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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) Captions (c) SBS Australia 2010 in World News Australia at 9:30 - Coming up Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran - two ringleaders of the Bali Nine - have finally admitted their guilt. to avoid the firing squad, It's an attempt instead calling for 20-year jail sentences at their final avenue of appeal. in the election race. It's one week to go and spending Questions of costings have featured high on the agenda its final lap. as the campaign enters has finally visited the victims Pakistan's President of the country's devastating floods. for failing to return from Europe Asif Ali Zardari had been criticised country's worst humanitarian crisis. to deal with what's become the And gay marriages in California as early as next week. could take place Those stories and more at 9:30. going back 145 years. but we've got a track record 500,000 tonnes of coal a day We haul around in Australia's two biggest exports We play an essential role but we see an even brighter future.

named Roger Milla celebrated a goal Back in Italia 90, an African in a way by dancing. no-one had ever seen before - give me fire... # SONG: # Give me freedom, And goal celebrations went mad. # Take me higher # Celebration, it surrounds us # Every nation all around us... # So after 20 years of this, have we gone too far, Roger? Just like a wavin' flag... # # They'll call me freedom No. # So wave your flag # Now wave your... # Oh-oh, oh-oh, oh. # the Nazis - In Germany, the National Socialists - had been in power since 1933. The country was ruled by a dictator followed him fanatically - and many Germans Adolf Hitler. into a war of aggression Hitler had led them throughout the whole of Europe. in both east and west. The Germans subjugated nations and finally the United States. A world war.

became allies and struck back - The Soviets, British and Americans

and later on land, from the air, at first, the Russians from the east, from the west. the British and US forces Nazi Germany to its knees. The Allies gradually forced anywhere in the world. The Germans now had no friends left crossed the frontiers, But when the Allies the concentration camps, what they discovered was appalling -

gypsies and dissidents. the mass murder of Jews,

at what we were discovering We were so outraged and should have known that we didn't trust any German.

and met these people Had we seen this camp and seen the dying sooner, we would have killed more Germans. the Allied advance inexorable, The war was almost over,

of the German forces and the capitulation was now only a matter of weeks. A British unit advancing. April 1945. One of the soldiers was Les Goodwin. and we were travelling in to Bremen. The war was almost over sort of a country road. We were on this started to act up Suddenly the engine from under the hood. and steam started to come out just said to me The officers I was with and get some water." "Go to that farmhouse Les Goodwin was 18 years old away from home. and this was his first time in the middle of Nazi Germany He found himself as a British occupation soldier the enemy close by, in a farmhouse. alone with his fear and with was very intense Walking up that driveway and I was really shaking. to be honest with you. I was. I was scared stiff, Every Allied soldier in Germany just in case. had a small dictionary with him - on the way up the driveway. I'd been practising How do I ask for water? "Bitte, haben Sie Wasser? "Ich wollen Wasser." the garden to the back door. Private Les Goodwin crept through through the window. He sensed someone looking If I'd been a hardened soldier, kicked the door open and walked in. I might have just But I didn't. on the door. I stood and I knocked And... after a minute or two, a lady came to the door. of water?" In perfect English. I said "Please can I have a pail She just walked away. I followed her, went over to the kitchen sink, which was on the floor picked up a pail and let the tap run. put it under And only now did he realise was full of people - that the room behind him old, young children.

No one said a word. of pressure. It was very slow. Now, farm taps don't have a lot and they're looking at me. I'm looking around at them "Should I say something?" And I think Nobody took their eyes off me. And they're just looking. It was just a quiet moment. yet we weren't saying anything. We were communicating, I finally got the pail full and went out of the door. and they could drive on. Les Goodwin had fulfilled his mission in the middle of enemy territory. A strange experience I felt like I was an intruder. they were my enemy. But I didn't feel that about his farmhouse experience He didn't tell anyone

not even his lieutenant. to a farmhouse for some help. This to me was just a person going Just a simple thing like that. meeting with pockets of resistance - The advancing troops were still in a final victory. fanatical Germans who still believed reached the capital, Berlin. In the east, the Red Army had nearly The decisive battle began. An inferno. was Mechthild Evers, aged 19. Caught in the middle a midshipman in the German navy. Her sweetheart was Karl-Heinz, come what may. She was determined to marry him, and shelling of Berlin. A makeshift wedding among the bombing They made a pact that, if they survived, of Hiddensee on the Baltic coast, they'd meet up on the little island where it was said to be quiet. had to return to the front, Karl-Heinz Evers to the final battle for Berlin. Berlin was in flames. was in its last terrible phase. The battle for the capital was unstoppable. The advance of the Red Army The Germans were fearful of bitter revenge on the part of the Russian troops. Mechthild Evers was among those who fled Berlin. She settled in on the small island of Hiddensee and waited anxiously, hoping the war would finally soon be over and that she'd see her husband alive again.

Karl-Heinz Evers's unit had thrown away their weapons since fighting on had become senseless. He'd tried to make his way to Hiddensee, but had fallen into the hands of the Russians. Intending to occupy the island, they brought him along as a hostage. Mechthild Evers and her husband Karl-Heinz enjoyed carefree days and nights together, but the war was still raging. MACHINE-GUN FIRE

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priceless. May 8, 1945. The German forces had capitulated. Eye witnesses reported an almost uncanny silence in the towns.

Germany was occupied.

The Soviet army was stationed from East Prussia to the River Elbe. The Americans were in charge in south-western Germany, the British in the north-west. NEWSREEL: Victory in Europe brought wild rejoicing throughout the Allied world as the Big Three announced the downfall of Nazi Germany. New York's celebration is typical of the nation's joy at the end of nearly six years of war in Europe. Let us thank God for the peace that has come.

VE day was what the Americans and British called this day. VE - Victory in Europe. As in New York, people in many cities of the world crowded onto the streets. Peace at last, after six years of war. In London, Paris and Amsterdam, people everywhere were celebrating. It was the start of an unusually hot summer. Everywhere, American and Soviet troops were enjoying their victory together. But the Allies soon realised how great the differences between them were. We'd just slap each other on the back and say "Comrade." That's all each other knew. I gave one a pack of cigarettes. And he kept trying to open it, and open it and open it. I said "Here." I took it. I took the little red tab, pulled it around and... "Here!" And he was amazed, you know, that I could open it with that little red tab so quickly. For millions of soldiers in East and West, There was a victory celebration on the Baltic island of Hiddensee, too, in a seaside hotel, and the Evers were invited to join in. The Russians now ordered the Evers couple to leave Hiddensee. But before they crossed to the mainland, Karl-Heinz received a vital stamp in his service book - evidence that the Russian commandant had released his prisoner of war. The early summer of 1945 was unusually hot as the young couple tried to get home. En route, they met exhausted soldiers and straggling refugees.

And they didn't get far.

Karl-Heinz Evers was a prisoner once again and held in a detention camp. What German soldiers feared most was the bitter revenge of the Red Army. So, many fled westwards, preferring to be taken prisoner by the Americans. The Allies were overwhelmed by the numbers - Improvised camps were set up outdoors. The conditions were catastrophic. Conflicting images of the enemy confronted one another. To us, at that time, a member of the Waffen-SS carried an 88 in each hand, he had hand-grenades stuffed in his belt and... a Schmeiser between his teeth and all the rest of it. When we actually came across them, we found they bled just as badly as anybody else. The Americans arrived armed not just with modern weapons but with cameras and they filmed their advance in colour. They viewed the Germans with curiosity, but also with horror. What are we going to do here with the Germans? We can't put a cordon sanitaire around them for many years, and keep them cooped up we will have a hotbed of... and the like. of resistance, of anger the other extreme, The other alternative, is we kill them all. Propaganda films were used for their job in Germany. to prepare American soldiers making friends. NEWSREEL: Fraternisation means are not our friends. But German people with German men, You will not associate women however sorry, However friendly, they may seem however sick of the Nazi Party they cannot come back into the civilised fold just by sticking out their hand and saying "I'm sorry." Sorry? Not sorry they caused the war! They're only sorry they lost it. The Russians, especially, had suffered cruelly under the Germans. Animation films were used to stimulate the anger and fighting spirit of Soviet soldiers. But then the occupying forces discovered ever more mass graves, concentration camps, death camps with hundreds of thousands of dead or starving inmates. Went over and blew open the gate, and all these people, started coming out hundreds of people and hugging us, crying, kissing our legs. and holding, who they were. what was going on. We didn't know for his platoon. Mickey Dorsey was the photographer what he was seeing with his own eyes He couldn't believe and hastily took some pictures. But I knew enough German when they'd say "Ich habe Hunger." Well, I said "Go and get all the K-rations." Well, we opened up the K-rations and gave them to them. We gave them the cigarettes and I expected them to ask me to light them but they ate the cigarettes. Paper and all! Paper and all. And then everything in there, they ate. And some of them died right before our... right before... after we'd given them something to eat. For a 19-year-old lad from North Carolina, it was all too much. But there was worse to come.

The whole camp, hidden in the forest, was full of corpses. that were dead

and we saw others on top of them that we thought were dead but they would open an eye or lift a finger. It was the most horrible thing I'd ever seen. had to radio for help. Mickey Dorsey and his comrades and had to press on. They were only a small platoon and met these people Had we seen this camp and seen the dying sooner, more Germans. we would have killed a dedicated nurse. Helga Vick was 21, for years. She'd been looking after war victims for a summer break. Now she was hoping travelled for three hours Helga Vick and her colleagues in a British army truck. occupied military training ground The journey ended at a British- between two heathland villages, Bergen and Belsen. In the German army barracks adjoining the concentration camp, Helga Vick and the other nurses tried to save the survivors. They worked round the clock. There was no running water. It was hot. She longed to get washed. There was a swimming bath in the compound. Helga Vick never got over her experience. She never wanted to see sick or dead people again, never wanted to be a nurse again. (CHEERFUL MUSIC PLAYS) Time can be measured in millimetres. Sometimes it's the small things that can make life

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what you are unobserved. VOICEOVER: Character is It is formed little by little... by day, and in this way eventually reveals itself. Two weeks after the end of the war, the British set fire to the death camp on the Luneburg Heath with flame-throwers. The barrack huts were contaminated with typhoid, tuberculosis and cholera and infested with lice, fleas and rats. Throughout Germany, the occupation troops forced the local population to look at concentration camps and mass graves. "Look at what you have done!" Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, Ravensbruck... everywhere the same picture. Here was something the occupying forces had not reckoned with. The Americans photographed and filmed this horror in detail. what had happened here. The whole world was to see this genocide. No one should ever forget we'd come in, The situation was such, particularly the Holocaust, against everybody. but in a sense, the brutalities We were so outraged! the Americans, and there were, Even the anti-Semites among at what we were discovering we were so outraged and should have known, that we didn't trust any German. of the country, The Allies took over the governance and orders. regulating life through decrees The first thing the Germans did was to erase the visible traces of their past. As for the present, it was a life among ruins. Death and decay everywhere. And anarchy. Society was in danger of sinking into chaos. No German city had been spared from the bombing by the Royal Air Force and the US Air Force. Now the rubble had to be cleared from the streets. The occupation forces set the Germans to work. The "rubble women", as they were called,

laboured for food coupons or a hot meal.

Former members of the Nazi Party were forced to work. in the Ruhr district. Worst affected of all was Dortmund The city had been obliterated. But in spite of everything, for the country people who had fled the bombs into the cities, were now streaming back even to Dortmund. five years old at the time. August-Heinz Limpe was just in a ruined house He and his parents found shelter in the centre of Dortmund. nurse, filming the Limpe family. These shots were taken by a Red Cross the everyday life The nurse's camera documented of August-Heinz Limpe and his family. for a day in the ruins. The little boy was getting ready He, too, did his bit in the struggle for survival.

For August-Heinz Limpe and thousands of other children, the ruined landscape of central Dortmund was like an adventure playground.

For his mother, though, these were the hardest months of her life. She had four children to look after, had lost all her property and had a dying husband at her side. In the ruins of Germany that summer, there were also former prisoners of war, slave labourers and liberated concentration camp victims... 11 million of them.

Displaced Persons, DPs for short, was what they were called by the occupation powers - people who'd been uprooted. were... When the German authorities from Eastern Europe gathering them up to enforced labour in Germany, and sending them up about their characters. they didn't bother All they worried was to work? were they physically fit quite a few people came into Germany So as a result, there was had been very interested in who the local police before they went out. on going back again! And now they weren't at all keen their criminal ways in Germany And they carried on the same as they had in their home countries before. They were the ones we ended up having trouble with. A lot of these people, they'd been very badly treated and they wanted to get their own back, and they did. Our job basically was to try to prevent them, or any DPs or whatnot that were hanging around, from bothering the civilian population too much. In order to prevent looting,

the occupying forces met the basic needs of the DPs. They distributed bread and meat from their reserves. These uprooted people wanted to go home. But it was not so easy to arrange swift transport for so very many. no longer had homes to return to. Many East Europeans been wiped out. Their families had simply had shifted during the war. And the borders of countries Lev Alexandrovitch Netto. One of them was not to return to the Soviet Union. But American soldiers warned him of his troops During the war, Stalin demanded rather than be taken prisoner. that they choose suicide in the American Zone. So Lev Netto stayed on into any camp. But he was determined not to go back from the ruined cities He also kept well away wandered the countryside, and, like many others, searching for food and a roof over his head.

Lev Netto found work on a farm in Voigtland. Every hand was needed on the land. A German farmer's wife took the young Russian in. Lev Netto decided to go back to the Soviet Union. His homesickness was stronger than his young love. He joined up with a group of Russian returnees, in spite of all the warnings. On his return to the Soviet Union, Lev Netto was arrested and spent the next eight years in a labour camp in Siberia.

What if an education system started with the idea you were different? to fit the system, What if you didn't have but could make the system fit you? for others to open What if doors didn't have to close you could change? and fate was something Open Universities Australia gives you access to courses universities online from leading Australian The first summer of peace in Germany. and began to live again. People settled into the ruins to enjoy the peace, The defeated Germans started the sun's warmth, the freedom. In Berlin and other German cities, the first pavement cafes opened and the dancehalls and beer gardens were full of people hungry for life. On July 6, 1945 the first commuter train started running again in Berlin. Line 1, from Kreuzberg to Wannsee. In this first peacetime summer, people began to enjoy life again, both the Berliners and the occupying forces. Dancing, flirting and enjoying life again at last. In the final two years of the war, public festivals and dances had been forbidden in Germany. The courtyard of Cecilienhof Palace in Potsdam, near Berlin. A red star composed of geraniums, to welcome the three victorious powers who met here in mid-June. But Stalin, Churchill and Truman still had their differences. Only Stalin appreciated the red star. The Allied leaders disagreed about reparations. and appropriate, would be free to dismantle as it thought fit. The conservatives among us, who had been drafted into the army, the isolationists among us were unhappy from the start with the Soviet Union. that we were allied The Big Three - a show of unity for the cameras. But the big question was should have in Europe. how much power the Soviet Union one-third of its territory. After Potsdam, Germany lost and part of East Prussia Pomerania, Silesia came under Polish administration. The rest was divided up into four zones. France was also to become an occupation power. Millions of people, refugees from Germany's eastern territories, had now been made homeless.

These refugees and expellees needed to be taken care of. Families were torn apart. Children searching for their parents were living in squalor and learning to fend for themselves among the ruins. In midsummer 1945, the Americans withdrew from Thuringia and Saxony, taking with them everything of value - technical documents, furniture, machines. The Red Army moved into its zone of occupation. An anxious welcome to the victors. At the end of July 1945, into their new zone of occupation. the French marched France and Germany. Three wars within 70 years - a hereditary enmity. The German inhabitants of South Baden, Rheinhessen and Wurttemberg had got used to the Americans. Here, too, people were afraid. Margret's father had not returned from this last war either. Margret had to help with the housework and look after her younger brother. Fathers were a rare commodity these days. ACCORDION MUSIC The French had suffered under the German occupation. Now many feared they would take their revenge. There were many strange encounters of this kind in occupied Germany. was a young French soldier. Jean-Jacques Mezure had been billeted there on the orders of the Military Government but he wasn't happy about it. The occupation forces had unlimited power in Germany. They determined what happened to the Germans. The wonderful summer of 1945 was drawing to a close. As agreed at Potsdam, the occupying powers had also divided up the former Reich capital between them. The "Special Area" of Berlin now had four sectors. Berlin's fate was sealed as a future hot-spot of world politics. Captions (c) SBS Australia 2010