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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) On 26 June 1963, John F Kennedy came to Berlin. TENSE MUSIC the city and its place in history. It was a day that would change All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and therefore as a free man I take pride in the words 'Ich bin ein Berliner'. CHEERS AND APPLAUSE After these words were uttered, than just a divided city, Berlin became more it became a symbol, a state of mind, it became everyone's city. like my own parents, And to ordinary Germans suddenly looked like a saviour. the American President Kennedy even had a hand in my birth. I came along five months later.

sent my mother into premature labour. The shock of his assassination had But it wasn't until much later a defining role in my life. that Berlin would play On November 9, 1989 as a young BBC radio journalist I was sent here on assignment. CHEERS AND APPLAUSE This extraordinary party scene... MAN: Whoo hoo hoo! ..the smell of champagne. On that side, on the Eastern side, a rainbow-coloured traffic jam. with a certain urgency, Everyone sort of walked in case this was all just a dream. they wanted to get to the other side of mundane normality And this sudden eruption by people living there for decades which had been enjoyed had only dreamt of and which people over there was really quite shocking. in the mayhem of hope and anxiety My own family was caught up as the Berlin Wall fell. I'd always understood what JFK meant and oppression, when he talked about freedom about the division of Germany, but on that day standing here, I also felt it. DRAMATIC MUSIC WHOOSH had been born On the streets of Berlin of our time. the great and terrible ideas The Theory of Relativity, Communism and Fascism. Theories of sex and sexuality. of the atomic bomb. And the conception from the city's earliest days The story of Berlin that would define the modern world. is one of a clash of ideas CANNON FIRE In April 1945 the centre of the city the Russian Army battled towards to the Second World War. to defeat Hitler and put an end a lone figure could be seen Amidst the carnage of Berlin towards the airport. making his way through the rubble a painting taken out of its frame. He was a pilot and he was carrying safely out of the country. His mission was to take that painting He was shot and fell wounded. survived the slaughter of WWII But why would a pilot who's just now risk his life for a painting? was both an icon Because the painting the soul of Berlin. and a key to unlocking King Frederick the Great of Prussia, It was a copy of this portrait of as a centre for radical thought, the man who established Berlin in a series of vicious wars. and who extended his empire is to understand Berlin. To understand Frederick run like a bloody thread Frederick's ideas through the history of this city, inspiring both horror and hope. was born in 1712. Frederick, or Fritz as he was known, had become a unified nation, He lived and reigned before Germany capital of the Kingdom of Prussia. when Berlin was still a fledgling TENSE MUSIC

was a baptism of fire, Frederick's upbringing obsessed with the military. courtesy of a father was woken up every day The story goes that young Fritz outside his window by a cannon barrage to the sound of gunfire. to get him used of the Prussian drill code He learned the 54 movements until he knew them backwards. of child cadets. Then followed his own army It was a school of tyranny. began to rebel. At 16, the young Fritz He got his tutors to teach him against his father's will. to live a double life. He also started to his father's strict wishes, Outwardly conforming of forbidden poems and philosophy. but secretly amassing a library father and son was to come to light Eventually this difference between with tragic consequences. was a captain in the Prussian Army. Hans von Katte possibly homosexual relationship He developed a close, with the 18-year-old Fritz. to run away to England The two friends planned inspecting his army, while the king was away but they were betrayed. The king imprisoned his own son the beheading of Katte and then forced him to watch from the window of his cell. that would overshadow his life. It was an act of brutality built Sans Souci Palace, As a king, Frederick the Great a Rococo refuge from the world. Frederick became a great patron of the arts. Himself an accomplished flautist, it was he who gave the concerts. by the spirit of his times, He was a modern man who was moulded the spirit of the Enlightenment, by the French philosopher Voltaire. and most specifically Voltaire was a revolutionary thinker, and equality, he promoted social reform he was in love with rationality that education and he passionately believed would further human betterment. firmly believed At a time when Europe's monarchs to rule over their subjects, in their God-given right were nothing short of explosive. Voltaire's ideas who did not see him as a threat But one monarch was Frederick the Great. a yearly salary The king paid Voltaire an ever-present member and the writer was and philosophers. of Frederick's group of artists an attack on the despotism of princes Along with Voltaire, Frederick penned and the divine rights of kings. It was an ironic prophecy for Berlin. when they have the will, "Kings have the capacity to do good they can also make evil. "in the same way

are sometimes pitiable "The lives of the people fear abuse of the sovereign power. "and they have very good reason to is at the mercy of his whims. "Their freedom are subject to his cruelties. "Their very lives the absolute master of the people "The sovereign far from being "which are under his domination "is only the first servant." and they are reflected Enlightened views, of the Marble Hall. in the very architecture Urania, the Goddess of Free Nature and Life, Apollo, God of the Arts. But for all his enlightened ideas many would argue that Frederick wasn't so great. There's another side to his character also reflected in this room. DRAMATIC MUSIC

The tools of battle glorified. against the military traditions of his family, they were in his blood, and he himself began to hunger for territory. Frederick the Great invaded Saxony, he fought wars with Austria, France and Russia, he even acquired a sizeable chunk of Poland. And yet all the time his flute music could be heard at night drifting across the military encampments, the warrior philosopher playing his troops to sleep. He was a pretty complex, divided sort of fellow, perfect for the shrink you might say. What we need now is energy - the energy to keep the economy growing, the energy to tackle challenges like climate change. What if that energy came from an energy company? Chevron Australia is investing billions of dollars in people, in ideas,

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In commemoration of Frederick the Great's successes on the battlefield an enormous sculpture was commissioned. DRAMATIC MUSIC

Gottfried Schadow created an image of winged Victory riding a chariot drawn by four horses. In 1791 it was placed on top of the newly erected Brandenburg Gate. This was once the main entrance to the walled city, now it's an icon that tells the story of Berlin, beneath the winged goddess, past the ghosts of a century of troubles. Just like Frederick the Great himself, this building embodies the clash of ideas that define Berlin. It has become a symbol of both militarism... and idealism, of oppression... and liberation. CROWD CHEERS The two sides of Frederick the Great's character, the iron fist of rule versus the gloved hand of elegant ideas that could make the world a better place.

That was what's driven the history of Berlin. His militarism turned this place into a garrison city of war and oppression. His romantic idealism inspired hopes and dreams of revolution. That is the dilemma which has torn at the German soul. DRAMATIC MUSIC SWELLS

OMINOUS MUSIC In October 1836 a student came here to the university. He noticed that the Berliners were ripe for revolution. The student was a tearaway, a hard drinker, a gambler. His name was Karl Marx, a young Prussian philosopher enamoured of Voltaire and the Enlightenment thinkers that had inspired King Frederick the Great. Marx's ideas were the beginning of Communism. "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. "They openly declare that their ends can be attained "only by the forcible overthrow "of all existing social conditions. "Let the ruling classes tremble at a communistic revolution. "The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. "They have a world to win." In 'The Communist Manifesto' Marx urged the workers of the world to rise up against their rulers and establish a classless society.

He argued that their loyalties should not be for any country, king or president, but for fellow workers the world over. His ideas had an impact on the history of the city

and can still be seen on almost every corner. TRAIN NOISE Traces of social realist art still mark the buildings of the old East. Communist statues linger, seemingly lost within the reunited city. But streets from both East and West Berlin

During the 19th century the city became known as Red Berlin, a magnet for left-wing intellectuals and activists

from all over Europe. In 1871 Berlin passed from the capital of Prussia under a king to the capital of united Germany under a Kaiser. The threat of the Communists loomed ever larger to its rulers. But it wasn't until the end of the First World War as the nation's defeated soldiers paraded past the monumental statue of Frederick the Great that the people of Red Berlin managed to overthrow their rulers. On November 8, 1918 the anger of the people finally brimmed over. A wave of desperation washed across the country, it was fed by grinding poverty and the sudden realisation that the war had been lost. When it arrived here in Berlin the Kaiser was forced to abdicate. But what filled the vacuum? The simple answer is... ideas, lots of them. On the day the Kaiser abdicated not one, but two republics were declared. First by the Chancellor's Deputy speaking from a window in the Reichstag, and secondly by the Communists. Berlin was plunged into a state of chaos over who actually ruled it. Karl Liebknecht, a lawyer, was a leader of the Communist Party.

As a young politician he'd been in prison for condemning Prussian militarism, and when he later refused to fight in the First World War he was given the job of burying the German dead. He argued with his fellow Communist leader, Rosa Luxemburg. If they could only win the battle on the streets Berlin would be theirs for the taking.

As the fighting began to break out, Luxemburg had no choice but to support the coming struggle. Around New Year in 1919 the bloody uprising began in earnest. And by nightfall of 5 January the Communists had seized all the important buildings in Berlin, The Chancellor fell back on a very Prussian solution, bring troops into the streets. He mobilised a volunteer army, the Freikorps, On the night of 11 January

the buildings of central Berlin were turned into fortresses. It was the first but by no means the last time that this would happen in the 20th century. The Freikorps attacked the Communists in a bloody battle, winning back control of the Brandenburg Gate and ultimately Berlin.

On columns all over the city, the authorities would soon mount a poster campaign quoting a popular poem. The posters read - "Berlin, your dancing partner is Death." DRAMATIC MUSIC The prophecy would last almost a century. With the city in their control and his fellow Communist leader Rosa Luxemburg. The tip-off led them to the Mannheimer Strasse. UNEASY MUSIC This building was surrounded. Both would be interrogated before they felt the rifle butt crash down on their heads. When Rosa Luxemburg came to, she was riding in the back of a car. A man put a pistol to her head and then blew her brains out. The Freikorps then dumped her body from this bridge into the Landwehr Canal. It crashed through the thin ice and disappeared.

As the century progressed the canal would become the bloodiest channel in this city of deaths. It flooded underground stations during the War drawing hundreds of drowned bodies into its flow. Later, sections would form the infamous death strip between East and West Berlin. And it's always been a dumping ground for the corpses of dubious killings and political assassinations, Rosa Luxemburg was the first. among whom Karl Liebknecht was also shot and his body filed anonymously into a city mortuary. The two leaders would later achieve the status of martyrs. But at the time, their deaths spelt the end of the Communist uprising. Now politicians campaigned furiously for a place in a new broad-based ruling coalition. This government was to move to the small town of Weimar The liberalism of the new, so-called Weimar Republic would unleash a flood of new creative ideas in Berlin. But also dangerously destructive ones. It was an era that was best depicted by the painter George Grosz. 'DAS IST BERLIN' MUSIC CONTINUES Through his eyes, the famous Friedrichstrasse is a place where whores fraternised with plump military men... DARK MUSIC ..while wounded war veterans beg or sell matches

to try and make ends meet. This was a dissolute and dangerous area of Berlin, but Grosz uses it to portray a modern city close to collapse. At the centre of the image lurks Death himself disguised as a Berlin gent in bowler hat and suit. Seeing such inequality on the streets of the city led Grosz to join the newly resurgent Communist Party. In 'The Toads of Possession' while looking down on the city's downtrodden workers and wounded soldiers. SAD MUSIC Grosz wrote in a letter that this image was to Berlin what Hogarth's 'Gin Lane' was to London. "It is a large picture of Hell, "of grotesque corpses and lunatics. "On the right a young man is throwing up on the canvas "all the illusions of youth. "I'm totally convinced that this epoch "is sailing down to its own destruction. "Our sullied paradise. "Just think, wherever you step smells of shit." Looking for some magic? With more chances to win, grab a new $4 Magic Numbers Bingo Instant Scratchie and you could walk away with a magical $85,000! (CHEERS) Ahh! (BOOM) (SQUAWKS) (SINGS) # Scratch me happy! # We believe our Membership Rewards program is the most flexible in the universe. Our vast range of travel partners means you can travel just about anytime, anyhow, anywhere on earth. American Express. One day, George Grosz made his way as usual to the local cigar shop,

it was just another normal Berlin day in the 1920s. The cigar man smiled and handed over Grosz's regular order. Grosz smiled back, and then he noticed something different. Instead of the usual hammer-and-sickle lapel badge that the cigar man used to wear there was now a different symbol. It was strange, it was exotic it was to define a whole nation. and a few years later for Berlin arrived in the city. In 1926 the new Nazi Party organiser named Joseph Goebbels, He was a fresh-faced young man his ideological assault on the city and the story of turning points in Berlin history. is one of the great grim with a club foot, Goebbels had grown up a poor child for some kind of national rebirth he yearned National Socialists. and he found hope in Hitler's The Nazi Party promised a return to a strong, militarised, racially pure Germany. He took over a grubby Party office in a city where the Nazis were virtually unheard of. Goebbels feared the power of the left-leaning social satire of George Grosz and other radical artists of Berlin. He set about turning the city towards National Socialism and he instantly recognised something about Berlin that has held true to this day. The area of Wedding has always been a working-class district. Throughout the '20s, it was a Communist stronghold.

The Communists used a local theatre called Pharus Hall for their meetings. Goebbels booked the Pharus Hall for a Nazi rally on 11 February 1927. all over Berlin. Huge posters advertised the meeting

his campaign of spectacle, It was here that he planned to begin and this city's tumultuous history the most mundane of facades. now lies behind more provocative. It couldn't have been Goebbels took his small band of Nazis of Communist Berlin. right here, into the heart a peaceful rally to drum up support What was officially billed as was in fact in his own words a declaration of war. DRAMATIC MUSIC "A beer glass flew through the air and crashed to the floor. "Chairs were broken and legs ripped from tables. "Glasses and bottles suddenly appeared "and all hell broke loose."

When the press called it the "Battle of Pharus Hall", Goebbels' propaganda coup was complete. He could claim that his peaceful rally had been attacked by the brutal Red mob - the aggressor as victim. From this moment on a sporadic war between the militia of the Nazi and Communist parties. Goebbels would make it his job

to turn Red Berlin into Nazi Berlin. The absence of imperial rule made the city a dangerous place, but it also transformed the social and cultural life of Berlin. Heavy censorship had been lifted and as people fought on the streets craze of jazz and cabaret Berlin danced to the international on the planet did. in a way that no other city the popular tunes of Brecht and Weill The craze extended from and most experimental depths to the darkest of Berlin's artistic world. UNEASY DISCORDANT MUSIC On a sultry July day in 1928 in this graveyard a small funeral took place here in the district of Neukolln. Those attending were about as strange a bunch as anyone could wish for, journalists and hermaphrodites, film directors and prostitutes,

doctors and transvestites. They were all here to say goodbye to a woman whose drug-fuelled life and early death had come to embody the Berlin of the 1920s, roaring... and toxic. The woman's name was Anita Berber. She was a movie actress and a dancer,

famed for her erotic modern dance numbers. She danced at the notorious Eldorado Club. In what is now an organic supermarket people would once sit in sweaty thrall to Berber's gyrations. RHYTHMICAL UNEASY MUSIC Berber was a bisexual addicted to cocaine, morphine and heroin. Someone who wouldn't shy at stooping to prostitution to fund her habits. Hard to believe, but this place

was once the centre of Berlin's creative scene. captured the mood Another artist, Otto Dix, in his stunning portrait of Berber transvestite clientele. and his rendering of the club's in the 1920s The sexual underworld of Berlin represented not just a way of life a good night out. or, for that matter, in this city at that time Like everything else it embodied a political idea. a Berlin sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, who'd been much censored during the early decades of the century found new freedom during the Weimar Republic. Hirschfeld was even given a royal palace in which to house his Institute for Sexual Research. The Federal Chancery of Germany now occupies its site. Hirschfeld believed in what he called the third or intermediate sex. The notion that a human being could naturally be

something other than a man or a woman. He theorised that between what he termed absolute man and absolute woman possible sexual types of human being, bespoke sexuality. According to his experiments these types depended on physical characteristics - hair growth, gait, perspiration Hirschfeld himself was gay and he argued that since sexual differences were determined by nature had to be equally natural. homosexual practice that made him into a prime target It was the kind of logic and his Nazi rabble-rousers. for the likes of Joseph Goebbels lobbying for the repeal of the law Not that that stopped Hirschfeld from against homosexual practice. political gay rights campaigner, He was, perhaps, the world's first has never forgotten. a fact which the city he loved FRENCH-STYLE PIANO ACCORDION Voltaire's 200-year-old vision of the city was never more true. Many of those drawn to Berlin during the 1920s made a beeline for Schoneberg -

then, as now, the gay centre of the city. One was a young Englishman named Christopher Isherwood. He lived at number 17 Nollendorfstrasse and it was here that he wrote the tales of his experiences. Published in the book 'Goodbye to Berlin' they later became the film 'Cabaret'. (UP-BEAT ROCK MUSIC PLAYS) SONG: # I just wanna live # Don't really care about the things that they say # I just wanna live # Don't really care about # Don't really care about what happens to me

# Just wanna live, just wanna live... # VOICEOVER: New Nissan X-Trail.

# I just wanna live... # # Live # Gonna be limitless # Tonight # Live # Gonna be... # on new Optus Pre-Paid Turbo Caps. Live life without limits Recharge $30 and get $200 value calls and texts anytime, to use on standard and Twitter within Australia plus unlimited access to Facebook only on Optus Pre-Paid mobile. On 30 January 1933 Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor. Red Berlin was defeated. Goebbels' Nazi propaganda, promises of new jobs and food, they'd all turned the tide in the city. It was as if Berlin had finally chosen its dancing partner. It was the end of an era. The Institute for Sexual Research was attacked, while a Hitler Youth band played outside. UNEASY MUSIC The entire library was paraded behind a bust of Magnus Hirschfeld to the Opernplatz

and here it was burnt with other literature deemed degenerate.

The organiser of the bonfire, Joseph Goebbels, proclaimed with his usual hyperbole the coming of a new age. The Eldorado Club was closed down. Soon it would be a Nazi Party local office. The battle of ideas that was waged in Berlin to the terrible costs would eventually lead of the Second World War. The six-year global conflict in this very city. also came to its conclusion Of all Berlin's haunted streets than Voss Strasse. none is more strangely evocative One pre-war house remains standing, from the battle over 64 years ago. still pockmarked with bullet scars beneath the Reich's Chancellery It was here and his closest lieutenants, that Hitler including Joseph Goebbels, till the very end. had remained in a bunker The forlorn cavern is now buried and a kindergarten. beneath a Chinese restaurant When the conquering Russian troops amongst the ruins uncovered the bunker they found the charred remains of Goebbels and his wife, they'd taken their own lives after forcing cyanide capsules into the mouths of their sleeping children. Inside the ruined bunker, on the wall of Hitler's study, the troops found an empty picture frame. The painting which the frame held was one of Hitler's most prized possessions. It had travelled with him wherever he went. And like the Fuhrer himself it depicted a man who was both a tyrant and a dreamer. Someone familiar, Frederick the Great. it was old Fritz, Hitler had entrusted the painting Before he committed suicide to try and spirit it out of Berlin. to his personal pilot But the story doesn't end here. might have tainted the reputation The association with Hitler of the enlightened despot, were to endure. but Frederick's spirit and his ideas to the city They would forever be bound as Berlin became divided of its troubled existence. and entered a new phase and its capital East Berlin Emergent Communist East Germany seen as an inspiration to Hitler. wanted little to do with a monarch from Unter den Linden In 1950, his statue was removed for almost a century. where it had proudly stood within the newly drawn-up borders And his palaces themselves fell of East Germany. a period of neglect and near ruin. Like the monarch, they entered Hello. The Assistant Custodian at Sans Souci wasn't quite so well cared for. lived through a time when everything Just as East Berlin was redefining its cultural history, West Berlin seemed to forget its past by embracing a new Americanised future. AMERICAN NEWSREEL: Kurfurstendamm is a combination of Fifth Avenue and Broadway, it's home to the Film Festival and every June with its glamorous stars. are Berlin's own girls, But the true stars away from home. a charm not lost on many a young man in its history Perhaps for the very first time was now clearly defined on the map. the clash of ideas here in Berlin of the postwar world, The city had become a microcosm divided between a Communist East and a Capitalist West, from exile during the War and for those who now returned

whose side they were on. they had to decide literally the Berlin Wall was built. And in 1961 of refugees heading West. The plan, to stem the haemorrhage

of an idea made manifest, It was the ultimate expression concrete, a part of the city. Berlin had spent centuries behaving like a schizophrenic city of two sides, now it had literally become one. But still the battle of ideas continued. With such a solid barrier driven through the city, the place for open debate about the ideas of Berlin became the airwaves.

Both the East and West could access each other's television and radio and waged a battle of words in the ether above Berlin. BUBBLING ELECTRONIC NOISE LIGHT CABARET-STYLE MUSIC This is West Berlin of the 1980s. according to an East German map Western sector had ceased to exist, For the East Germans, the in the sea of Communism. a blank island Which was the true Germany? Which was the true Berlin? In response to what they saw of the West, as the relentless Americanisation in East Berlin the Communist government resurrected a feudal icon of Prussia's past. One dull December day in 1980 who should find himself back on his perch here on Unter den Linden? None other than Frederick the Great. Communist East Berlin was embracing a feudal monarch - anything to give it historical legitimacy. Whatever they had previously said or felt about Hitler's favourite Prussian monarch, the regime now saw him as a great example of tolerance, of compassion and of enlightened thought. And even though the regime would not admit it, the Prussian military ethic that Frederick also stood for provided a sound model for its own increasingly militarised nation, where soldiers goose-stepped down Unter den Linden in the way the Nazis and the Prussians had done before them. East Berlin was the part of the city After all, of the Prussian kings, that contained all the architecture surely, the Communists now thought,

this enigmatic monarch they should embrace of the true Germany. and become the capital that bore his name, Just like the street Friedrichstrasse, he was divided, fought over, irreconcilable. And on 9 November 1989

the words of the king could have so easily been quoted back at the beleaguered East German state. CHEERS, BRIGHT MUSIC "Justice must be the main responsibility of a sovereign. "Since it is the prime interest "of the many people whom they control..." WHISTLES AND CHEERS "..they must give it priority over any other interest of their own." Frederick had always wished for a simple burial on the hill at Sans Souci, next to his beloved dogs. But even though he had died in 1786

this wish wouldn't be granted for another two centuries. In 1991, after Berlin had become capital of a reunited Germany, Frederick finally came home. But what they wanted to lay to rest here was more than just a body. Love him and loathe him, even from his self-effacing grave, and his split personalities Frederick the Great and the history of Berlin. still haunt German history He never got a chance to reconcile the two sides of his character, but I think we Germans did, eventually.

TRIUMPHANT MUSIC, CHEERS Stkpwhrefrpblgts This


This program is captioned live It

would be a dagger to the heart of regional Australia. regional Australia. Border allocations to be flat under

allocations to be flat under the

draft Murray Darling Basin plan. draft Murray Darling Basin plan. Growing

Growing display as neighbours

traffic progress of Hungary's traffic progress of Hungary's toxic

sludge. War of words - activists'

fallout over the sinking of

anti-whaling caesareanel. And a Chinese dissident

year's Nobel Peace Prize.

Good evening. Ricardo Goncalves,

SBS World News Australia.

Irrigators may have had their Irrigators may have had their water entitlements slashed entitlements slashed by nearly half,

as part of a plan to save the ailing Murray Darling Basin ailing Murray Darling Basin system.

The authorities charged The authorities charged with

restoring balance to the country's

food bowl is proposing to reclaim food bowl is proposing to reclaim vast quantities of water vast quantities of water to revive the river system, but regional

communities say they will pay the communities say they will pay the price. Farmers' worst fears price. Farmers' worst fears have

been realised - the Basin

authorities recommended deep cuts

to entitlements to try to restore the Murray-Darling. There the Murray-Darling. There is no

doubt the decisions will have major

impacts in terms of improving impacts in terms of improving the environment. The authority recommends reducing overall aloe

kaigs by 3,000 to 4,000 gigalitres

per year. If the water is = %9 the water is only = %9 taken

taken from rivers, average

entitlements will be cut from

between 27-37%. Some regions would

have their allocation slashed by have their allocation slashed by as

much as 45%. Overall it estimated the reduction would estimated the reduction would be

reduced by $1.1 billion reduced by $1.1 billion per year,

but the authority warns the impact

could be much worse. The proposals contained in this act of contained in this act of Parliament when implemented will make major

and a significant negative

on many of these rural and

communities. Irrigators are outraged. The plan that has outraged. The plan that has been

released would be a dagger to the heart of regional Australia. heart of regional Australia. It

would cost thousands of jobs, it

would force food prices up

threaten the viability of many communitys in the Murray

Basin. Depressed towns that were

hoping to recover after the drought

won't recover. Conservationists say that stressed river systems that stressed river systems need help to recover. We take help to recover. We take out far

too much water from the basin too much water from the basin and

as a consequence, the entire Murray Darling Basin is Darling Basin is collapsing. The

Water Minister has promised there will be no compulsory will be no compulsory water acquisitions. He says the acquisitions. He says the final

figures will be announced next year.

What is released today What is released today by the Murray Darling Basin Authority is

not the final word on what needs to

be done to deliver a healthy be done to deliver a healthy river. The Opposition The Opposition questioned the authority's independence and says the Productivity Commission the Productivity Commission should

do its own report. Now the do its own report. Now the long

process of consultation begins.

From next week, effective community

also be briefed, the Basin Authority and the Government try Authority and the Government try to convince them of the need for

change. National Farmers'

Federation stresses if the cuts in

water allocations go ahead, four water = %9 water

out of 10 of the country's out of 10 of the country's farmers

will leave the land. will leave the land. The

Murrubidgee region of NSW will Murrubidgee region of NSW will be

among the hardest hit by the exodu among the hardest hit by the exodus.

The release of the reports has been

greeted with dismay here in the

Murrubidgee. The farmers here are

facing some of the biggest cuts facing some of the biggest cuts in