastal Antarctic stations like Australia's are just within range of satellites' geo-stationary
orbits around the equator. But that's not the case inland, where satellites are mostly out of view.
And if there's anywhere that needs a reliable internet connection, it's the giant space experiments
in the cold, dry air of the South Pole. The amount of data that's recorded and needs to be sent is
enormous, about three hundred gigabytes every day. With more than forty permanent stations in
Antarctica, science is generating more data than existing internet links can handle. Now a project
funded by the Australian Space Research Program is building a solution.

Michael Brett

Antarctic Broadband is about delivering internet to Antarctica. It's kind of like NBN for
Antarctica. So we're putting up a communication satellite into a really funky orbit that's
specifically designed for the Antarctic continent.

NARRATION

And it's on a desk here at Mount Stromlo that Antarctica's very own internet satellite is taking
shape.

Mark Horstman

You think of satellites, you think of something quite large.

Michael Brett

Well, it's not impressive in size, but it's impressive in what it can do. And we can deliver quite
a lot of communications infrastructure in space with something only this big.

Mark Horstman

When assembled, the prototype is a tiny cube-shaped nano-satellite just twenty centimetres square -
effectively, a mobile phone in space.

Michael Brett

Space doesn't have to be expensive. The price tag on our satellites is somewhere in the order of
thirty to forty million dollars to launch two satellites into space and provide a service for over
five years.

NARRATION

The Australians have partnered with the University of Toronto who have already designed and
launched several of these miniature satellites.

Michael Brett

This was developed in Australia. This is a KA band radio terminal. It's a transponder, and that's
what's going to provide that communication signal in space.

NARRATION

It's the same kind of mobile communications technology we have in our pockets - adapted for use in
space.

Michael Brett

We've only got a few solar panels on board, so we need to get as much capacity out of a little
battery as we can. And then this is the guts of it, this is what provides that internet signal down
to the ice.

Mark Horstman

Anywhere in the continent?

Michael Brett

We're covering the whole Antarctic circle.

Mark Horstman

Any time of day?

Michael Brett

Twenty-four hours a day.

NARRATION

At its closest point, the Antarctic Broadband satellite slingshots around the North Pole, then arcs
36,000 kilometres high over the South Pole to extend the coverage time as much as possible. And not
one satellite but two, flying in tandem.

Michael Brett

So while one is on the other side of the Earth, we'll always have one in view. It's a really
unusual orbit, it's one that's not been used before on, on a space mission.

NARRATION

Getting the satellites into the right orbit is one thing. Surviving the threats there, is another.
These incredible views from the International Space Station are auroras over the Pole. This intense
electro-magnetic interference can fry a satellite's circuits.

Michael Brett

Yeah, it can be very damaging to the electronics as we fly through the radiation belts, so we need
to design the space craft to be able to handle that.

NARRATION

When in place within the next few years, it'll be the internet service that South Pole scientists
dream of.

Dr John Kovac

It would be a game-changer for our kind of science down here, as we build microwave telescopes that
are more and more capable of detecting faint signals from the early Universe. There's no way around
getting more bandwidth.

Dr Brad Benson

People can log in from all over the world and perform their observations and turn it into a, you
know, world-class, twenty-four hour a day, seven day a week, astronomical site.

NARRATION

The exploration of Antarctica has been pioneered by science. But could reliable satellite
communication be a step towards exploration of a different kind?

Assoc Prof Neil Hamilton

Antarctica has been in a very stable phase over the last fifty years, moving towards a strong
environmental protection, international research collaboration type of environment. Now we are
potentially facing a different phase. We're facing a time when countries are starting to look for
resources. New countries are moving into the region, and there's, there's a slightly heightened
feeling of anticipation in the air.

NARRATION

Later this year Australia will host the next meeting of the Antarctic Treaty, a chance to promote
our satellite broadband service for every nation to share.

Assoc Prof Neil Hamilton

We need some signature projects which are going to show how the Treaty is able to, to enhance
international collaboration and build a place of peace and science, which is what the Treaty is all
about.

Michael Brett

Antarctica is a frontier for science, just in the same way that space is a frontier. And to couple
the two together and, and advance two frontiers at once is really exciting for us.

Universal Motion Simulator

Universal Motion Simulator

Graham Phillips climbs into the cockpit of a state-of-the-art motion simulator. Designed by
Australian scientists, the simulator can give pilots a safe and realistic feeling of flight.

TRANSCRIPT

Universal Motion Simulator Controller

Three, two, one ...

Dr Graham Phillips

Now before we start, a viewer warning. If you're a high-tech junkie who gets jealous watching
someone else enjoy the latest and greatest thrill ride, look away now. On the other hand, if you're
about to jump into a military chopper or a fighter aircraft and go into battle, you've got to check
out this.

NARRATION

It's a called the Universal Motion Simulator, or UMS, where a pilot is perched on a seven-metre
long robotic arm, capable of exerting up to six G's of force.

Dr Graham Phillips

That is impressive.

NARRATION

The man at the controls of this next generation motion simulator is Professor Saeid Nahavandi.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

Hi.

Dr Graham Phillips

Hey, that was fantastic, you survived.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

I did, absolutely, yes.

Dr Graham Phillips

This is an amazing machine. What, what does it do?

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

It is actually a simulator that can provide realistic-type motion, whether it is a land vehicle,
air vehicle or sea vehicles.

Dr Graham Phillips

I'm kind of guessing you can simulate virtually any motion with that.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

Absolutely.

NARRATION

The UMS looks very different to more conventional flight simulators, because it's designed to
overcome some of their limitations.

Dr Graham Phillips

The way a conventional flight simulator works is to make use of something called a Stewart
Platform. Basically it's a big sheet of metal, the cockpit sits on top of that, and underneath
there are a number of hydraulic legs. Now you've got the full six degrees of freedom of motion
there - backwards, forwards, left, right, up, down, as well as pitch, roll and yaw. But the trouble
is, the movements are very small. A pilot, for example, can't do a complete three-hundred-and-sixty
degree roll.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

In this system, there are two axis of rotation, continuously we can rotate the person. For example
if we are modelling a crash simulation, and the vehicle is rolling, this system can create, very
realistic.

Dr Graham Phillips

You're not going to do that to me though, are you?

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

Why not?

NARRATION

Around the world, a small number of simulators offer these high-performance flying scenarios. But
most training pilots only get them going up in an aircraft, which has risks and is expensive. Now
the team at Deakin has devised a lower cost, but effective, alternative - using technology
originally developed for theme park rides, and taking it to a much, much higher level. As I'm about
to find out. So the simulator's controls feature advanced force generators, and haptic technology,
developed by the team here at Deakin.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

There are force reflective devices, so what it means here that as you are flying, if you hit some
turbulence, you can actually feel the force in your hand.

Dr Graham Phillips

Right.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

So if this was a car, for example, if you had the steering wheel, if you hit the curb or bump, then
you can feel the force in your hand.

Dr Graham Phillips

Yeah? So will I be experiencing turbulence, do you think, on this flight?

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

I think so, we have a few surprises for you.

UMS Controller

Okay, are you ready?

Dr Graham Phillips

Here we go.

UMS Controller

Launching in three, two, one ...

NARRATION

Flight simulators use wash-out filters to synchronise what the pilot sees and feels.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

The secret is how good is your washout filter, does the particular scene you see translate into a
series of motion.

UMS Controller

So we're going to add the turbulence up, put some storms in as well as some rain. Now you're, now
you're really fighting it.

Dr Graham Phillips

This is much harder.

NARRATION

The UMS's robotic arm doesn't respond to just the pilot's controls. Rather, to provide more
realism, it's one of the new breed of simulators that creates a virtual model of aircraft being
flown, together with the forces that affect it, such as turbulence. That entire virtual environment
is packaged up and sent to the robotic arm, and that determines how it moves.

Dr Graham Phillips

I can really feel the plane being buffeted around by the wind.

NARRATION

The robotic arm design is also versatile, as these German researchers have shown following similar
design principles. Change the seat, and the controls, and you've got a formula one racing car.

Dr Graham Phillips

Oh! There we go!

NARRATION

Now it may not look like it, but the UMS also aims to reduce motion sickness. Sickness can limit
what Stewart Platforms are used for. Their restricted movement creates a mismatch between what the
pilot sees and feels, and the result can be simulator sickness.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

We physically put the person through that motion.

Dr Graham Phillips

(LAUGHS) That was great.

NARRATION

The team aims to commercialise the UMS, complete with the ability to analyse the pilot's brain
waves, and the efficiency of their movements using motion-capture cameras.

Dr Graham Phillips

That was fantastic!

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

Excellent.

Dr Graham Phillips

Very realistic, I must say.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

Very good.

Dr Graham Phillips

Yeah, now once the movements and everything kicked in, they really sort of suck you into the world.
You could also actually have a dogfight with someone on the other side of the world in another one
of these simulators.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

You're right, we can actually have a few of these machines linked together, they are fighting or
working together against an enemy.

NARRATION

I reckon I'd be down pretty quickly.

Dr Graham Phillips

Thanks very much.

Prof Saeid Nahavandi

Thank you.

Next time on Catalyst - water from mountains, and mountains of water.

The monster-wave surf movie is going 3-D.

Closed Captions by CSI On our website you can watch all tonight's stories, and extended interviews
with the Antarctic Armundsen-Scott Station scientists.