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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) Germany, three years after the war. The cities were still in ruins. what the future held. The defeated Germans had no idea of the victorious powers They were in the hands in four different zones. who were ruling Germany British and French. In the west were the Americans, In the east, the Soviets. In 1945, the victors had agreed that Germany should remain unified. at loggerheads for some time. But the Allies had been the Americans was especially serious. The rift between the Soviets and

that we can't go on forever It began to dawn on us that they are our allies. trying to pretend into the blockade of Berlin. The East-West conflict escalated won the hearts of the Germans. The British and American airlift The change took place when we helped Germany at Berlin. had been altered. The borders in Europe Millions had lost their homelands,

for a place where they could settle. uprooted people who were searching And many were hungry. Germany was really at the bottom of civilisation. children were all sickly. People were starving, They were all thin and pale, pale. ensured a flourishing black market. Post-war shortages in one way or another. Victors and defeated grew closer - in their 30s and 40s There were barmaids 18-year-old soldiers who caught on to young of the death-house of Germany. as a ticket out had suffered immeasurably in the war. People throughout Europe

losing an arm, a leg or their sight. Many had been disabled - But they'd kept the will to live. not the past. What counted was the future, prisoner-of-war in France. Hans Braun had been a German in a mine-clearance operation. He'd lost both legs his parents already knew When he came home, of the fate he had suffered. hospital in France for months. Hans Braun had lain in a military for his return His parents were waiting impatiently and did everything they could as comfortable as possible. to make his homecoming of his son, The father had always been proud and artistically gifted. who was both athletically his biggest challenge. But Hans Braun was now facing ruling Germany in 1948 - There were four powers British and French. the Russians, Americans, with each other. But they had fallen out and the west The border between the Soviet zone

of the Cold War. had become the front line of the British-American bizone, In the Frankfurt headquarters in favour of confrontation. the decision was taken began to behave When the Soviet Union way any totalitarian regime behaves, the way the Soviet Union behaved, any ideological regime behaves, that we can't go on forever it began to dawn on us that they are our allies. trying to pretend 46, 47... You know how long it took - in stages. that the western powers You cannot say to hold the alliance together. didn't try It was made impossible for us. pursued its own interests, Each victorious power in Germany first and foremost. and a market economy, The Western powers wanted democracy at the expense of German unity. if necessary, a socialist society The Soviets wanted for the whole of Germany. controlled by German Communists - between the Soviets and Americans. There was not just conflict had its own agenda. Every occupation power about major issues, The occupying powers were quarrelling but also about minor ones. was by no means true of another. What was true of one zone each power solved them differently. Germany was full of problems and were the first The Americans, for instance, all German prisoners-of-war. to release taken prisoner by the Allies. 11 million German soldiers had been In the course of WWII, had been made prisoners-of-war. altogether 20 million soldiers to return them to civilian life. The Allies were now trying was not always a happy one. But the homecoming I remember one situation to go home. and they jumped off the trucks And I stood there and watched. Nobody to meet them. you could say about them, Whatever else if they fought for a wrong cause, for the most part. they at least fought well Not only well as soldiers but... the civilian population suffered, As soldiers will, collateral damage, suffered what we called but it wasn't deliberate. nobody to receive them... And I thought, here they are, and fighting for so long. after surviving And particularly no women. were already with the occupiers. Probably many of their women had to go through a long process. Those who were released an old US army uniform to wear. The lucky ones were given to fresh problems in other zones. But this itself could lead Many were unable to return home in Eastern and Central Europe because the borders after the war. had altered dramatically Germany's former eastern territories were now under Polish or Russian administration. were now ruled by the Soviets. Parts of eastern Poland

were taking place. Huge population shifts disoriented after their release, Many prisoners-of-war were who could give them shelter. searching for relatives any stability in all this chaos. The family was all that provided in World News Australia at 9:30 - Coming up the latest round of peace talks scepticism surrounds Palestinian and Israeli leaders. between

the meeting in Washington as a show. Israeli media have dismissed Deja vu for Louisiana residents in the Gulf of Mexico. as yet another oil platform explodes have put politics to one side Leaders of both major parties to a soldier killed in Afghanistan. to pay their respects

continue to deliberate Meanwhile, the Independents in a minority government. over who to back the International Cricket Council Pakistan's High Commissioner slams with corruption. for charging three Pakistani players if found guilty - They're facing severe penalties possibly a life ban. Those stories and more at 9:30. (SPANISH GUITAR MUSIC) VOICEOVER: Character is what you are unobserved. It is formed little by little... by day, and in this way eventually reveals itself. MAN: Recharge and always win. SONG: # I'm a rock star... # # I'm a rock... #

Huh? VOICEOVER: Recharge with Optus pre-paid mobile and you could win one of 500 double passes to see Rihanna live in Australia. Hey, baby. (GULPS) See you at my show. Live life without limits only on Optus pre-paid mobile. Yeah! Helmut Augustat was 22 years old, from Konigsberg. After a year of Russian prison camp, he was released in the Soviet zone. Rumours were rife in Berlin. No one knew anything precise about Konigsberg. The newspapers were reporting conferences and negotiations, but there was no mention of East Prussia and this was hardly surprising. In Potsdam, it was decided that Germany should be deprived of its lands in the east. But over a year went by before the Soviets decided to integrate East Prussia into their own territory.

Helmut Augustat and his friends wanted to go home and believed they could reach Konigsberg via Warnemunde. They went to Potsdam Station, where trains left for the Baltic. After a long journey, he reached Warnemunde on the Baltic. Helmut Augustat was just one of some 30 million people who lost their homes after the war. Generations of their families had lived in the east. Now they were uprooted. A huge migration of peoples took place. 6.6 million Germans had to leave their homelands. 4.5 million Poles were resettled. of Eastern Europe, In all the countries people were expelled or exchanged. The entire populations of towns and rural areas were resettled. During the Second World War and the years that followed, the cultural pluralism of the old Central and East European countries disappeared. Refugees and resettlers alike had to find somewhere new to live. They arrived as strangers in villages and towns that had hitherto been close-knit communities. In Germany, the occupation powers looked after the new arrivals. The newcomers were not made welcome everywhere. The war had torn hundreds of thousands of families apart

everywhere in Europe. "Where's my father, my wife, my children?" In Germany, the Red Cross set up a central card index for missing persons. There were also daily search appeals on the radio. The Soviet zone newsreel 'Eyewitness' tried to help children find their parents.

Most of these children lost their parents when the borders were altered after the war. After 1945, former East Prussia with its capital, Konigsberg, belonged to the Soviet sphere of influence. There was no order in the utterly devastated city. The supply situation was catastrophic. Many died and thousands of children were made orphans. Christa Pfeiler was 11 years old in 1945, in shattered, Soviet-occupied Konigsberg. She and her younger sister had to bury their mother on their own in a hole in the ground. After a year, the bombsite children were taken into a Soviet orphanage. Christa Pfeiler learned Russian. She was supposed to become a good Soviet citizen. But then they were suddenly told they were returning to Germany. Christa Pfeiler and her sister travelled in a goods train to the Soviet zone, where there was a reception camp for lost children.

From here, they and thousands of other girls and boys were distributed to orphanages, sometimes to families. Showers, medical attention, clothes, registration forms... What was missing was warmth and love. Christa Pfeiler and her sister were sent to a new, smaller orphanage. They were utterly alone, with no family. But they were soon to find a new home, at least for the Christmas festival. Christmas was to be a test for Christa Pfeiler and her sister.

If they fitted in well with their families, they could stay with them. GENTLE PIANO MUSIC The sisters stayed on in their new families after Christmas but nothing could replace the lost warmth of their childhood. Two years later, Christa Pfeiler went over to the west as one of tens of thousands of illegal border-crossers. The zonal border was heavily guarded in the east, since many failed to return. The eastern newsreels depicted them as criminals. Sharpen up your dad's chance of winning with the Instant Scratchies Father's Day bonus offer - any time you buy one $10 Scratchie, you'll get two $1 Scratchies free! Go on, your dad or even you could win a fortune. MAN: Introducing Macca's limited edition Angus the Third. A juicy slab of Australia's favourite Angus, a punchy tomato chilli relish and plenty of colourful salad. Macca's Angus the Third - it's the hot new taste and a little bit fancy. In the east, the Soviet Military Government and the SED controlled politics and the economy. The supply situation was still catastrophic. But for the Soviets there was no question of accepting aid from the west under conditions set by the USA. We were going to try to improve the German economy and we offered the Russians in and the Russian zone in. And at that point they had to decide what was to their benefit and they made the judgement that they would lose control of what they hoped would be their goal, to take over all of Europe. East and West faced each other with mistrust. Or was it just misunderstanding? In the east, reliance was on Communism and a planned economy. What was good for the Soviet Union was good for Germany. The Soviets and the SED still believed that a unified Germany could be preserved. But the world's political climate was changing. Europe was overtaken by the Cold War. Communist regimes were installed. In Poland and Czechoslovakia, was affecting the mood in the east. Economic stagnation was becoming more aggressive. The propaganda Western capitalism was to blame. Finding a scapegoat was easy  demanding a unified Germany. Yet eastern newsreels were still of a new war. Europe was facing the abyss Stalin's trump card lay in Berlin, in the vulnerable western sectors. controls on the access routes The Soviets instituted ever-stricter to the former Reich capital. by grace of Stalin. We were in Berlin they could exert against us, So that is where, a lever on us and they did. that's where they could pressure April 1948. A Soviet fighter plane approaching Berlin - 14 dead. rammed a British aircraft The Soviets called it an accident. The West saw it as a provocation. for Germany, In the Allied Control Council talking at cross-purposes. the four powers had long been to say to one another. They now had nothing more had failed. The attempt to rule Germany together This was the world of high politics. in the western sectors of the city. But there was another side to life The occupation troops were young. had endured years of hardship German women and there was a shortage of men. She was stunning, beautiful. She needed things to eat and I gave a few things we are embracing each other. and the next thing you know, to give her the feeling And I did it only that I did care for her. He was popular with German girls and he knew why. coffee, coffee, coffee. This girl, it was always or herself, Maybe she had a mother and got other things. or maybe they sold a free pack every week, and I would get you know, and... I mean a carton, So I gave a lot of cigarettes away. they bought... anything. And with these cigarettes just for a bottle of champagne. She'd go to bed with you On a weekend during summer,

with just my underwear. I take the sun She, with a very old bathing suit, she comes and takes the sun. no one else in the house. And it's just the two of us there, we're looking at each other. And we're talking, And... and nature does its thing. Suddenly you forget that she's... an ex-enemy. They were disillusioned, they thought that we Americans were not civilised. Bars, clubs and cabarets mushroomed. The women wanted some commodities, perhaps even something more. a strong shoulder, It's a kind of survival. There were... barmaids in their 30s and 40s

18-year-old soldiers who caught on to young of the death-house of Germany as a ticket out United States. to get to the prosperous among the ruins. But there was also genuine love I had just come out at... in Marienfelde. at the S-Bahn station And this girl was standing by... the barracks wall holding a mechanical drawing set... a 'Zirkelkasten'. to buy it?" She said "Would you like cos I didn't... So she said to me in German she didn't speak any English then. and I think she told me So I asked her how much or two cartons of cigarettes. "Zwei Stangen Zigaretten" I'll be right back". And I said "Wait here, of two cartons of cigarettes, Got my ration came out, she was waiting there and you know, she was very careful to make sure that I gave her the cigarettes before she gave me the 'Zirkelkasten'. Paul Johnson had landed in Berlin just the day before. he had a special assignment - As a US officer, American soldiers not yet recovered. that of finding the bodies of Lilo was a war widow. to buy food She needed the cigarettes her mother and herself. for her two children,

But we exchanged that "Where are you from?" and all. and I said She said just "Mariendorf". to see her again and I said And... so I wanted home that you would like to sell?" "Well, have you anything else at When she started to leave saw her walking down the street I kind of looked like this and "Oh, that's a pretty woman". and thought And lo and behold she turns around because I'm still back there. and she's looking back at me, and we smiled at each other, And she stopped and walked toward each other, turned around exchanged our name and addresses and never forgot who we were and where we came from. And that's how we met. Love at first sight. Well, maybe love at second sight. They quickly became sweethearts. And soon she was taking "Mr Johnson" home. Her mother was not too pleased in the beginning. Her mother was from Vorpommern and... very insular, if you know what I mean, very locally oriented. But she got to know "Johnnylein" what she called me "Johnny", for the fire, or a 'Zentner' of coke's in the jeep oh, I was... I was in there.

It happened a lot in those years. An American with a German woman. wanted to enjoy life They were in love, and often met with disapproval. We had many nice times together. together, We went to the Sportstadion we went to the Staatsoper together. It was not easy for her. of the Berlin population There were certain segments relationship with the German women. that accepted the American in her neighbourhood There are others behind her back a "Ami-Hure". would call her "I don't care about them." But she said She said "They're not worth me knowing anything about. "It's you and I that count".

Paul Johnson wanted to marry his Lilo. He had to obtain documents from the army, from the army chaplain, from the city authorities, from the military government - endless red tape. The documents took about a year and three months or something like that. ROMANTIC PIANO MUSIC

All the steps of the process of denazification -

that's the word for her, hiding a wife in America... and to make sure that I wasn't or I had a good military record. through many, many offices All that had to go and have many signatures. I came home from the office one day on the kitchen table. and all the paperwork is torn up Honey, what is all this? She started to cry. I said "What did you do?" in America because I'm German." She said "They're going to hate me Americans are not haters." I says "Honey, you're crazy. all the documents once again Paul Johnson collected and finally they could get married. they had to leave Germany, Two days later, together with Lilo's children, on a troopship bound for America. That was military regulations. And that wasn't all.

Imagine this... You've just been married. Your wife is in another stateroom, you're in this stateroom.

You wanna get together in the worst way and you can't. The government says "No, you can't go into her stateroom." So we didn't.

You wait. It's the longest wait I ever had in my life.

In Germany, too, people were waiting... for new money. All the black market misery of the post-war years with a currency reform. could only be overcome The Soviets and the western Allies who'd make the first move. were waiting to see was exchanged for the new In the western zones, the old money at a rate of 10 to 1. Price restrictions were lifted and the black market collapsed. But the new currency was only valid in the west.

This posed a threat to the east. In Berlin the tension was palpable. The western sectors were just an island surrounded by the Soviet zone, Stalin's trump card. The dictator was determined to use it to force the West back to the negotiating table. On the day after currency reform, he cut off supplies to Berlin and the land routes through from the west. The blockade was the first great trial of strength in the Cold War. They didn't figure that we would come in, with a great expenditure, that we would come in with airplanes and food and coal for that long a period, and that we could systematise it. The great American strength to do that kind of practical project... and we did it. And in the process we won over the German population. There was a great deal of concern, of tension. We didn't, it was something we had to cope with. We couldn't get into Berlin except by air

and we had troops there, we had families there. The Berlin Air Bridge was the largest post-war military operation undertaken by the western Allies. American or British planes flew in almost at the rate of one a minute, West Berlin survived despite the blockade. The planes were unloaded one after another at Tempelhof and Gatow airports.

Coal, flour, sugar and cigarettes were packed into trucks. And the Soviets knew they were beaten. But the bridge wasn't just busy, it was collision-proof too. Each plane was separated from every other by three minutes and 1000 feet. And that's how it went, 24 hours a day.

The American and British pilots were risking their lives flying through the narrow air corridors and landing among a sea of buildings. During the year-long blockade, there were constant accidents, resulting in death or injury. But all that changed nothing. East and West had decided to go their own separate ways. In summer 1948, the western Allies ordered the foundation of the separate West German state. A few weeks later, on Soviet orders, the People's Congress convened in East Berlin to work out a constitution for a second German state. No compromise on the political front. But on a humbler level, people were obliged to make compromises. Helmut Augustat had found work in Rostock on the Baltic coast, because he couldn't return to his native city of Konigsberg, now Soviet territory. Helmut Augustat seized the chance and began to train as a "new teacher". Marxist-trained teachers were to show children the way of Communism. to the brave new world After a short course of study, Helmut got his first job. Helmut Augustat was eagerly awaited in the little village. MELANCHOLY OBOE MUSIC The Communist Party had become all-powerful in the Soviet zone. of the socialist society. The new teacher had to go on a course. And there was a clear enemy - the West, where people were the slaves of capital, the West, that was destroying German unity. Helmut Augustat loved his profession. And in a school holiday camp on the Baltic, he met someone who was to change his life - his great love, Irma. where the air was still filled with the drone The propaganda battle lasted almost a year. West Berlin became the hottest spot of the Cold War and was proclaimed as a symbol of the free world. The Berlin Airlift, "Operation Victuals", became the symbol of a new friendship. My wife and I had stayed up half the night tying our candy ration up with handkerchiefs. "Operation Victuals" was an old story. Now I was joining what we called "Operation little Victuals" for the kids of Berlin. TRIUMPHANT MUSIC

The Germans, whether willingly or from necessity, had formed a friendship with their occupiers. From now on, they were to live in a divided country, separated by the Iron Curtain. The USA and the Soviet Union were facing each other as new enemies. The blockade of Berlin and the airlift were the beginning of a new era for Europe and the world. Captions (C) SBS Australia 2010

This program is live captioned.

This program is live

Scepticism greets the first Scepticism greets the first face-

to-face talks in two years to-face talks in two years between

the Israeli and Palestinian leaders.

Relief along the US Gulf Coast

after the latest oil rig explosion.

Political leaders call a truce t

Political leaders call a truce to

pay tribute to a fallen Australian

soldiers, and top cricket officials

on the front foot over corruption allegations surrounding Pakistani players.

Good evening, Ricardo Goncalves

with SBS 'World News Australia'.

The smiles and handshakes in

Washington after face to face tal

Washington after face to face talks

between the Israeli and

between the Israeli and Palestinian

leaders have not been reflected

back in the Middle East. The talk back in the Middle East. The talks

have been rejected out of hand by

the Palestinian militant

the Palestinian militant group

Hamas, there's been You Nan mouse

scepticism in the Israeli scepticism in the Israeli papers. And construction continues in a

Jerusalem settlement. It's been done many times before over the

last two decades, failing last two decades, failing every time. Acknowledging this the time. Acknowledging this the US

Secretary of State made a point of outlining the difficulty of the

task ahead of them. The core issues

at the centre of these negotiations

territorys, security, Jerusalem,

refugees, settlements and others

will get no easier if we wait. Nor

will they resolve themselves. will they resolve themselves. The

talks will continue in two weeks talks will continue in two weeks in Egypt, Binyamin Netanyahu, Egypt, Binyamin Netanyahu, saying

Israel must be recognised as Israel must be recognised as the Jewish homelands and IsraevDECODING Jewish homelands and Israel

security is his top priority. We

have had a rise of Iran and have had a rise of Iran and its

proxies, and the rise of missile

warfare. So a peace agreement must

take into account security

arrangements against the arrangements against the real threats. For President Mahmoud

Abbas the sticking point is Abbas the sticking point is Jewish

settlelets in the West Bank, settlelets in the West Bank, saying

he'll work away from talks if he'll work away from talks if the

building doesn't stop. We call building doesn't stop. We call on