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(generated from captions) with those people, those independence and we offered

them the world. How were you going to going to pay for it all? Particularly that guy from

Tasmania, we offered him $1

billion to build a You'd get change, imagine the

number of jars and little bits

of stuff you could buy for

that. You'd get broadband for

that? Broadband, you'd do

better than that, a bloody

important government programs brass band. Wouldn't other

have to be scrapped to pay for

this hospital? There weren't

weren't the government. Where any government programs, we

would you

would you have got the money if you weren't the government? The

central tragedy is we won and we're not the government. Finally, what was

Andrew Robb doing the other the deputy position? A bit of

fun. We've had a word with

Andrew. What did you ask him? We want to see his costings. That's the program

for the night and the week.

I'll join you again on Monday, but for now, goodnight.

THEME MUSIC G'day. of Catalyst for 2010. Welcome to the last episode our tenth year Tonight we're capping off to you. of bringing the world of science

over the decade, 'We'll be looking back that are close to our hearts revisiting some of the stories and areas of expertise, most memorable moments on the road.' as well as highlighting some of our and he doesn't want me to go. He's a really friendly animal, Ahead, I'll be featuring the brain. the last ten years have taught us The amazing and amusing things about our grey matter. And I'll be looking at the universe of the Hubble Space Telescope. through the eyes

But first, Maryanne. our resident medical reporter Now, you've been for, what, five years now? done some stories Yeah, and I've certainly some rigorous debate. that have stirred seems to capture everyone's interest, But there's always one subject that and that's their reproductive organs. OLD-TIME JAZZ PLAYS was done the old-fashioned way.' '40 years ago, making babies

SEXY ELECTRONICA PLAYS for many couples. 'Today it's a different story all those years ago Who would have imagined to make babies? that one day you wouldn't need sex began the reproductive revolution. Well, in vitro fertilisation, or IVF, Dr John McBain was part of the team test-tube baby - Candice Reed.' that made Australia's first that this had finally worked. The doctors were exultant her 30th birthday.' 'Candice recently celebrated about being an IVF baby The best thing I was loved and wanted is knowing that

well before I was even conceived. the success rates of IVF 'Over the years, have seen dramatic improvements.' looking back at these days My calculation, of becoming pregnant was that Linda Reed's chance when she entered our program was 2%. Nowadays, a woman of that same age a 40% chance of success. would have about

'In 2002, Catalyst met Carl Wood, Australia's IVF pioneer. He brought us babies without sex. invented the contraceptive pill. We also met Carl Djerassi who He brought us sex without babies.' The two things together, of sex and reproduction. make possible the total separation Sex for fun in bed. Fertilisation under the microscope. both professors made predictions Back then, in the future. about the impact of IVF child-bearing in her early-40s, A woman will not be finished with by five or maybe even ten years, but could well extend it does not age as quickly, cos the uterus by no means as quickly as the ovary. but I think it'll get to 40, I don't know if it will get to 50, because a lot of women, from my experience, anyway. most women are pretty good at 40, And sure enough, they were right. of opportunities, Nowadays, with the abundance that having a baby can wait. more and more couples have decided their life to have children, They're not ready to change

they're often in their late 30s and by the time they are, started to go down. when their fertility's are not prepared to commit. And also, I think, the men They're having a good time, themselves down with children. they can't see the point of tying wanting to have children So they really don't start till well into their 40s. Despite medical advances, on a woman's fertility. we still can't turn back the clock

the technology of IVF You cannot trust of female age, to rescue the circumstance in a circumstance, so that if you are you know, in a good relationship, and things are working, having a baby. then you really shouldn't delay 'But for those single ladies, in your 20s or early 30s there's now a way of extracting eggs until you find Mr Right.' and storing them frozen has really only been Successful egg freezing within the last five years, for a couple of decades. even though it's been looked at reliably shown to be successful It's really only been within the last few years. 'In 2009, I met Claire Wilkinson.

for medical reasons, She froze her eggs success rate was only around 3%.' and was told at the time that the 3% is better than 0%, and that's how I looked at it. 'But miracles happen for some. to be born from egg freezing.' This is the first baby in Australia the baby's just been born, I was very pleased to find out and it's fantastic. Gave me more hope. Yep. And for blokes, well, as you age, doesn't decline too much, your sperm count but its quality can. how bad lifestyle choices 'In 2007, I reported on and damage your sperm.' can generate free radicals

to life, DNA is the genetic blueprint that has a fairly major consequence. this type of sperm damage, '30% of men suffer from a antioxidant pill so doctors developed to help couples like Peter and Mary.' I remember I was outside and Kelton was on the phone,

and he said, "Mary's pregnant." And I thought, "Far out!" The biggest advance in IVF recently can now choose embryos is that couples diseases like cystic fibrosis. which don't carry inheritable But to have the opportunity to test embryos before they are implanted and know that that pregnancy is not going to be affected by that condition, is a significant advance forward.

So, what medical leaps will scientists make in the next decade? I think we will have continued gradual incremental improvements in the way we do things, but I think our embryo selection techniques for infertile couples will be better. Perhaps the biggest advance in reproduction won't be medical, but social. I would hope in 10-20 years' time

there may be an acknowledgment that our community really wants women to have the opportunity to have children at the time that nature says they should be having children. And that's probably in their 20s or early-30s. So, the workplace may willingly adapt to the needs of women and families. What a wonderful advance that would be.

A memorable moment for me was filming with this guy who'd invented bomb-proof and bulletproof glass. This normally the one that I stand behind. He wanted to demonstrate it by standing behind it and getting me to shoot at him. And of course the ABC would never go for that, so we said, "That's OK, I'll organise a press conference." We will be firing at it with a 9mm into this section.

'And he got media from all over Australia, claimed he had a guy in the police department who would shoot at him.' GUNSHOTS CRACK And of course there was a last minute hitch and no-one shot at him. So he got all this incredible publicity, we got a story out of it, and I'm sure right from the beginning he probably knew that no-one was going to shoot at him. Although he did end up finding someone in Dubai. He lined him up, he was standing behind the glass, it was amazing footage. He shot at the heart, shot at the head,

shot between the legs. Sure enough, the glass worked. Jonica, you seem to be attracted to brain stories, yet you're trained as a vet. What's going on there? Natural progression, I guess. I mean, we are the ultimate animal. And I was so lucky when I joined Catalyst, a revolution in our understanding of the brain was occurring. So much so, I call it the decade of the brain.

And the biggest discovery we've made about our brains in the last decade is just how changeable they really are. The scientists call it plasticity. 'We used to think the brain stayed much the same once it reached adult size at age 12. Then along came a transformative technology - the MRI -

to show us how wrong we were.' What we've found, to our surprise, is that between the age of 12 and young adulthood there's a loss of this grey matter, it's losing perhaps 30,000 connections per second. Per second?! Per second. 'Scientists were witnessing an unexpected frenzy

of brain remodelling. From age 12, the grey matter - the thinking part - is being pruned, keeping only the most efficient connections. Meanwhile, whole brain sections are being coated in a white substance called myelin. This white matter speeds up nerve conductance 100-fold, creating fast brain superhighways. But the brain's redevelopment doesn't stop after adolescence, as I discovered a year later, by going head-to-head with 60-plus baby boomer Richard Neville.' Are you feeling confident? Actually, I'm feeling pretty nervous. He's pretty smart. Am I whacking these on? 'It turns out brains Richard's age are superior at emotional cognition and verbal tests.' Snaky. Specious. 'More surprising, Richard's brain is faster than mine at putting on the brain brakes.' So, Richard was actually twice as good as me at inhibiting responses and inhibiting impulses? Yes. Gee, I wish I WAS competitive, then I could gloat.

So, we're gonna look at some brains now. 'The reason? We may lose grey matter with age, but up to the age of 50, we continue to acquire white matter - the internet cables, if you like, of the brain.' Wisdom is having a really fast internet that's online and with a huge bandwidth. That's what comes with age.

'Yet perhaps the biggest deal in brain science has been the discovery of these - stem cells in the adult brain - capable of what's called neurogenesis.' So, these are all new nerve cells in the brain? That's right. 'It opened up the extraordinary possibility

one could slow down or even reverse some ageing effects on the brain. Since then, we've discovered and embraced the brain boosting effects of mental exercise, and, most surprisingly, physical exercise.' So this experiment specifically shows that it's never too late to begin exercising.

That WILL have an effect on your brain. This was also the decade in which psychology met hard science, so-called. Landmark studies have taken us right from the gene to the brain chemistry, to how that can actually shape an individual's personality. As I found out all too first-hand.

'It's 2005 and I'm about to take a test that could expose if I'm pre-programmed for depression.' Well, I'll get the results in two days and I have to say it's a little bit nerve-racking. THUNDER RUMBLES 'Scientists in New Zealand had for the first time shown convincingly how environment and genes interact to influence behaviour. They'd already discovered a gene for violence, which is only triggered if you had a bad childhood.' What you see here is early-life events acting as a switch to turn this gene's effects on or off, just like if I did this. OK? Along comes childhood maltreatment, bang, out of the mist emerges the gene effect.

'They then found a gene for vulnerability to depression, which operates via a brain serotonin regulator.' Well, the test I had earlier was actually for the gene for the vulnerability to depression. And the results have just come through. Now, your genotype is SS. OK? So that means... Short, short. Short, short. You have the gene that confers vulnerability to depression in the context of life stress. 'It was a confronting first-hand taste of what it might mean now the psychology gene genie is out of the bottle. We now have genes for vulnerability to cannabis psychosis, for epilepsy, even for fathering ability, with many more to come. Then there was this story.' MAN: There's a voice on one shoulder going, "Why are you doing this? You're scared." And the other voice is going, "Yeah, but I like being scared." Yee-ha! Then the other voice goes, "What if your parachute doesn't open?"

And this one goes, "It always does." (LAUGHS) 'Scientists are even trying to understand extreme types, like Chuck Berry...' (SQUEALS) '..who I engage in a bungee jump-off to compare heart rates.' Whoo-hoo! 'It's not yet confirmed, but it looks like extreme sportsmen have unusually low levels of stress-related brain chemicals.'

What I suspect is that the low level of these brain chemicals means that you can deal with a lot of stress without getting overwhelmed. His went up to 88. Mine was 120. I think that tells it all. And of course, with all this new technology, neuroscience is, quite frankly, fun. When you can see a thought or a feeling happening

or mess with someone's head in some amazing new way, why not do it? 'We've discovered what makes Maryanne happy.' A new pair of shoes cheers me up. 'Mmm, she's right. Mark has proven himself a trustworthy sort, once he's taken the drugs of course.' Breathe. MAN: This experiment shows that I'm twice as likely to give away all my money. And you know, I feel pretty good about it. 'We know Paul is a sucker for hypnosis.' MAN: Touch your left ankle. PAUL: 'It's strange, I can't help but carry out the instructions.' 'While Graham has a bit of trouble staying in touch with reality.' I feel like I'm spinning around to the left.

'And I've discovered I have face blindness, an acute appreciation for ads... ..and I'm a terrible liar.' Have you ever been unfaithful to a partner? No. BUZZER 'And just in case you were in any doubt about our collective brains, we can definitely prove every single one of us has one.'

It's a little smaller than we expected. Mmm. I thought so. Often, the best way to tell a story is to go on a journey, just to find out what happens. And this is what happened in China when Paul Costello cameraman, Gavin Marsh soundo, and I set off on a journey to find out what had happened

to the world's first captive-bred panda that had been released to the wild. 'Despite the cuddly image, this is an 80kg bear with teeth and claws to match. (MAN SPEAKS CHINESE LANGUAGE) Liu Bin is worried that while he knows Xiang-Xiang well, he might not know us so well and his behaviour might be a little bit unpredictable if he gets excited. He's a very friendly animal. And he doesn't want me to go. (LAUGHS) So I'll just... wriggle out from his embrace. Just quietly. It's OK, mate. It's OK. And we got a lot closer to Xiang-Xiang than we thought possible.

MAN: Do you need a hand? No, I'm fine. (SPEAKS CHINESE LANGUAGE) It's quite alright. Don't pull him, it's alright. He's just being very gentle. He's just being gentle. unfortunately, It ended up being a sad story, because six months later, was found dead in the wild. Xiang-Xiang the panda by other rival male pandas. He'd been attacked But the good news completely undaunted, is that the Chinese researchers, into the wild in the future, are planning to release more pandas this time, female pandas. to reduce the human interaction, And the news I've heard is that as pandas when they do it. they're planning to dress up I really want to cover. That's a story astrophysics - In my field of speciality - it's hard to think of an instrument that's changed things more than the Hubble Space Telescope. So let's take a look at some of its amazing discoveries

and the stunningly detailed pictures it's taken of the universe. 'These are some of the most beautiful pictures ever taken of our universe. They're all from the Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble has made extraordinary discoveries while Catalyst has been on air.' There are so many. It's hard to pick just a few, really. instrument ever. productive scientific Some have said it's the most decade is the field of exoplanets, 'One area that's boomed over the last planets orbiting other stars.' is just remarkable. The story of exoplanets it's not that old. And, you know, really, we knew of no exoplanets. 'Just 15 years ago, Today, we've found more than 450.

Hubble has played a key role. And what wacky worlds they've found. in just four days. For some, a year passes on the surface is lava-hot - For others, the temperature 1,000 degrees Celsius - hot enough to melt gold.' that Hubble has done One of the remarkable things is tell us, for the first time, the composition of the atmosphere of another planet. 'The trick was to observe the planet as it passed in front of its sun.' As the planet passes in front of the star, the light from the star has to pass through a little bit of the atmosphere of the planet in order to reach the Hubble. And as it does, the atmosphere of that planet puts its fingerprint on the light.

'Identify the fingerprints and the planet's atmospheric composition is revealed.' Telling us that such elements as sodium, hydrogen, oxygen, actually can exist and do exist orbiting other stars. in the atmosphere of planets is not a new telescope. Now, the Hubble It's been up there 20 years. you'd call it an old bomb. If you had a car that old, cutting-edge research? Why is the Hubble still doing is continual refurbishment. 'Its secret Orbiting just 560km above us, of the Space Shuttle. the Hubble is within reach mission was just a repair job. Embarrassingly, the first shuttle to be a lemon.' The Hubble had turned out the mirror was very smooth The problem there was that but it was made to the wrong shape. was essentially out of focus. So the telescope Though mind you, the images were still better than many that could be taken from the ground. What had to happen was essentially that the Hubble had to have a pair of glasses put on. 'This is what the Hubble saw without its specs. This was its vision after.'

Once it was fixed, the results were just amazing, just the sharpness of images that we could see. 'And Hubble was even good at studying things we can't see - giant black holes at the very centres of galaxies. It was known that a few oddball galaxies had them. at the more normal galaxies' But Hubble took a look I think what Hubble really showed us supermassive black holes is that these the centres of all large galaxies. exist in essentially The next thing that the Hubble did those black holes were was tell us how massive stars and other material by measuring how fast force of massive black holes. whip around the strong gravitational And by measuring that speed, the more massive the black hole. the faster the speed,

'How old is the universe? 10 or 20 billion years. Astronomers used to say Hubble pinned down the age precisely. accurately measuring the distance Astronomers did it by to pulsating stars in far-flung galaxies.' Once you know the distance to various galaxies and the speed they're travelling, you can trace back in time to when they were all together and work out when the big bang occurred. Hubble has measured it to be precisely 13.7 billion years ago. The Hubble did something remarkable that I think will be considered really one of its legacy projects. And that was called the Ultra Deep Field. 'Basically, the telescope was pointed at what appeared to be just a black part of the sky devoid of anything.'

Focused on the same patch of sky, again and again and again. And then stacked up those images fainter and fainter objects. so that it could see turned out to be far from empty.' 'And that patch a whole host of galaxies. We saw in it the frame. It was just amazing. We saw galaxies filling up

enabled astronomers That remarkable project of the universe. to look back to the very, very youth when you're looking deep in space, Because, of course, a very long time ago, you're also looking when the universe was young. 'The Hubble is good. now, that's a telescope. But the James Webb Space Telescope -

It'll be launched in five years' time.' It'll be a much larger aperture telescope, around 6m instead of 2.4m. It's going to be located out of Earth's orbit so, in fact, it has to work. Once you put it up there, there's no chance of sending up the Space Shuttle to refurbish or fix it so fingers crossed. The other thing that's different about the James Webb Space Telescope

is that it will be observing in the infrared. And that means it will see light that's redder than red, redder than our eyes can see. 'That'll mean it'll be able to peer through the dust in galaxies, revealing views like this. in exquisite detail We'll be able to see our cosmos is celebrating its 20th year.' by the time Catalyst

So many memorable moments, looking at fossil crocodiles. but my background was some enormous crocodiles. And I'd handled is 15m long. The biggest croc I've handled for 65 million years Quite safe when it's been dead I joined Catalyst but it wasn't until

and incredibly personal that I got to get up close with a real crocodile. a 1.8m crocodile The idea was we would catch and then see where it went. and would put a satellite tag on it was 4.5m long Well, the crocodile we caught at just under half a tonne. and weighed in what comes naturally.' 'Then we let it do

Well, it's moments like that, of a creature that big, when you've gotta sit on top that you find out that adrenaline's brown. It was terrifying! You know, six guys my size, six North Queensland football players, were sitting on this thing's ribcage and it could still lift us all up with each in-breath. It was just a truly terrifying moment, but at the same time, just such wonder.

MAN: One, two, three. Way back. Back, back, back, please. Right back. Way back. this one just wants to get away.' 'Luckily for us, and, indeed, this series. Well, that's it for this week on our website, As usual, there are plenty of extras including a special edition from all around the world, of science stories celebrating our 10 years on air. See you next year. Bye. Bye for now. Scott Williamson & Matt Whitmore Closed Captions by CSI - *

This Program is Captioned Live.

with an Good evening. Virginia Haussegger

with an ABC news update. Eight

countries have written a joint

countries have written a joint letter to the organisers of the Delhi

Commonwealth Games, giving an

ultimatum on security and hygiene ultimatum on security and hygiene or they won't

they won't be attending. New Zealand

has joined Canada and Scotland in

delaying its team's departure for

delaying its team's departure for the Games. And the Australian Government

says it has advice that there's a

high risk of a terrorist attack in

the Indian capital. Tony Abbott has

backed out of a deal to pair the


Speaker's vote, and that's drawn a torrent of abuse from the Government.

Julia Gillard's majority Julia Gillard's majority could be

Julia Gillard's majority could be cut

to a single vote when she's forced

provide a Labor Speaker next week. to a single vote when she's forced to

Environmentalist and wildlife

documentary maker, Malcolm Douglas, documentary maker, Malcolm

has died in a car accident in the Kimberley. The has died in a car accident in the

hunter was found pinned between his Kimberley. The original crocodile

car and a tree inside his wilderness

park near Broome. A painting of a

woman scrambling eggs has won this year's Portia

year's Portia Geach Memorial Award woman scrambling eggs has won this

for female artists.

for female artists. Melbourne

for her painter, Pru Flint, scooped the

painter, Pru Flint, scooped the award for her self-portrait, out of for her self-portrait, out of a of

for her self-portrait, out of a field of nearly 300 artists. To Canberra's

weather - a sunny day with a top of

21, 4 degrees overnight. Sydney 24,

Melbourne 21, Adelaide 19. More news

in an hour.

This Program is Captioned Live.

APPLAUSE G'day. I'm James O'Loghlin. Welcome to The New Inventors grand final. This year, we've seen an incredible range of original Australian inventions and the sheer hard work of their inventors.

invention has been voted by you And tonight, we find out which as the 2010 People's Choice, there's a special award by the desire to help others for an inventor motivated presented by Ian Kiernan. or the environment, the Invention of the Year, The big one, which will be presented the original series of The Inventors. by the producer and the presenter of

ladies and gentlemen. To begin, some music, Please welcome David Campbell. CHEERING AND APPLAUSE # I'd dance and I'd sing # I'd do anything # Just to get my name in lights # I gotta try and hit those heights

# Now that I'm free as a breeze again # Old nimble knees again # Yeah, and that's why I won't let go till I'm on the radio # That'll be my name spelt right # Lighting up Times Square

# Oh, and sit on a flagpole