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(generated from captions) World News Australia at 9:30 - Coming up in SBS a US missile was responsible Pakistani intelligence services say a top Al-Qaeda operative for killing in the country's tribal belt. has resumed work, The Japanese whaling fleet in the Southern Ocean. killing five whales with Japan Australia has agreed to disagree on the controversial hunt. which in my view This is not an issue upon the fundamentals is or can or will adversely impact of our partnership with Japan. The slaughter was witnessed 'Oceanic Viking', by Australian Customs vessel the Japanese fleet. deployed to police Shell sets a new record. Staggering profits from oil producer of the day's news at 9:30. That and the rest SCREAMING It would jump from house to house. MAN: It would come without warning.

and make one person sick, It could come into a house make the other people sick. two people sick, but not It attacked the poor. It attacked the rich. It attacked the dirty. It attacked the clean. it terrorised the nation... NARRATOR: For two centuries, ..bankrupted cities... ..took tens of thousands of lives. the 'invader'. It was called the 'visitor', WOMAN: Yellow fever was horrible. black vomit across the room. The patient is spraying They're in agony. They're screaming. It killed so quickly. It happened so fast. MAN: The only thing that comes close engendered back in the 19th century to the fear that yellow fever is a biological attack, moves around the community where an unknown agent it makes no sense. in some way that's sort of random, of yellow fever Unravelling the mystery by an obscure scientist... would take a leap of logic

a sceptical army doctor... ..the conversion of ultimate sacrifice. ..and a young surgeon's GULL CRIES NARRATOR: In the summer of 1693,

Admiral Joseph Wheeler's fleet from the West Indies arrived in Boston with a cargo of rum and sugar. scattered across the city Within weeks, men and women of a strange illness... began to show symptoms ..jaundice, high fever, black vomit.

Yellow fever had come to America. For the next 200 years, city after city the disease would strike and no apparent cause. with frightening regularity that take place. MAN: There are some severe epidemics loses 10% of its population. Late-1700s Philadelphia the disease moves south, As we move into the 1800s, to the Southern states. away from the north-eastern seaboard that strike along the Gulf Coast, There are some devastating epidemics especially in New Orleans. from the Caribbean, Hot and humid, bustling with trade present year-round, where the fever was to yellow fever. New Orleans was especially vulnerable hundreds, even thousands of lives. Summer epidemics would claim to protect yourself from it. MAN: There was no way that it would come in the summer, Even though they knew sometimes it didn't come. there was very little yellow fever. There were some summers where it would come And then another summer

of biblical proportions. and it would be a scourge

On July 24, 1878,

14 cases and 7 deaths the 'New Orleans Picayune' confirmed of the 1st district. in the crowded tenements Soon cases of yellow fever the better sections of town. were reported in Panic gripped the city. SHOUTING to predict who was going to be next JIM WRITER: There was no way or how it was going to spread, a community - from house to house, the way it moved through skipping neighbourhoods, skipping houses,

neighbourhoods later on, coming back and getting attacking rich and poor, that's sort of random. in some way that makes no sense, and what it did to its victims The way it attacked just horrified people. MAN: People develop a headache. They develop back pain. They develop fever. and ache all over. They hurt all over last for about 48-72 hours. And these symptoms usually And it's just like having the flu. attacks the liver. And then the virus And when the liver is destroyed, are also destroyed. MAN: You would bleed from your eyes, from your nose, from your mouth.

of the disease in its final stages One of the worst aspects internally into your stomach, was that you're bleeding and you end up vomiting it out. and then that blood is digested wet coffee grounds. And it's sort of like It's not a quiet death. You are struggling. You're frantic. their patients down Doctors would have to strap while they watched them die.

struggled to treat and understand New Orleans physicians all explanation. an illness that seemed to defy carbolic acid, They prescribed blood-lettings, massive doses of quinine. To ward off the illness, in mustard plaster, citizens covered themselves shut windows to keep the fever out...

the smoke would disturb the 'miasma', ..burned tar in the belief that the noxious emissions thought to carry disease. that for centuries had been The city became a smoke-filled hell, of the dying pierced by the anguished sounds of putrefying blood. and the acrid smell Those who could, fled - in the tens of thousands. running in fear. JIM WRITER: People are are struggling to survive. Those who remain There is no goods going out. There may be no food coming in. All commerce grinds to a halt. shut up and closed, WOMAN: With everything became a ghost town. New Orleans quickly

is disrupted The whole fabric of life didn't do. in ways that other diseases had been a Southern scourge, For decades, yellow fever below the Mason-Dixon line. its ravages confined

united the country But now steamboats and railroads north to south, east to west. as the disease was known, 'Yellow jack', could travel far and travel fast. JIM WRITER: 1878 was a turning point in the history of yellow fever. People are more mobile than they were in the pre-Civil War period. Yellow fever has new opportunities for moving away from the port where it's introduced. And it does. It takes those opportunities. It rides the rails out to Mobile, up to Memphis, over to Chattanooga. To Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, even into Ohio it went, aboard trains crowded with refugees heading north. MARGARET HUMPHREYS: Towns where those people might go to didn't want them to come. So people burned bridges, they tore up train tracks -

anything to keep the epidemic out. Some states set up official quarantines. But in many towns, citizens took matters into their own hands. GUNSHOT and either force them to go on or turn back. And they called that 'shotgun quarantines'. One man with a shotgun is going to keep a train either moving or at least keep people from getting off of it. But there was no stopping yellow jack. The epidemic spread to 11 states and 200 communities. 120,000 people became infected. "The king of terrors "continues to snatch victims with fearful rapidity," wrote a Memphis resident. "One by one, those who remain in the city "and are liable to the monster malady "are taken down." By the time it ended, with the arrival of the first frost, the great Mississippi Valley epidemic had taken 20,000 lives. Economic losses were estimated in the hundreds of millions. The City of Memphis was forced to declare bankruptcy. As news spread, the magnitude of the tragedy registered in every corner of the nation, from San Francisco to New York. MARGARET HUMPHREYS: Suddenly what had been a Southern problem was now a national problem, in terms of finance, in terms of just spread of disease. And the feeling is the South cannot take care of this problem themselves. Either they won't because they're stupid or they're inept or they're too poor. And the Federal Government really needs to step in here, because now the South's problems are now everybody's problems. The Federal Government took decisive action. Congress established the National Board of Health, with authority to intervene in a public health emergency. The board would also help Southern states put in place sanitary improvements and administer a quarantine system, designed to keep yellow fever from entering the United States. But neither sanitation nor quarantine would prove to be enough. What was needed were answers to some crucial questions about yellow fever and how it spread. THUNDER RUMBLES

At his laboratory in his home in Old Havana, Dr Carlos Finlay

had been studying yellow fever for quite some time. The son of a Scottish father and a French mother, Finlay had left Cuba as a young man to study in Europe, then at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He returned to Cuba in 1864, where he settled down.

In 1872, he began to investigate yellow fever, a disease that year after year swept through his native country. He looked at changes in temperature, altitude, even the alkalinity of the atmosphere.

Then young Dr Finlay made a scientific breakthrough. JOHN TONE: He had read that some diseases could be spread through an intermediate host. There's a particular disease of wheat that has to first incubate in another plant before it can be spread. So he deduced that what was necessary to spread it was an agent that would take it from the sick person to a healthy person. In 1879, an American scientist handed Finlay his next clue,

microscopic slides of tissue from yellow fever victims. He left Finlay with some photographs

that clearly indicated to Finlay that yellow fever must be spread somehow through lesions in the blood vessels, that it must be a biting insect that accesses those blood vessels. That's how he first came upon the idea that it was a mosquito. With nearly 1,000 species of mosquitoes,

Finlay searched painstakingly for the one that transmitted the disease. What he did was he figured out where that mosquito was present, and he mapped that against where cases of yellow fever occurred. And since they mapped perfectly to each other, he deduced that yellow fever was spread by this particular mosquito, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was a remarkable idea, perhaps too remarkable for its time. MARGARET HUMPHREYS: In the 1880s, the germs that cause the most familiar diseases were just being identified. And these germs got into the body in fairly obvious ways. Cholera, you swallow it. Tuberculosis or diphtheria is inhaled. But the idea that another way that germs could get into the body was through an insect was not out there. In August 1881, at an international scientific conference in Havana, Carlos Finlay unveiled his mosquito theory, outlining three conditions necessary for the transmission of yellow fever. JOHN TONE: Number one, the presence of a person with yellow fever,

number two - a person apt to contract yellow fever, and number three - an agent that can transmit yellow fever from a sick person to a healthy person. And he tells them that in light of all this, all the focus on quarantines and all the other measures that they were proposing to take to control yellow fever would be useless, and that what they really needed to focus on was the intermediate agent. At the end of Finlay's presentation, there were no questions, no rebuttals. "No-one spoke against my theory," Finlay later recalled,

"but I would have preferred it to the silence, "that conspiracy of silence... "..and silence." JIM WRITER: Finlay is so far out on the edge, so far ahead of his time, there's no way the medical community is going to take him seriously. He becomes the mosquito man, the crazy Cuban doctor who's got this wild theory about insects carrying disease.

For the next 20 years, Finlay worked tirelessly to win scientific acceptance for his theory. Conducting experiments with mosquitoes on 100 volunteers, he focused on transmission while others searched for a cause. JOHN TONE: Scientists all over the world are drawing blood from yellow fever patients. They're culturing the blood. They're trying to identify the bacterium that causes yellow fever. Finlay wasn't doing that. He was concentrating on the mosquitoes. JIM WRITER: What Finlay needs to do

is to show that he can consistently move yellow fever person to person using the mosquito as a vector, that there is no other explanation for that person's case of yellow fever. And in general, he can't do that. He can get a case here and there, sporadic cases, but he still is missing conclusive proof. JOHN TONE: Because he is working in Havana,

which is an endemic centre of yellow fever, people would say, "Well, maybe your patients caught yellow fever "not from the mosquito bite, "but from something else in the atmosphere." He could never really adequately answer those objections. Finlay's theory languished. In 1898, the United States declared war on Spain. 40,000 American troops landed on the island of Cuba, a Spanish colony. JIM WRITER: Cuba has been suspected for decades as being a source of the yellow fever that comes into the United States. It's an endemic disease in Cuba. It's always there, and that raises all sorts of fears. There's fears about soldiers and becoming infected in Cuba.

There's fears about soldiers returning from Cuba and bringing yellow fever with them. Really opens up a whole new pathway for yellow fever to infect the United States. MARTIAL DRUMMING (Man shouts) Right, left. Halt. MARCHING STEPS In only three months, the American army defeated Spain and occupied Cuba. Fewer than 400 American soldiers were lost to Spanish bullets.

But more than 2,000 came down with yellow jack. An African-American regiment, the 24th Infantry, lost a third of its men to the disease. Two years into the occupation, a yellow fever epidemic raged across the island. The lives of 15,000 American troops were at risk. Because they didn't understand the role of the mosquito, what they would do is someone would catch yellow fever,

they'd be put in a hospital next to someone who had malaria, next to someone else who had typhus.

Meanwhile there are mosquitoes buzzing around them, biting one, biting the other, spreading disease back and forth. JOHN PIERCE: We thought that it was transmitted by fomites. A fomite was any inanimate object that could transmit an illness. And so there was felt to be something on the clothes, on the furniture, the sheets that the sick people slept on. There was felt to be something in those materials that could transmit the disease. In July 1900, an outbreak of yellow fever was reported

at a US camp just west of Havana. American troops now faced the same danger as other armies who had ventured into the region. Yellow fever had been the enemy of colonial powers in the Caribbean for a long time. It had destroyed an army that Napoleon sent to Haiti in 1802, and in the 1890s it had devastated Spanish armies in Cuba. Americans were well aware of all of this. So they were very fearful that their armies in Cuba not suffer the same way. The officer in charge of protecting the health of US troops was surgeon general George Sternberg, a leading bacteriologist. Like many scientists, Sternberg had spent years searching for the yellow fever germ. Now he appointed an ambitious army doctor to lead a commission to Havana to try to find it. Major Walter Reed

was the youngest man ever to be granted a medical degree by the University of Virginia.

After two decades of service in the American west, he was not one to shy away from a challenge. JIM WRITER: Reed is a frontier doctor, basically. Most of his career has been spent out on the frontier -

Indian country in Arizona, in Kansas, in Nebraska. He takes a class in bacteriology at Johns Hopkins, and it begins to transform him, brings him into contact with the new science of medicine. He moves from this frontier doctor working with small army posts and now becomes a scientist. He was highly motivated. He worked most of his life with the idea that there was going to be to make a big difference. an opportunity for him James Carroll, as his assistant. Reed chose a trusted friend, at Havana's Columbia Barracks, To head the laboratory a young American bacteriologist, he named Jesse Lazear. The Yellow Fever Board's first task an Italian scientist's claim was to disprove the elusive yellow fever germ. that he had found There had been a lot of research, MARGARET HUMPHREYS: trumpeting their discovery. a lot of people has to come along And then someone else and prove that that one's wrong. And this had happened a lot. and they didn't realise it - The problem was that - yellow fever is caused by a virus. It's a particle that cannot be seen through the kinds of microscopes they had in 1900. Jesse Lazear chafed focus on petty scientific disputes. at what he saw as his colleagues' that I don't agree with," he wrote, "Reed and Carroll have notions as I would like to see done." "and are not inclined to do as much Left on his own, the real cause of yellow fever. Lazear believed he could discover this picture of Lazear JIM WRITER: I have as being a real go-getter. He knows he's smart. He knows he's got the training. He's got the education. And he's got an opportunity now in the world of medical research. to make a name for himself with his son, Houston, Lazear had arrived in Cuba who carried their second child. and his wife, Mabel, enjoyed the historic sites of Havana. Camera in hand, the young couple had left behind a position A contract surgeon, Dr Lazear at Johns Hopkins University, as head of the laboratories where he had been working on malaria, by an intermediate host. only recently proved to be carried Malaria and yellow fever MARGARET HUMPHREYS: in certain patterns were both diseases that occurred when the mosquito was active. that matched It's worse in more tropical areas. that this disease, yellow fever, So it made sense spread by a mosquito. could be, like malaria,

Lazear struck out on his own. On May 23, He went to Quemados, a Havana suburb of the 1900 epidemic, and the starting point and brought back four mosquitoes an infected person's room. captured in He dissected the insects, for the yellow fever germ. and looked in vain Then, in July,

Lazear, Reed, and the rest of the board paid a visit to Old Havana, to the home of Dr Finlay. Finlay was the last option. JOHN TONE: In a sense,

they had tried sanitation, They had tried everything,

they had cleaned Havana, various candidates for yellow fever, they had disproved found the agent. but they hadn't actually With so many troops falling sick, to the American occupation, and yellow fever being a threat to listen to Finlay. they finally proved willing to the Yellow Fever Board, As he handed his Aedes aegypti eggs to be pleased. Carlos Finlay had every reason is taking him seriously. JIM WRITER: Finally, somebody test out his theory, Finally, somebody is going to and give it a shot. take his mosquitoes,

left for Washington. On August 2, Walter Reed of Finlay's theory, Although deeply sceptical Reed had instructed his staff mosquito experiments. to begin conducting at that point in time JOHN R. PIERCE: They agreed

their mosquito experiments, that as they began they would experiment on themselves, the first guinea pigs that they would be to take the mosquito bites to see if they could transmit yellow fever. Convinced that mosquitoes were harmless, in his absence. Reed expected little to happen

He could not have been more mistaken. Finlay's mosquitoes. Jesse Lazear took over

Finlay's techniques, Meticulously following his 'birds', as he called them, each day Lazear would take the US Army yellow fever ward. to Las Animas,

There, he would have them 'load', of infected patients. feed on the blood mosquitoes bite healthy volunteers. Then he would have the 'loaded' two on himself, After nine inoculations,

a single case of yellow fever. Lazear had failed to produce

Discouraged, he was ready to give up.

Then, on August 27th, THUNDER RUMBLES IN THE DISTANCE

had failed to load. Lazear noted that one of his birds without a blood meal, Concerned that the mosquito might die if he would allow it to feed. he asked his colleague James Carroll Two days later, Carroll fell ill. He appeared jaundiced. His temperature rose to 103 degrees. He was diagnosed with yellow fever. takes it upon himself JOHN R. PIERCE: Lazear

to go find another volunteer. The young soldier named William Dean that has made Carroll ill. is bitten by the same mosquito

Dean, a few days later, gets sick and so he progresses to what is an obvious case of yellow fever. "Dear Mabel," Lazear wrote his wife, to give birth, who had returned to the United States of the real germ. "I rather think I'm on the track "But nothing must be said as yet. "I have not mentioned it to a soul." who inoculates Carroll, JIM WRITER: He's the physician that the team probably transmits which is the first case from a mosquito to a person. who inoculates William Dean, He's the person that the Army team who is definitely the first case with a mosquito. transmits yellow fever to transmits yellow fever, If he can prove that the mosquito may not be out of line. the potential for a Nobel Prize Jesse Lazear did not report to work. The morning of September 18, he was taken by ambulance The next day, to the Columbia Barracks Hospital. bitten by a stray mosquito Lazear explained that he had been while 'loading' at Las Animas. later revealed But a page from his laboratory book that he had knowingly subjected himself to the bite of an infected mosquito. to yellow fever, When Lazear exposes himself his risk of dying is all that great. he probably doesn't think that He's infected two other people - Carroll, James Carroll, and William Dean - and they've become ill, but they're both recovering. Lazear probably believes a case of yellow fever in himself that he too can produce

and carry on his work. and that he too can recover (Breathes heavily) reached Walter Reed in Pennsylvania. News of Lazear's illness A career military man, he had left his men in harm's way. Reed now realised that for being here, "I have been so ashamed of myself "in a safe country," he wrote, coming down with yellow jack. "while my associates have been "Still, I feel that Lazear will pull through." Lazear progressed to an advanced case of yellow fever. In the delirium of his final hours, a friend reported, "He was tormented by thoughts of his wife and son, "and the daughter he would never meet." JOHN R. PIERCE: When she got the telegram - "Dr Lazear died this evening" - she was in horrible shock because she didn't even know he was sick, didn't know that he had yellow fever. She just got a telegram that he had died. "He was a splendid, brave fellow "and I lament his loss more than words can tell," wrote a devastated Reed. "But his death was not in vain. "His name will live in the history of those who have benefited humanity." When he had left for Washington six weeks before Lazear's death, Reed had doubted Finlay's mosquito theory. Now, as he returned to Cuba on October 4, he was firmly converted to the belief that the mosquito was indeed the transmitter of yellow fever. JIM WRITER: Reed has got to be comfortable before he tells the world that, in fact, he has an indisputable case of experimentally transmitted yellow fever where the mosquito was the agent of the disease. Known to be cautious and meticulous, Reed now worked furiously. He pored over Lazear's lab books, and noted a 12-day interval between the time of loading and the day the mosquito transmitted yellow fever to Carroll, 16 days in the case of Dean. This observation fit with a theory developed by doctor in Mississippi

that there was a lapse of two weeks

between the first appearance of yellow fever and the appearance of a second case. JOHN R. PIERCE: The light bulb probably just went off and said, "Hey, this is it. You've got to have this period in the mosquito. "Not sure what takes place in the mosquito, "but it must take place in the mosquito "and it must take at least 12 days for it to happen." So I think that was kind of an epiphany-type thing. During that 12-day interval, the virus, ingested with a blood meal, matures in the mosquito's digestive tract, making its way to the salivary glands to be transmitted when the mosquito bites again. This was the missing piece - the one that had eluded Carlos Finlay. Less than three weeks after returning to Cuba, on October 23rd,

Reed made his case for the mosquito theory It basically had two cases - it had Carroll's case, it had Dean's case. Lazear had died, but they had no evidence that he had experimented upon himself at that point in time. He and Sternberg wanted to get this published as soon as they could because they knew there were other people working in the field and they wanted to get credit for the Army board and for the men involved. While some observers were impressed,

the 'Washington Post' called the mosquito theory "silly and nonsensical". Faced with scepticism, Reed realised that he needed incontrovertible proof. He obtained permission to pay $100 in gold to American soldiers and Spanish immigrants to serve as volunteers, $100 more if they became ill. to sign consent forms, Though all were required a wave of criticism. the human experiments triggered issued a formal complaint The Spanish Council in Cuba

to the American authorities. Reed was undeterred. at an isolated spot in Havana, On November 20, 1900, designed experimental station. Walter Reed opened a specially He called it Camp Lazear. that accounts for JIM WRITER: He designs a camp that he can think of just about everything or put any doubt into his results. that might interfere precise scientific method. It has to be in what he does. There can be no sloppiness at all in two separate cabins, He placed his volunteers and Building Two. which he called Building One They put one set of volunteers MARGARET HUMPHREYS: in a cabin that was screened, and the cabin was loaded up with all sorts of nasty things from yellow fever patients - blankets they'd vomited on and just all sorts of...you know, diarrhoea on the things - and they had to sleep in these beds and these pillows

that were soaked from yellow fever victims, many of whom had died. The other building that Reed sets up is Building Two. the 'Infected Mosquito Building'. It's called Clothing Building', Same size as the 'Infected but it's divided into two chambers the two chambers. with a screen between is a volunteer. In one side of the building let loose into the building Infected mosquitoes are and they bite the volunteer. exposed to mosquitoes, JOHN TONE: The people who were they caught yellow fever. The people in the fomite cabin, catch yellow fever. of course, never did and clever experiment It was an elegant the scientific world and it convinced of yellow fever contagion that it wasn't some particle or something like that - in the blood or in skin tissue via mosquitoes. that it had to be transmitted where Finlay couldn't. He convinces the scientific world to Camp Lazear Reed invited Carlos Finlay to witness the success of his experiment. "I suppose old Dr Finlay will be delighted beyond bounds," Reed wrote, "as he will see his theory at last fully vindicated." It had been 20 years since Finlay had postulated that getting rid of yellow fever meant controlling the mosquito. Now Major William Gorgas, Chief Sanitary Officer, onto every street ordered US Army troops in Cuba's capital, and into every home putting Finlay's theory to the test. heard about a case of yellow fever, MARGARET HUMPHREYS: As soon as he in a screened room the patient was put couldn't get in or out. so that the mosquitoes mosquitoes that WERE in that room. And they did things to eradicate any across the city, JIM WRITER: Teams move out fumigating homes and buildings,

where mosquitoes breed... tracking down places ..eliminating standing water. a resounding success. The campaign was 300 yellow fever deaths in Havana. In 1900, there had been the mosquito eradication campaign, The next year, following there was only one. happened in Cuba, JOHN R. PIERCE: Despite what had despite the fact that yellow fever had gone away from Havana, effectively, within months - not years, but months -

people still didn't accept the theory that insects could carry disease. Back in Washington, Walter Reed spent much of his time trying to convince health officials that controlling mosquitoes was the key to controlling yellow fever. MARGARET HUMPHREYS: Reed was particularly frustrated with of Southern public health some of the leaders of Louisiana. and the State Board of Health to one of his friends He wrote a letter arrange for a few of them and said, "Maybe we should some loaded Stegomyia," "to be bitten by the Aedes aegyptae mosquito, the name they had for "to get them out of the way." in the yellow fever debate But Reed's influence would come to an unexpected end.

In 1902, complications of appendicitis. Walter Reed died from of the mosquito theory was gone. The nation's champion We are the bold... (Plays didgeridoo) ..the brave... (Chatters) (Roars) ..the daring. We are the determined. under the Southern Cross... We built a bank YELLING ..determined to rise... ..to thrive.

Determined to be different. he kicked a lot of his own money You know, Michael Bay here, to put that thing together. It's like, pff! I used seven helicopters. Who's got goose bumps? (Ad team laughs) You like? PHONE RINGS IN THE DISTANCE that's...that's interesting. Well, the tagline, OK, from the top, then. Just the last two seconds. No. Does anyone else wanna see the whole thing again? BOAT HORN BLARES New Orleans, 1905. the Necropolis of the South The city once known as of yellow fever had been relatively free for more than two decades. attributed the success Proud officials to a wall of quarantine stations,

to keep the disease at bay. specially designed

JOHN TONE: When a ship came in, aboard the ship had yellow fever, they would make sure that no-one then they would go aboard the ship, they would fumigate it, they would wash it. They would use everything from vinegar to smoke to try to cleanse the ship, to sanitise it. MARGARET HUMPHREYS: They filled the holds of ships with sulfurous acid gas. They took all the bedding and clothing

and hung it up in giant autoclaves - I mean, they were these giant ovens - and toasted the clothing up to 250 degrees Fahrenheit. It was a very impressive-looking apparatus, and a very active service. The whole system had seemed to work for 20 years. just shut these things down? So now they're supposed to It did not seem prudent. board, Dr Quitman Kohnke, disagreed. The head of the New Orleans health in the mosquito theory, A firm believer to put in place he urged his colleagues a program of mosquito control. we need to be doing. Kohnke said, "This is what cisterns and all the rest of it." "We need laws about screening and people somewhat laughed at him. He didn't get very far,

They drew cartoons of this guy - fighting off a huge mosquito. Saint George and the Dragon - In the spring of 1905, with a cargo of bananas a smuggler's ship bridged New Orleans quarantine wall the backwaters of the Mississippi. and quietly made its way through On June 12, two suspicious deaths were reported near the waterfront. threatened New Orleans, Yellow fever once again the city was unprepared. and once again, in place, Without effective mosquito controls millions of Aedes aegypti bred undisturbed... ..most dangerously, in the 70,000 backyard cisterns where families stored their water. On June 22, New Orleans authorities declared an emergency. By then, 100 people had come down with the disease. 20 had died. there was no more time to waste. Kohnke decided "Even if you are not positive that the transmission of yellow fever," "the mosquito is the only source of he told New Orleans physicians, the benefit of the doubt "give your city "in this important and vital matter." New Orleans organised as if for war. Under Kohnke's direction, and has learned to exterminate it," "Science has discovered the cause heralded the 'New Orleans Picayune'. The mosquito control techniques so effectively in Havana that the US Army had used were now applied to the Crescent City. House by house, block by block, workmen screened cisterns to prevent mosquitoes from laying eggs. To suffocate the larvae, all standing water was treated with kerosene. Saturdays and Sundays were declared fumigation days. On a single day, residents burned an estimated 300 tons of sulfur, giving the mosquito, as the 'Picayune' put it, "A dose of real brimstone." Citizens were urged to sleep under nets and help with the oiling and screening of cisterns. Fines of up to $25 or 30 days in prison were issued to those who failed to comply. It was a race against the mosquito, but years of inaction had given the Aedes aegypti a head start. Barely a month after the beginning of the epidemic, 600 yellow fever cases were reported. The epidemic is spreading and the city doesn't have enough money to fight the epidemic, so what they do is call in the Federal Government. There's a lot of resentment to federal power, but also recognition that that's the only way we're going to get this disease under control. "We regard this as the first crucial test in America "of the mosquito theory," proclaimed federal authorities, "and it must be perfect to be efficient." JIM WRITER: They have a mission - destroy the mosquito. There's no ifs, ands or buts. It you don't cooperate, they'll do it for you. Whenever a new case of fever was reported, a squad went immediately to screen the patient's room and fumigate the house. They were instructed to behave unemotionally, and get their work done. "It was like watching a huge machine, well-oiled and efficacious," one reporter wrote. Still, the epidemic seemed to be getting out of control. On August 12, 100 people became ill. Years before, the numbers of sick would have risen exponentially - thousands would have died by the first frost. But this time, the mosquito control measures that so many had doubted made all the difference. In September, the number of victims began to decline. A month later, the epidemic was all but over. The final tally for the city of New Orleans was 452 deaths - a fraction of the toll exacted by epidemics in the past.

MARGARET HUMPHREYS: It really was a triumph for science in an era when the expert is increasingly being called upon to guide government action. It would go down in history as America's most successful public health campaign and the last ever waged against yellow fever in the United States. The brilliance of Carlos Finlay... ..the dedication of Walter Reed... ..and the sacrifice of Jesse Lazear spared the United States the suffering and fear that once made yellow jack the nation's most dreaded epidemic. Though a cure for yellow fever has not been found, nor the virus eradicated, in the United States there has not been a yellow fever epidemic for more than 100 years. Supertext Captions by Red Bee Media Australia Captions copyright SBS 2008 Canberra and Tokyo agree to disagree Peace talks break down as the crisis escalates in Kenya. And offers galore for David Hicks. One of Osama Bin Laden's top commanders has been killed by a US air strike in Pakistan. US officials say Abu Laith al-Libi He was blamed for an attempt last year Reported to be number three in the al-Qaeda hierarchy, Abu Laith al-Libi had a $220,000 bounty on his head. fired from an unmanned predator aircraft on the Pakistani side of the Afghan border by the CIA. That's where 13 militants have been reported killed, on the Bagram air base in Afghanistan 12 months ago during a visit by the US Vice-President, Dick Cheney. Such a missile strike on an elusive target in the region. But while al-Libi was seen as a main link his death isn't expected to affect insurgent operations. a suicide bomber has killed the Deputy Governor. The surge in attacks has raised fears about the direction of the war. We had 2003, Iraq pops up. That's been the focus of effort. This place got a little bit of neglect. Aid agencies are warning that time is running out, that a humanitarian disaster is looming. and now this is being undermined by increasing insecurity. A leading Australian think tank is predicting that Australian troops will be needed in Afghanistan for 15 more years. Ross Cameron, World News Australia. The relative peace brought about by the US surge in Iraq has been shattered tonight. Deadly blasts have torn through two busy Baghdad markets,

killing at least 43 people. Another 85 were wounded. The Japanese whaling fleet has resumed its slaughter in the Southern Ocean. Five whales were killed after two activist ships left the area to refuel. have agreed to disagree on the controversial hunt. Five minke whales harpooned and hauled onto the Japanese factory ship 'Nisshin Maru'. by the crew of the Australian Customs vessel the 'Oceanic Viking'. The kill happened just hours before Foreign Minister Stephen Smith met his Japanese counterpart in Tokyo last night. But the controversial whale hunt is off the agenda, the pair agreeing to disagree on the whaling issue. Whilst we have a strong disagreement, this is not an issue which in my view is or can or will adversely impact upon the fundamentals of our partnership with Japan. We're in for the long haul. We will use the full suite of measures that we've identified as necessary - the monitoring, a soon-to-be-announced envoy on whaling, issues to deal with the loopholes that exist in the International Whaling Commission. just days after Greenpeace and Sea Shepherd activists retreated from the hunting grounds to refuel. The Greenpeace mission is over for this year. It's changing tack and going the political route. The whaling industry and the fisheries agency and kill as many whales as they possibly can. But there are signs that other aspects of the Japanese Government - in the media and in society - that are saying, "Hey, wait a minute, we don't really need to do this The Sea Shepherd vessel is heading back into the fray, returning to the protest as soon as it has refuelled. We view the Japanese whaling fleet as a criminal operation. They're poachers and what we do is obstruct, intervene, harass, disable - whatever is necessary in order to stop them from killing whales. The Japanese fleet plans to kill about 950 whales by mid-April in what it describes as a scientific research program. Other nations and environment groups call it a front for commercial whaling. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has arrived in Nairobi tonight to add some diplomatic clout to talks aimed at ending a month of post-election violence. Mr Ban has called for urgent action to stop the bloodletting and bring an end to the political crisis. Earlier, his predecessor Kofi Annan suspended crisis talks following the murder of a second opposition MP. Well, as the UN Secretary-General flies into the political storm, Kenyans are fleeing the violence amid land grabs on both sides. Some of the worst fighting in recent days New arrivals seeking refuge. People have been burnt alive here Trouble is not far away but this is the safest place - Defenceless and now refugees in their own land. Victims of what looks like ethnic cleansing and is no longer restricted to one place or one tribe. Now they are getting their own back. People here say they were the victims of a well-planned attack. They split into groups of 10 or 20, moving street by street and house by house, killing, looting and burning. Some of the attackers had familiar faces. The victims had been to school with them. Rhoda was betrayed by her Kikuyu neighbours She and her children now living in fear. Do you think they would kill you if they found you? They will. She wanted to go home for the first time to show us all she had lost - a tense journey that was cut short. The two youths on the left unwilling to be filmed Rhoda wasn't welcome here and she wasn't safe.