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(generated from captions) think. Of those 10 million

would have been combatants, 7 million would have

civilians. We're just going to

now have break in there because we do

now have live pictures from

Canberra. Let's just go to that

and listen in. Became the focus

of national attention in

remains of an unknown Australia. On that day

Australian soldier exhumed from the First World War the First World War military

cemetery in France was

ceremonially intombed in full military honours here in the

Hall of Memory at the Australian War Memorial.

Rememberance Day ceremonies

were conducted simultaneously

in towns and cities all the country culminating at the

moment of burial at 11am in a revival of the 2-minutes

silence. That ceremony touched nation and reaffirmed a chord across the Australian

Remembrance Day as a

significant day of commemoration. Ladies and

gentlemen, the memorial would

like to acknowledge those who

are joining on the dias are joining on the dias today, Mr Andrew Barr, representing

the Chief Minister of the

Australian capital Territory.

Ms Gai Brottman representing

the Speaker of the House of

Stephen Parry, representing the

President of the Senate. Justice

Justice William Gumall acting

Chief Justice of the High Court

of Australia. Senator Michael Ronaldson representing the Leader of the Opposition. The

Honourable Warren Snowden the Leader of the Opposition. The

Minister for Veterans Affairs.

General David Hurley, Chief of

the Defence Force, Mr Duncan Lewis, Secretary of the

Department of Defence. Mr Ian Campbell, Secretary of the

Department of Veterans Affairs.

Vice admiral ray Griggs Chief of of Navy. Major General John

Calligary. Neil heart, acting

Chief of Air Force and rear

admiral Ken Doolan National

President of the Returns Services League of Australia. We also acknowledge the representatives of the We also acknowledge the many

diplomatic corps joining us

here this morning, we welcome

you all. We're very delighted

to acknowledge the presence

today of Corporal Mark Donaldson VC and Air Chief

Marshall Angus Houston retired chair of the Anzac centenary advisory board. We're also

delighted to acknowledge that the ceremony will commence,

ladies and gentlemen w the triservice guard of mounted by triservice guard of honour

federation guard and marching

on to the parade ground

accompanied by the band of the Royal Military College Royal Military College of


(Band music in kis distance)

You are watching the ceremony

under way commemorating

Remembrance Day, this live from

Canberra and the war memorial

and with me in the studio is

Will Davies, a war historian

and documentary maker and we've

just been speaking about the significance of this day which

in conjunction with Anzac Day

marks the service that

Australia's military veterans

have made for this sacrifices they've made for have made for this country, the

this country. How many

Australians have died for Australia? I think there's over

100,000 now. It's a lot of men

if you put them - fill up the

Sydney Olympic stadium, it's a

stadium full of people. It's a

lot of people. We had nearly 60,000 in the First World War and I'm unsure, about 39,000 the Second World War but of and I'm unsure, about 39,000 in

course Vietnam and Korea

those minor wars. It's about

100,000 now. Please give them a warm welcome, ladies and


And of course the service has

with the latest particular pointiancy this year

Afghanistan. Yes, that death toll has just gone up and up and when you find men being

killed by friends it's a very - it must be a very daunting and

difficult time for those men.

It's a bad war, it's a bit like

Vietnam, those nasty guerrilla

wars where everyone and everything's an enemy, you

know. It's not like the First

World War or the Second World

War where you knew your enemy.

This is a different sort of

frightening war. Is that a mark of modern with those wars fought in the

last century? It is. I mean

here for the First World here for the First World War you've got, you know, battalion

attacks, you've got huge

numbers, you've got brigade

attacks, you've knot hundreds and hundreds of men going into

battle. Today it's a war of specialists, special forces,

technology, where the role of

the infantry men is much different to those (Band plays)

You're watching live pictures

from Canberra and the war memorial. As under way to commemorate

Remembrance Day. ('Advance Australia

Australia Fair' plays)

Please be seated, ladies and

gentlemen. Well the guard and

the band are now in the band are now in position and we await the arrival of the

Honourable Julia Gillard, the

Prime Minister of Australia. The Prime Minister will The Prime Minister will be received I will the acting chairman of the Council of

chairman of the Council of the Australian War Memorial and Australian War Memorial and the memorial's director. So while we wait

Prime Minister to arrive we Prime Minister to arrive we can see her car coming through

there now. I'm speaking with

Will Davies, the

Will Davies, the war his

torian. Just talk about the war

memorial where this is being held. What does it mean to those who have served for Australia? It's an extraordinary thing the

memorial. It was an idea of

Charles Bean who, as a young

boy, had been taken to

and he saw in a case, I imagine

a sort of a glass

a sort of a glass cabinet,

relics of Waterloo and it

always intrigued him the relic

s and the detritus of war and

when he became the effectively the correspondent for Australian army he said we

should have a place for the

memorial, we should have a collection and he put in place actually a collect ing company

and they were actively scrounging the battlefields for

items for that upcoming

collection and that's why the

war memorial today is so well -

is full of just amazing stuff.

For those people who haven't

visited the war me noirl what would they find there? Well,

there's probably three things.

There's the obvious, the

collection in the war memorial, which is the focus of most

people's visits. The second

thing is the wall of

rememberance, the name of every

Australian soldier that's died

in war is on the wall of memory and now since and now since the reinternment

of the unknown soldier there's

a place of reflection for a place of reflection for an

Australian soldier taking to the battlefields. Remembrance. Place of

Julia Gillard has now taken

her place and we are awaiting

the arrival of the Governor-General, Quentin

Bryce. We're talking to Will

Davies, the war historian. As

we - the crowd there now

prepares for the arrival of Quentin Bryce.

Ladies and gentlemen, their event cease, Quentin Bryce,

government general of the Commonwealth of Australia and Mr Michael Bryce.

Mr Michael Bryce. APPLAUSE Will Davies, while we're waiting to see if we can

get pictures of Quentin Bryce

arriving, of course, November

11th at 11 am, most people

would be aware that one

minute's silence observed at

that time. You can perhaps

tell us the significance of

that? I'm not sure why it is one minute. I know in one minute. I know in the UK it is two minutes. The

a moment's silence goes back

quite a way and I really don't know how it was know how it was incorporated,

to be honest, into Remembrance Day ceremony, but

it has a long history of respect

respect and taking the time just to

just to reflect.

While we're talking about the one minute's silence, one minute's silence, in fact, from the War Memorial

from the War Memorial itself,

it is saying the idea for the two minute's two minute's silence originated

with Edward George honey a Melbourne journalist who was a

veteran from the First World

War and was actually living in

London after the war. He wrote to a newspaper for five minutes silence for five minutes silence to observe those who is being

sacrificed their lives during the war. Interesting.

the war. Interesting. There you

Catafalque party.

Attention. Catafalque party

present arms. Catafalque


party. (drum roll). Catafalque

Catafalque party halt.

Catafalque party outwards. Catafalque

Catafalque party

Stand at ease. Please

stand, ladies and gentlemen, stand, ladies and gentlemen,

for the him oh God our help in ages past. Led by the ages past. Led by the rugby choir accompanied by choir accompanied by the royal military the bapd of Military College of Australia. (Sings) # Oh God our help in ages past, our hope for years

to come, our shelter from a

stormy past and our eternal

hope. #.

Please be seated ladies and

gentlemen. Each year gentlemen. Remembrance Day address is

delivered and this year the

address will be delivered address will be delivered by The honourable Julia Gillard, the Prime Minister Australia. Prime Minister.

Your event cease, Mr Acting Chief Justice, ministerial and parliamentary colleagues, members of the Australian

Defence Force, past and present, custodians of the Australian War Memorial,

friends of peace all. On May 5

this year, a frail old man in Perth. The sort of death

that happens in nursing homes

every day, but this was no ordinary loss. ordinary loss. With the

passing of clawed Choules, the

final link to WW1 has been

broken. Around 70 million people fought in that dreadful

conflict. Mr Choules was the

last. A mighty bond worn down

to a single slender thread, itself now broken, an age ended, its sole surviving voice

forever mute. Claude Choules was there on this day 93 years

ago, the day that the guns fell silent, the day that peace

began. But if November the

11th was the end of war, it was

the end of innocence too, never

again the laughter of unclouded years. The that autumn that morning

that autumn that morning was a

bitter partial peace, but then again, it always is because

human nature is weak and the summons to war lies summons to war lies never far away. That is how this

memorial to one war came to be

opened in the midst of another

and how hardly a day has passed

since 1941 when since 1941 when Australians

have not been abroad on active service, half of that time combat operations. The truth is

is we are a good nation in an

imperfect world, a people of

peace so often called to war,

fighting other nations but

really fighting deeper foes, tyranny, tyranny, injustice, persecution, and greed,

persecution, and greed, never

for national gain, never for

purposes other than what we

judge to be right. Surveying these

these walls and the immense

sadness sadness of 102,000 names written on them, it is right to

conclude that our nation, conclude that our nation, and

especially the young people especially the young people of our nation, have always

accepted the cost and burden of

accepted the cost and burden of

war as seen in Afghanistan this

very day. If we pay that price willingly, we never pay it

lightly, because war is profound, it is a profound responsibility for any nation

to undertake. It to undertake. It is not surprising that men, like

Claude Choules and Charlie mans who saw the worst

who saw the worst of war became the most fervent the most fervent sons of peace and so often shunned

observances such as. This they

knew what we only see through a

glass darkly, privy to the

joyless irony of conflict, that

the aim of war is peace and the

price of peace is all too price of peace is all too often

war, an unbearable paradox witnessed by endless rows

witnessed by endless rows of

pale identical grave stones and

mud soaked fields that even now still yield up their dead.


There are many tributes to war

memorials, wreaths, poem and

songs, all of them reaching for

the unsayable, all of the unsayable, all of them falling necessarily short.

Perhaps the only memorial

Perhaps the only memorial that

fully touches the enormity of

war is silence.

silence that so many of our

veterans wrapped themselves when they came back, having

seen and done things too awful

to ever bring into the sanctitity of their own

for to share with people who could never understand. The

things of which there's nothing

left to be said, things for

which words and symbols fail,

and contemplation remains our

best and only gift. In the

wisdom and dignity of silence, therefore, let us not

forget. It is little enough to ask of us who gained so much

from those who gave so much.

In our still and grateful

hearts let there only be silence, that on this day and

on every day in every month and

season, we will remember them.

Lest we forget. APPLAUSE

thank you Prime Minister.

Wreaths will now be laid in

Wreaths will now be laid in the following order: firstly, Ms

Quentin Bryce the Governor-General of the

The The honourable Julia Gillard, the Prime

Minister of Australia.

Mr Andrew bar representing

the Chief Minister of You're You're watching the laying of the wreaths to commemorate Australia's dead as we watch the Remembrance Day ceremonies

live from Canberra. Joining the Remembrance

in the studio is Will Davies, a

war historian and maker. Will, while we watch the laying of the the laying of the wreaths

there, it might be... Representing the Speaker of the

House of Representatives. It

might be interesting to note

why flowers are laid in these

ceremonies. I guess on Anzac

Day it tends to be

Day it tends to be Rosemary. Yes. Symbolising

remembrance, but on today, of

course, the red poppy. The red poppy, yes. Has great

significant, doesn't it. Exactly. When you battlefields today, they're

covered in red poppy and

they're a beautiful little

flower, red the symbol of blood

and dying, loss, made

that po went in Flanders


that was written by a Canadian

doctor in a forward first aid

post at Essex farm and that

comes down to us, the comes down to us, the poppies;

the symbol of sacrifice and

blood, the Flanders poppy.

While flowers and wreaths are

laid? I guess wreath are laid in any funeral or any

remembrance. I guess, too, we

don't have the Flanders poppies

here, so it is nice to see the wildflowers. In fact, the wildflowers. In fact, the red poppy was among the first

plants to spring from the battlefields in France and

Belgium. They were there soon

after the battle and the

soldiers... It was like the

birds returned, it was larks and the sparrows, larks and the sparrows, the soldiers couldn't believe soldiers couldn't believe that

nature came back and it was symbolised in the red poppy, Will, the poppy is also placed on the panels of the

memorial's roll of honour

too. They are. That's quite a

sight, isn't it. That's an amazing sight where those small

paper and wire poppies are

covering the wall in

remembrance. You see them on

the battlefields too, the small poppies laid by a grave, you

know, faded, the rain has been

on them, all they're all on them, all they're all falling part, but they're quite significant.

significant. The Chief of the

Defence Force, General David Hurley. That's General David Hurley, the Chief of the

Defence Force. tough times at the moment because of the loss of

Australian soldiers in

Afghanistan, most recently, of

course, we had the death of

three Australian soldiers shot

by a member of Afghanistan, National Army and more

recently, earlier this the another three Australian soldiers were shot and Will, we talk about the poppies being placed on the

panels of the memorial's role

of honour. I gather that particular practice only man in 1993 with the funeral of the

unknown soldier. Yes, that's

interesting. That was a

profound time for many people.

I think in a way the beginning

of the renewed interest in the

Great War. That boy was taken

from Adelaide

invillelers Brett that, he

would have died on Anzac Day

1918 and for me it was the reason I

reason I actually first visited

the battlefields. I felt

something of that re inter.

And I went back. I spent And I went back. I spent a weekend exploring them. I didn't understand but it was the beginning of a long

interest in the First World War. We're seeing members there of the Returned Services League, the RSL, League, the RSL, paying

tribute. What role does the

RSL play in Australian society today? Obviously; it was set

up, as the name suggests, to

help those who returned from

the war front. Is it still as

widely important today as it was last century? Sadly, I

don't think it is. You know,

the old days when you needed to

be a returned a member of the RSL, they

couldn't keep that up. I don't

quite know what their role is today, but they certainly are in the forefront of

commemoration and remembrance. I

I think they're still relevant.

I think they're very important. They're perhaps the ongoing glue of this celebration - not celebration, The Prime Minister spoke in

her address there of Claude

Choules who died earlier this

year and he was the, as she

said, the bonds with WW1 were

broken with his death because

he was the last surviving serviceman from the war. That's interesting.

it's the last Australian servicemen or the last servicemen of all nations. I understand there are a few

Germans left and I'm gather the last Australian. Yes, the last Australian. I

don't know his personal service

record, but it may have been

that - I don't know how long he

was actually at the front, whether he actually

whether he actually left Australia. Obviously, there

were many men that trained and

didn't actually get to the

great deal about him. Julia

Gillard speaks of those bonds

that have been broken. You can

just tell us about WW1 and how

that helped define the nation? It is a really interesting

thing. When we look thing. When we look back historically over our 210

years, 220 years, not a lot years, 220 years, not a lot has really happened. We have had a gold rush and a gold rush and a shearer's strike and a few blips in our history. The world... The

impact of WW1 was profound on

our history. As Bill our history. As Bill Gammage

makes a wonderful point, here makes a wonderful

we were in 19 0 1, a grand new brand

brand new gation and the only

way we would prove ourselves way through nation was through

sport and war. And proving

ourselves as a nation really

was to Britain, the mother

country. We could already beat

Britain in rugby and cricket and so sport wasn't problem, so we had the

opportunity in war. You know,

the soldiers marching off to

that war wouldn't have put

that war wouldn't have put in

this sort of way, but we as a young nation needed to prove

ourselves and I think we ourselves and I think we did and this was an important factor in

Today, visitors place

poppies on the tomb of the unknown soldier as unknown soldier as well as on

the role of honour and this

Stone of Remembrance. Stone of Remembrance. The Flanders poppy

of Armistice or ceremonies of Armistice or remembrance

ceremonies since the early 1920 and is increasingly being and is increasingly being used

as part of the Anzac Day other

advances. Durs the First World

War, poppies were among the

first plant that sprouted from the devastation of

the devastation of the

battlefields of Northern France and Belgium. Many soldiers

liked to believe that the

poppies were vivid red from having been nurtured in ground

soaked with the blood of their

comrades. Poppies now adorn

comrades. Poppies now adorn the Pams of the memorial's role

of honour, pushed in beside names as a personal tribute to

the memory of the 102,000 men

and women commemorated there. This practice originates

This practice originates from a spontaneous gesture made by people waiting to pay their

respects at the internment of

the unknown Australian soldier

on 11 November 1993. After

invited to visit the hall of

memory and lay a single poppy on the tomb. While waiting,

they queued in the choice terse

beside the roll of honour. At the end of the day, the end of the day, memorial

staff noticed hundreds of

poppies had been pushed into the cracks between those

panels. The placing of poppies

on the roll of honour is on the roll of honour is just

one of the many ways in which the hundreds of Australians who

come here each day commemorate Australia's servicemen Australia's servicemen and women, many distinguished

visitors also come to pay their respects. In fact, just over a fortnight ago Her fortnight ago Her Majesty Queen

Elizabeth Beth the second

visited the memorial to lay a

wreath at the tomb of the

unknown Australian soldier. One of the most warmly remembered visits by the Queen remembered visits

to the memorial occurred during

the 1954 royal tour Australia. On that the

she was greeted by a cheering

crowd of 3000 people and a

guard of honour formed by

ex-servicemen and women.

ex-servicemen and women.

Ladies and gentlemen, I ask you

to please National

Returned and Services League of Australia, Rear Admiral Ken

Doolan, recites the Ode. After that the Last Post willing played

played followed by a minute's

silence and then the playing of the rouse.

the rouse. They shall grow not

old as we that are left grow

old. Age shall not weary them,

nor the years condemn. At the

going down of the sun and in

the morning, we will remember

them. We will remember them.

(Last Post plays). (Minute's silence observed)

(Playing of the rouse) Lest we forget. Lest we

forget. Please be

gentlemen. Members of the

diplomatic corps will now lay

wreaths in order of precedence on behalf of the sit tense of

their countries. the first

their countries. the first group Argentina, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Malta, Denmark, Austria and Colombia.

Next, Lebanon,

Next, Lebanon, Cyprus, Sweden, Mongolia, Bulgaria,

Bangladesh, Croatia and Romania. As the commemorations

continue in Canberra, let's see

what's happening elsewhere.

They are of course being marked in capitals around the country. We have shots now

You're watching the service

from the centre of Sydney Martin Place.

Martin Place. They've just observed their minute's silence.

silence. They're running a

little behind schedule.

Canberra was in fact a little ahead of Ladies and

Ladies and gentlemen, please

be seated. Let's now return to

the ceremony in Canberra. With me in the studio... Greece. Is Will Davies,

Greece. Is Will Davies, a documentary maker and warhistorian.

warhistorian. Will, of course,

November 11th marks Remembrance

Day. It is formerly known as Armistice day which Armistice day which marks the

end of the hostilities in WW1.

Let's look at those statistics from WW1 which are quite amazing, aren't

amazing, aren't they? I gather

from the and you War Memorial 416,000 Australians volunteered

for service during the while 3 24,000 actually while 3 24,000 actually served overseas and more than 60,000 Australians

Australians were killed.

45,000 of those the western front in France and Belgium, while another 8,000 died

died at gallon lip lee. That's

what we seem to forget. We

commemorate the losses at

gallon lip lee, but 8,000

between April and, between April and, Andes, when you think of we had 23,000

casualties in six weeks. We lost

lost 5,500 casualties overnight

at Fromelles of which nearly

2000 were killed. The numbers

are extraordinary. It is

terrible to lose a single man,

but in those days, you know,

hundreds were killed in an

attack and not found. I

I'll be walking the fields of

farm in France soon and there

were literally hundreds of Australian bodies that were

never re cord speak of the servicemen but there were women who served,

many of whom were nurses.

That's right. I don't know

the numbers. A lot of women

served in overseas, they served not exactly frontline

but certainly within danger zone, within artillery zone, within artillery range of the frontline, 20 kilometres. You had to be a

long way away to not be

fire. They served and they... They weren't allowed to wards the

the front. They also served in

hospitals in the UK and quite

hospitals in the UK and quite a

number of nurses number of nurses were decorated. One can only decorated. One can only imagine the conditions on the battlefield must have been

horrific. If you managed to

survive and had to be treated on the battlefront. In today's

terms, you know, even in

Vietnam you had dust off, you could be in a helicopter and in

a hospital within half an hour.

a hospital within half an hour.

Those poor guy s were, even a

forward casualty clearing

station was perhaps half a mile

behind the line. You had to be

carried there on a stretcher

through mud, narrow trenches,

packed with troops. It would

have been just awful, rough

uncomfortable, how many the strchers and in the ambulances on those rough roads

you can't imagine and how many died left on

died left on the died left on the battlefield unable to be rescued. On that

day, on Armistice day, it day,

remembered as the war to remembered as the war to end all wars, that is how it was referred to at the time, which

of course proved not to be the

case because within case because within another

generation the world was again

at war. Yes. How

looked on with the treaty of

Versailles and so on? Obviously, people look back

with that - look back object

on that today and it is a

strange occurrence that it

should be referred to as the

war that ends all wars and we

see what's happening today.

The extraordinary thing is we

have the end of a war in 1918

and the beginning of another

war in 1939, we are talking

about 20 odd years later.

Think of it today. 20 years ago is not that long ago. It

is the 1990s, 1991. We can all

remember 1991 very clearly, or

a lot of us. It is not long ago. Sadly, obviously long ago. Sadly, obviously the seeds of the Second World War

came in the treat

came in the treat tiff very

treaty of Versailles, how the

Germans felt they were treated

in that document, and really,

you know, it wasn't long before World War were manifest in

Germany. Switzerland, France, island

island Ireland. You're still watching pictures live from

Canberra, the laying of wreaths

by members of the by members of the diplomatic corps from many citizens on behalf of their countries.

behalf of their countrilandand nd watching pictures live from behalf of their countrie Ireland. You're still watching pictures live from Canberra, members of the diplomatic corps from many citizens on behalf of their countries.

It was interesting seeing woman crying in the Sydney

cenotaph. Those wounds are

still very apparent to a lot still very apparent to a lot of

people they say it takes four or

or five generations to get over

a war, but for some people that

was their great uncle, you

know, their mother's elder

brother or, you know, their father's younger

they remembered them as little

children and that pain is still

with us.

with us. Alix Biggs.

to those in battles slain who died that we might freedom

gain. A noble hero true and

brave, peacefully sleeps in a

soldier's grave. That we soldier's grave. That we may always be worthy of

always be worthy of the great

sacrifice. I thought not when

I cradled you in I cradled you in battle you'd fall far from me. Only fall far from me. Only those who have loved and lost can

understand war's bitter cost.

understand war's bitter cost.

Thank you Alex. Poppies now will be laid, ladies and

gentlemen, by 102 gentlemen, by 102 young Australians representing the

youth of Australia. The 102

students symbolise the 102,000

Australian servicemen and women

who have fallen in all

Our first representatives come

from St Clair's college in

from St Clair's college in the Australian Capital Territory.

Next, mow denville school Next, mow denville public school from NSW. You're watching live watching live pictures from Canberra of the service to

commemorate Remembrance Day as

we're just watching - we can't unfortunately see the school children that are laying

flowers, but they come from

around the country, from St

Clair's college in the ACT,

from that public school in NSW, Northern Territory, St Mary's school in Queensland, 10 any

son woods college in SA. Senior high school from WA, and

Wesley college in Perth, WA.

With me in the studio is Will

Davies, the war historian and

documentary maker and Will, we were talking about those

figures from WW1, the lives

that were sacrificed and we

look at today how war is that Australians. Obviously, we

refer to WW1 as the Great War,

the war to end all wars, as we

were saying. Then of course

World War II and in more recent

memory, the Vietnam War, memory, the Vietnam War, the

Korean War and now we have

other theatre of conflict Australia is still involved in. You were talking about how

those two great wars, WW1 and World War II, World War II, touched everyone

because they were world wars. Now, of course, we see various

theatres of conflict that Australia is active in. Does

that mean that the average

Australian is not touched

perhaps as they should be or is

it not surprising that's the

case because it is pretty restricted to those people who serve as career

soldiers. That's right. We're a little removed back perhaps in the con script in the con script days of the 50s, certainly through the 60s and early 70s when we had conscription, a lot more families

families were touched, a lot

more young men were involved in the military, they were con sprinted, they went to Vietnam and experienced a war. I and experienced a war. I think today the army and service for most people is a

little removed, unless they

know a young man or a young

woman in the services, woman in the services, they probably don't probably don't think much about

it. I think one of the things that needs also to be

remembered today is the massive

civilian casualty of war.

While something like 10 million combatants were killed in the

First World War, about 7 million civilians were million civilians were killed. That's an extraordinary

I don't know where that 7

million came from, million came from, how they were made up, but it is a were made up, but it is a huge percentage. That's not really

spoken of, is it. Not at all. Obviously, it is a

sacrifice that servicemen and

women make, but the casualties

of civilians, there's no

memorial as such for them is

there? That's right, there's no

memorial. In the same way a lovely memorial to the horses a

of the First World War. of the First World War. We sent something like sent something like two or three million horses to three million horses to the

First World War. One came

back, the general's horse.

Let's spend a moment to back,

of the horses. The of the horses. The sacrifice

was a broad sacrifice and it is

extraordinary, you know. I

still look at those rows of

graves and a tear runs down my cheek as I read the names and

there's some poor boy from some tiny village that left in all innocence and these powerless young men were young men were thrown into the

line and were lost, their

bodies never found, their

mothers never knowing, and that

was their fate. It is just

awful. You are awful. You are watching live

pictures from Canberra as Remembrance

Remembrance Day, the

Remembrance Day memorial

continues. It is drawing to a close now.

laying of flowers by various

school children from around the

country. There we have a shot of course of the Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, and very shortly we will listening to the National

Anthem. Ladies and Anthem. Ladies and gentlemen, please stand now and join in the singing of the Australian National Anthem. (National Anthem plays).

Please be seated ladies and

gentlemen. And that draws to a close the Remembrance Day ceremony from the