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Asia Pacific Focus -

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(generated from captions) mountains that has been of Australian sport, one of the

claimed. Next year the US

Masters, no Australian has won

it. The world will be focused

on tooicker Woods but after the

way Jason Day and Adam Scott

played last year and the way

they played the rest of this

looking forward year it will be something we're

looking forward to and one of

those two may get up. Mag new sns Pearson will hold court in those two may get up. Mag new

London buzz they will play

second fiddle because a month earlier Black Caviar will earlier Black Caviar will run

at Royal Ascot in the

culmination of this rich story

and just as Phar Lap's

achievement was winning the Caliente as opposed to the Melbourne Cup this will be where Black Caviars legend will

the Queen. I'd be immor attised in front of

the Queen. I'd like to the Queen. I'd like to nominate

belatedly James Pattinson while

we speak. I would like to thank

George as Spokes who has

steered us through the year.

Thanks for watching all year

and have a great Christmas.

Bye. Closed Captions by CSI

This Program Is Captioned Live.

Good morning. A heated debate over

uranium export policy is dominating

this morning's session at the ALP

Conference in Sydney. The party is this morning's session at the ALP

expected to endorse the

Minister's view that the ALP's expected to endorse the Prime

long-standing ban on exporting

uranium to India should overturned. But Julia Gillard will uranium to India should be

face fierce opposition with Federal

Frontbencher Peter Garrett to move a motion against

motion against her position. Mr

Garrett says he's concerned because

India hasn't signed the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. I'm

opposing us selling uranium to

on the basis that would be a opposing us selling uranium to India

reversal of the policy of

Australian governments. We've reversal of the policy of successive Australian governments. We've always

believed that if you don't sign the

nuclear non-proliferation treaty

then Australia shouldn't engage in

sales of uranimum to those and India is one country that sales of uranimum to those countries

and I don't think there is any and India is one country that hasn't

compelling reason now to reverse

that long held position. that long held position. The

conference will also be looking at

how to move ahead on the live cattle

export trade. Yesterday, in a

Party historic policy shift, the Labor

Party voted to support same sex

marriage. The 14-year-old New South

Wales boy imprisoned in

Wales boy imprisoned in Bali on

tonight. charges will fly home to Australia Wales boy imprisoned in Bali on drugs

tonight. The schoolboy has spent two

caught months behind bars after he was

caught buying almost 4 grams of

marijuana from a Kuta street dealer.

He spent his last day with his

and is waiting for final release He spent his last day with his family

papers to be completed before he can

return home. US Presidential

candidate, Herman Cain

candidate, Herman Cain has suspended

election. Mr his campaign for next year's

election. Mr Cain was considered the

Republican Party's Presidential Republican Party's

nomination front-runner. But recent

sex harassment allegations and

sex harassment allegations and claims

he had a long-running affair has he had a long-running

tarnished his reputation. Herman

maintains the allegations tarnished his reputation. Herman cain are false US Vice President Joe maintains the allegations against him

has issued

has issued a stark warning

has issued a stark warning to Syrian are false US Vice President Joe Biden

him President Bashar Al Assad calling on

him to step down.

Syrian government of fanning him to step down. He's accused the

sectarian violence not only in its own country

own country but across the Middle

East. Yesterday the united nations

condemned Syria for "gross and

systematic" violations, including

executions and the imprisonment of

some 14,000 people. Pakistan is

refusing to participate in the US

Inquiry into air strikes that killed

Stude 24 Pakistani soldiers last week.

rally to

rally to protest the deadly strikes. Students in the country have staged a

Islamabad has shut down NATO's vital Islamabad has shut down NATO's

supply into Afghanistan and has announced it'll boycott announced it'll boycott an supply into Afghanistan and has

international conference on the war

in Bonn. And the Wallabies overcome

sluggish start to beat wales in in Bonn. And the Wallabies overcome a

one-off Rugby Union test match in sluggish start to beat wales in their

Cardiff. They came from behind to

beat

beat Wales 24-18 in

beat Wales 24-18 in their final test

of the year. And our next full news

bulletin is at 7 o'clock tonight.

This Program is Captioned

Live.

Hello and welcome to

'Asia Pacific Focus', I'm Jim

Middleton. Coming up - the

United States, the elephant in

the room as China and Australia

conduct joint military

exercises. And there may have

been more writing in the sol -

rye oth in the rye oth in the Solomon Islands

but the police are far from

worried. The community of the

Solomon Islands should really

take heart with what they've

seen in the last two weeks. You

only had to be there out on the

street to see that their police

streets. force is back in control of the

Policing

Policing the Solomons later

in the program. It's only a

couple of weeks since President

Obama used a visit to the Asia

Pacific to insist the United

States as in the region to stay

and announce plans to station

troops in Australia to

underline the point. Beijing

expressed its concern but now

Australian and Chinese forces

have held joint exercises in

the central Chinese province the central Chinese province of

Sichuan. Troops will part -

took part in a dual rescue

operation in a fik - fictitious

country. This is the scenario -

a major earthquake has hit

fictitious country B early on a

Friday morning. Buildings have collapsed. Infrastructure has

been destroy and strong been destroy and strong

aftershocks have caused the &

fire in a factory that is

releasing poison ous gases.

China and Australia respond to

country B's urgent call for

help. The Australian team leave

on Saturday, and bring with

them a doctor. In this case

Julianne Schliebs who is a

reservist at the Australian

Defence Force. She knows what

to expect. Certainly some of

the common injuries are the common injuries are muscularskeleto injuries, so

crush injuries to limbs in particular, injuries to the

head and the upper body from

fulling objecteds. And then -

falling objects. And then over

time depending on how long

people are trapped for there

can be added infections and

broken limbs as well. This is

a joint disaster relief

exercise between Australia and China. It's

China. It's been planned for

months and is being conducted

at an emergency response

training base close to the

episesht of the 2008 Sichuan

earthquake. The activity was

deliberately kept small to keep

with reality. 15 members of the

Australian Defence Force

emergency team and around 20

from the People's Liberation

Army took part. We would send a

small specialist team of planners initially small specialist team of

planners initially and some

specialists such as the medic s

that we've got with us today as

our international response.

They would then assess the

needs and design the

contribution to that relief

effort in accordance with what

the requirements were, or what the host nation requested. China has always

mobilised its Army in times of

natural disasters. The Chinese

estimate they deployed around 140,000 troops to Sichuan

140,000 troops to Sichuan in

2008. The quake that killed

around 70,000 people caused so

much damage around 300 million

dollars was required to rebuild

just one town. The Chinese

military believe their response

back then was success but this

exercise was not meant to

replicate the conditions of

three years ago. Planning and

cooperation were the main focus and the

and the Chinese military say in

was something to be learned.

TRANSLATION: During this

exercise, we gained inspiration

in terms of assessing the

extent of the destruction,

coordinating with the country

in need, the procedures and the

standardised process. The

joint exercise comes a

fortnight after China expressed

concern at a plan to station up

to 2500 US troops in Northern Australia. This Australia. This is what they

said at the time.

TRANSLATION: It may not be

appropriate to strengthen and

extend this military alliance.

Whether it Scutt suets the

common interest of countries

around 2 region and the whole

international community remains

under question. Washington's

move was part of its strategy

to re-engage with the Asia

Pacific but has been

interpreted by some analysts as one aimed at

one aimed at ensierkling China.

The continuation of the joint

exercise, despite the deepening military cooperation between

Australia and the US, is

significant. Major General was

asked about the timing.

TRANSLATION: We began planning

our joint excel size exercise towards the end of last year

and the begin of this year.

There's nothing unusual about our

our current activity. This

exchange between the two

militaries has enhance ed our cooperation and raised our

hainlts in humanitarian

situations. Abilities in

humanitarian situations. Australian

officials say a similar

exercise will be held on home

soil next year. Joint maritime

security exercises like this

one which was held last year

and peacekeeping exquhaings are

also being planned with China to

to take place over the next 24

months. But what about expanding the defence

corporation to include the US,

as suggested bring Indonesian

President Susilo Bambang

Yudhoyono? - by Indonesian President Susilo Bambang

Yudhoyono? Canberra says lit

strongly consider the proposal

while Washington says it issed.

Beijing's position is unclear.

TRANSLATION: China has always maintained maintained its cooperation must

be based on equal and mutual

trust and benefit. We also

believe in the peaceful

development of the 21st

century, and we hope that all

party also join us in following

this concept. Even if China

does agree to the trilateral

military training, military

commentators like Zhang Peimin

believe it will be leveled believe it will be leveled to

low level exchanges. Mr Song

Zhongping says that is because

of a difference in ideologies

and values Transthe political

differences between China and

the US and China Australia are

trying, even though China seeks

common ground. We have very

little in common. It is mostly

present in our mutual economic

benefit in international trade. benefit in international trade. There remains a spirit of

goodwill at joint exercises

like these. China

correspondent Huey Fern Tay

reporting from Sichuan. It's

been a tumultuous year in

global situations with

prediction s that its economy

will be bigger than the US in a decade. President Obama ended decade. President Obama ended

the year insisting Washington

was in the Asia Pacific to

stay. All the while, India too

has been on the rise. John

Howard was Australia's Prime

Minister as the balance of the

#w0rd economy started to tilt

away from Europe and the United

States towards Asia. He was key

note speaker at this weekend's

leadership summit in New Delhi. John

John Howard, welcome to the

program. Pleasure, Jim. You

have said that by the end of

the 21st crefntry, India could

- century, India could out

strip China as the dominate

nation. Could you run through

your argument for snu>> it's a

piece of speculation for which

I won't be held personally

accountable, but I base it on accountable, but I base it on two things. Firstly,

demography. To use that old cliche China will grow old

before she becomes rich, and,

as the implications of the one

child per family policy work

their way through, China will

face a fearful problem with the

ageing of the population and the

the inevitable domestic

pressure to shift resources in

to caring for and supporting

that ageing population and away

from other things, and,

secondly, India has solved what

I think will be the inevitable

clash between political

authoritarianism and economic

Liberalism. India is a thorough

going democracy, the going democracy, the largest

democracy in the world, and has

demonstrated since her

independence in 1947 a

commitment to democracy. China

has yet to face that de neuro

mont, if I can put it that way,

and you will see quite a

difficult process, I think, in

China in a generation or a generation and

generation and a half's time

when inevitably people who have

enjoyed economic freedom will

want to replicate that with

political freedom. If China

does face such constraints

then, do you worry that that

could make the leadership in

Beijing even more assertive in

trying to consolidate the pow

ure of their nation before

China runs out of China runs out of time? I don't

think it's a question, Jim, of

China rung out of time. I think

it's an issue that will have to

be faced and the Chinese will

deal with it. I hold the view

that a nation cannot

indefinitely be economically

liberal yet politically authoritarian. The freedom authoritarian. The freedom in

one part of life cries aloud

for freedom in the the other

part of life. Whilst the first

generation that have enjoyed

that economic freedom may be

content, the next generation

will take the economic freedom

for granted and and want to

match it with political

freedom. I am sure the Chinese

will handle this. I just make

the observation that it is an

issue that has to

issue that has to be faced in

China. It's an issue of course

that doesn't have to be faced

in India because India is a

free wheeling thorough going

democracy with a very open, raucous, irreverent

press. Moving to relations

between these two emerging

giant, there are already

increasing science of tension

in disputed regions along the India-China

India-China border. Can the

rise of these two nations be

accommodated wn without

conflict and how can that be

encouraged? The sense I have is

that they will find a way of

managing it. All the

indications I guess from

talking to Indian - get from

talking to Indian leaders - and

I had the opportunity to talk

to the Prime Minister only a couple of day couple of day s ago - the

impression I get is that

certainly on the Indian side

and I am sure it's the same on

the Chinese side, there's an

understanding that nothing is

to be gained for either

country. In allowing the

relationship to deteriorate and

that they will find a way and

these border issues. I don't

think it's quite the ongoing

problem that it might seem. Are you at all

you at all worried about the

apparent intensification of

relations between China and

Pakistan? And the potential

that raises for conflict at a

time when the United States and

other international forces are

on the verge of beginning to

withdraw from

Afghanistan? Well, China and

Pakistan have been friends and allies in the past

allies in the past and in a

sense it's not a new

development, it's the revival

of an older association. The

relationship between India and

Pakistan is fraught, there is

no doubt about that, and you

can understand from an Indian

point of view, particularly in

relation to some of the

terrorist attacks on that

country, you can understand country, you can understand

it. It's one of those long

standing difficult

relationships and from time to

time associations made by

Pakistan as well as by India

will be seen in the context of

that relationship and it's

possibly worsening. You asked

me am I worry, I haven't stopped worrying about the

relationship between India and

Pakistan and whilst there were some

some real attempts made by both

leaders a few years ago, both

leaders of the two countries

because of the terrorism issue,

and until that is satisfy -

satisfactorily dealt with by

Pakistan it's going to remain a

problem. As Australia's Prime

Minister, you visited India twice. The only Australian Prime Minister to do so. Is

that a sign that Australia

still has to make still has to make up for lost

time in taking advantages of

the opportunities available in

India as it grows ever more

wealthy and more

influential? Well, I think both

countries have to make an

effort. The current Prime

Minister Dr Singh said to me in

2006 and it was a remark that

remained with me after we had

our meeting that India and

Australia were two countries

that had a lot in common but

didn't have a great deal to do

with each other. And there's

probably been fault on both

sides, it can't exclusively be

blamed on Australia. We do have

a lot of history and we have some common and wonderful

passions such as cricket. But

we need to go far beyond them

and not take it for granted. I

think the signs are there, the

student links are very strong

and continue to grow, the other

people to people links now that

it appears very Quick likely

that Government policy will

change on uranium sales,

something that I certainly very

strongly support and in a sense

changed Australian policy back

in 2006 on that subject. All of

those things are heading in the

right direction but we need to

put effort into it and, as

always, the effort will come

from private investment as well

as government to government

links. By the way, just how

important is a prosperous and

outward looking India for the

promotion and maintenance of promotion and maintenance of

democratic values in the Asia

Pacific? Well, it's tremendous

ly important. A prosperous

outward looking India first and

foremost is important to the

more than 1 billion people who

live in the country, and one

can never say frequently enough

that the remarkable story of

the last 30 years around the

world has been the way in world has been the way in which

millions of people,

particularly in nations such as

China and India, have been

lifted from poverty through

economic growth and

globalisation. And I want that

process and I think it's

important for India that that

process continue. And that the

Indian middle class now

numbering some 2 to 300 million

people grows by the millions each few

each few years. And un deniably

the centre of gravity of the world economically is shifting

to the Asian region by probably

2030 for the first time since

the industrial revolution, the

majority of middle class people

will live in this part of the

world. Now, all of that is good

for India and good for the

world. And clearly if it's

underpinned continually as it will be in India

will be in India by democracy,

well that is even better. . We've seen from

what's happened in other parts

of the count world that there

is a Hankering of policy and

political freedom that Knott

even the most brutal can

indefinitely suppress. On another

issue, how important was it

that US President Obama

recently asserted a long-term

role for the United States in

the Asia Pacific telling the

Australian Parliament that he

had made a deliberate and

strategic decision to play a

larger role in shaping the

reamon -- region. I have a

slightly different take on the

Obama visit. I certainly agree

with the decision taken in

relation to the stationing of

the American troops and I

totally support everything that

the Australian Prime Minister

and the American President have

said about that. Make that very

clear. My view is that herk has

never left Asia. America became

a permanent part of Asia in

August of 1945. When she as the

principal recipient of the

Japanese surrender. And whilst

the language may vary, America

has been involved in Asia and

she is involved in two very

long and difficult land wars in

Korea and Vietnam, and Barack

Obama's predecessor, George W.

Bush, I thought had a very good

strategy in Asia of emphasising

the common ality of the links

between the democracies of

Japan and Australia and the

United States and potentially

extending that to India. So

whilst every President will use

his own or her own language,

and there was nothing in the

President's speech with which I

disagreed, I thought it was a

re affirmation of the American

role in Asia rather than a new

and fresh declaration of something we hadn't had something we hadn't had

before. Of course I welcome

it. And my own track record as

Australian Prime Minister a few

years ago indicates that I get

- would hardly be likely to

doing d'oh other than very

warmly welcome it. We had

better leave it there, thank

you very much for your

time. OK.

The once deeply troubled

Solomon Islands police force

has faced its sternest test in

years and emerged with flying

colours. Just over a decade

ago, elements of the police

took part in a coup. Five Years

ago the police were overwhelmed

when mobs loot and burned

Honiara's China town. But now

after years of training with

the reej assistance mission

Ramsey, the police seem to

havern - RAMSI, the police seem

to have turned a corner.

This amateur vision taken

two weeks ago shows mobs

heading for Honiara's

Chinatown. But unlike what

happened in 2006, the Royal 108

mon Islands Police Force headed

off accident damage. We took a

lot of planning from the early

stages together with the PPF in

order that we don't repeat the

2006 incidents. The PPF is the

regional assistance mission's

Participating Police Force. And

they deliberately played a

secondary role. I think that secondary role. I think that

the Solomon Islands Government

and the community of the

Solomon Islands should really

take heart with what they're

seen in the last two weeks.

Unquestionably this was a very

successful operation. You only

had to be there out on the

street to see officers, general

duties police officers

patrolling the street, stopping

and talking to members of the

public, interacting with them,

giving them a level of confidence confidence that their police

force is in control, their

police force is back in control

of the streets. Trigger for the

potential trouble was yet

another change of Prime

Minister. Danny Philip, elected

just over a year ago, was

accused of misusing aid money

from Taiwan. He resigned. I

would like to tend er my

resignation. My family, members

of the executive of the

Government, we all agreed so I

have no qualms about my

resignation this morning. I

also believe the public opinion

must be respected. It's turned

out the way everyone is

expecting, so much relieved and

I think everyone in the country

are happy. So it's come out to

be a good result for

everyone. The man elected to

replace him was his replace him was his former

Finance Minister. This election

was indeed a resounding victory

for our young and growing

democracy after weeks of

intense political lobbying and

uncertain ti. It goes to show

with the uncertainty our

constitution and democracy will

prevail above political and

socialo economic impasse. But

not everyone was happy.

(All chant) Step down! The

performance of the police force

was in marked controos the

situation nine years ago - contrast to the situation nine

years ago, a year before the

intervention when the ABC 'Four

Corners' program visitsed. The

economy is propped up by aid

money, and on the books the

Solomons is bankrupt. Teachers

and nurse regularly go without and nurse regularly go without

pay. The electricity shuts

down seven times a day. Most of

the government ministries are

no longer on the phone because

the Government cannot pay their

bills. There's a high level of

criminal activity. But more

significantly there's an

atmosphere of fear. Never been

outside of Honiara outside of Honiara boundary.

I've not gone beyond that for

several years now. Why is

that? I just sort of felt that

I might be stretching the

security confidence I have a

bit too far. Fear of what might

happen? I just - I am just not

adventurous, that's all!

adventurous, that's all! The

self-effacing man being

interviewed was the courageous

then governor of the Central

Bank. Widely respected

internationally, Rick Hou is

the Solomon Island's new

Finance Minister. I haven't

seen two many Central Bank gon

orslic become ing politicians

or where they have become

politician I don't think they

made very good made very good politicians. Mr

Hou's mon as y belies a

strength he has shown over the

year s in standing up to those

who have exploit ed the country. Basically what we're

looking at is expanding the

economic base so that we do not

rely as we do now on one sect

or - namely, logging - as the

major revenue and income earner major revenue and income earner

for the country. So that is an

important challenge to the

current Government. The most

important thing is for us to

get on with the building of our

economy. That is the first and

foremost. The The Solomons

economy is certainly

recovering. 8% growth this

year. And the new Finance

Minister is determined to limit corruption. corruption. Pacific correspondent Sean Dorney

reporting and that is the last

program for the year. Thanks

for watching throughout 2011.

I'm Jim Middleton. Happy

holidays to you all. 'Asia

Pacific Focus' will be back in

the new year. See you then. Bye

for now. Closed Captions by CSI

BAND PLAYS "JOY TO THE WORLD" Preparations for Christmas are well underway, and nothing evokes the festive season more than the carol. I fancy singing along! They're a great way of telling the story of Christmas, but what's the story behind some of our favourite Christmas carols? I've called on some friends to help me explore the surprising history of carols, and visit one of the liveliest places to sing them - a pub on the outskirts of Sheffield! Plus we have lots of fabulous carols from Kate Rusby, The Priests and two of Yorkshire's finest choirs.

Carols, whether they be joyous, reflective or idiosyncratic - their story is often surprising. For a time during the 17th century, they were even banned - something that's hard to imagine today! BAND PLAYS "HARK! THE HERALD ANGELS SING" From ordinary streets to the grandest cathedrals, the weeks before Christmas are filled with the sound of carols. One of the main events is the Huddersfield Choral Society's Christmas Concert, and they perform our first carol, the origins of which date back to an old Welsh dance tune, Nos Galan, which really does swing along!