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As It Happened -

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(generated from captions) censorship has all but been slain NARRATOR: Now, when the dragon of on the Net... and pornography is freely available is common ..now, when nudity on television on what we can see and read, and there are few restrictions 40 years ago there was one book, it's hard to believe that some the government and the public. one small book, that polarised say that what I have to say At this point I think that I should suitable material for children. in the rest of this comment is not for adults with weak stomachs. Nor even suitable material of being self-defeating, And, therefore even at the risk

if here they switched off. I think it would be better

Good evening. been kind to the federal censors The last few weeks certainly haven't the Minister for Customs. and especially to their chief, has had a lot to do with it. 'The Little Red Schoolbook' that book coming under fire. Hardly a day has gone by without deals with abortion That particular section and advice for schoolchildren. What do you think of it? Well, I think it's very direct. to read this. I wouldn't like my boys is very...it's terrible. I think the language here this is the sort of thing Well, I don't think

I'd like my children to read. to read it. I wouldn't like my daughter Because it's...well, it's common. is so irresponsible I feel the whole book based on lies and half-lies. in that most of it is They're asking children of life on untruths. to build up a whole philosophy

about 'The Little Red Schoolbook' - NARRATOR: What was it, though, for students a book of basic common sense imported into Australia in 1972 - written in Denmark in 1969 and that so incensed the nation? that simply gave the facts What was it about a tiny book to high school kids... about sex education on the dangers of drugs, ..with advice about education along with information leading even to arrests? that so inflamed opinion, very much a political problem From my point of view, it was receiving intense scrutiny because the book was already in Australia. As soon as it became known for importation in Australia that the book had been cleared Don Chipp, by the Minister for Customs, the conservatives around the country a battlefield for it. immediately created disheartened, I do feel disappointed,

of this country, as a minister of the government page of almost every newspaper that this has occupied the front a trifling, insignificant matter. over what I regard as Both the Federal Minister Minister for Education, and the Federal Shadow the prime minister, both proposed to Mr McMahon, that Don Chipp should be... and the book should be banned. ..his decision should be overturned anonymous, of course - I have a telegram - Out of Schools Campaign, by a group called Keep Pornography bits - if I can use that word - who are going to print the dirty in a pamphlet out of 'The Little Book' schools and people in my electorate. and circulate it around to the the vigour of the conservatives. But the surprise came from And I say 'conservatives' in here to describe it. because it's the only way The conservatives, in this sense, to accept liberalisation were people who were unwilling of the depiction of sexual activity. and I were shopping... Once in Balmain, Sandra Levy

of the supermarket And when we came out the car was surrounded by police. the station wagon window There were police looking in

'Little Red Schoolbook's there. and there was some with numbers of charges And then we were charged of obscene publications, of being in possession of 'The Little Red Schoolbook', 'cause they had spotted the cover you've shown the cover, which...I don't know whether Little Red Schoolbook' in writing, but it was a very...it just had 'The it had nothing on the cover at all. recording machine you've also seized? REPORTER: Sergeant, is that a Oh. That's one of ours. which was a Catholic-based party, The Democratic Labor Party, had something to do with that. was ferociously opposed to it, In Australia, Mr Chipp has stated must ultimately depend that censorship on prevailing community standards, and by what principle, but where, at what point does he intend to draw the line? Soren Hansen, now in his 70s NARRATOR: Former teacher and still living in Denmark, of the book. was one of the original authors it caused such a sensation Why does he think more than 30 years on? looking back on it I think all the fuss at that time really was about all the lies and all the secrets that was told...

that was told to children ..all the lies about serious matters, really. the children serious, really. I think they didn't take Their needs were not taken serious. that was coming up at that time, And that was about drugs and that was about sex. confused attitudes to sex, NEWSREEL: To illustrate our from overseas, the simple instructional films children see, which these 8- to 12-year-old by a ruling of the censor. cannot be shown the fuss was about - I think that was what that we focused on these things... in an understandable language, ..we tried to tell about them in an understandable way. girl between the age of 10 and 13, If I was a parent and had a young in that section on sex, I would object to the words need for her to meet these words. because I don't think there's any well, one of them in particular - One or two of those words - only the other day, I met for the first time for me to have known it. and I don't really see any need upset about it, may inquire further, And I think that young girls may be and find out things which really

their lives at all. probably won't enter I may say that the very worst advice to one's children that one could give read this book." would be, "You must not there's not the slightest necessity I have told my children that or to read it under the desk. to snigger about it in corners we'll discuss it together. By all means, let them read it, NARRATOR: Author and psychologist Jesper Jensen was also one of the authors of 'The Little Red Schoolbook'. Now in his 70s and living in Denmark, what are his thoughts about the impact and scandal of the book?

Well, what upset people most, I suppose...

..was really not the text of the book. Because the chapter on drugs was a very sober one, the chapter on sex was a very sober one. Frank but sober. What we did was to inform pupils about things that they were not supposed to know. The Starlight Children's Foundation brightens the lives of seriously ill and hospitalised children with programs that restore the fun, laughter and joy illness takes away. Starlight's goal is to reach every sick child in Australia and you can help Captain Starlight and the Starlight Express Van visit more children in metropolitan and regional hospitals. Rent a DVD with this logo from your local participating video store and you'll be giving sick children something they desperately need - a reason to smile. VOICEOVER: Looking back, it wasn't the big things that made the real difference. It was the little things - the little pieces of timely advice. You've got to plan to become what you plan to become. because adolescents throughout Australia had never seen masturbation discussed in a sensible, downright non-moralistic way. (Stammers) Some boys... ..they wouldn't even know what masturbation was, would they? Let alone to introduce them to techniques

they may never have thought of in a thousand years. Do you think that sort of information may tend to encourage children to experiment? Yes, I do, because I think children are totally inquisitive about things they don't know anything about. And a child that didn't know what masturbating was, and his parents weren't prepared to tell him, would go and find out then probably from other boys, or people at school perhaps, and get quite the wrong slant on it altogether. You've seen the section on sex, what do you think it might do to the children?

Or should I say, do you think it offensive?

For the majority, certain words in there would be offensive and it would, I think, genuinely shock a number of them. For a number, also, there would be nothing new. Perhaps we should say that this is for children over 10. Now... ..the lower age limit, I think,

should not be subjected to the language that is used in there. MOOREHOUSE: A lot of that material could not be published in anything but medical textbooks, I suppose. The atmosphere in Australia... Well, first of all, contraception couldn't be discussed in the newspapers,

let alone masturbation, let alone abortion.

I don't think...I forget when the word 'contraception' was allowed, but you couldn't have illustrations of condoms and you couldn't have illustrations of diaphragms. And...the... ..I suppose the arrival of the contraceptive pill made some discussion of it possible, but essentially all that was not considered acceptable for magazines and newspapers in the mainstream, or radio or television. You've got to remember the context of the time, when instead of sniffer dogs at airports hunting for drugs we had customs officials going through one's luggage looking for copies of 'The Group' by Mary McCarthy, or a D.H. Lawrence novel. And the censors would go into total conniptions. It was a sense of puritanism, a sense of prohibition that was in the air. We have in this country strict laws concerning the importation of animals, birds and even plants in order that physical disease of the body may not be brought in. We're very particular about these germs being brought in. In the same way we are justified, I think, in having strict laws concerning the importation of what I'd call moral germs leading to disease of the mind and the soul. It was an atmosphere where people really did seem to think that if we lowered the tariff walls against these awful European imports - and I am not talking manufactured goods, I'm talking ideas, I'm talking behaviour - that Australia would fall into an abyss. I remember saying that, in some talk I gave back then, that if a Martian came to Australia and read the novels of Australia, they would have no idea of how we reproduced or that there were gay men and women or that... ..or how, in fact, men and women made love. NARRATOR: If 'The Little Red Schoolbook', though, almost came to grief here because of Australia's general prudishness and Australia's rigid censorship laws... ..did the book fare any better in Britain - the land of Carnaby Street and the swinging '60s, where the counter-culture was in full swing - where 'The Little Red Schoolbook' was published one year earlier, in 1971? MAN: I was charged under the Obscene Publications Act that the book had a tendency to deprave and corrupt. All of our stock of 'Little Red Schoolbook's was in the building. We printed 20,000 of the first edition.

About 1,500 or maybe 2,000 had been sold and distributed to bookshops, the rest were all in this building. The police thundered up the stairs to the first floor at 21 Theobalds Road, which is where the office was, above a butcher's shop... ..presented themselves with their warrant to search the premises and seize, under the Obscene Publications Act,

copies of 'The Little Red Schoolbook'. NARRATOR: If Britain, though, in 1971 was more liberal and swinging than conservative Australia, why was the book seized at all? Nominally, they objected to the sections on sex. There was about 20-odd pages in the book on various aspects of sex... ..talking about sexual education and... ..how sex works between people. It mentioned... ..sex between...homosexual sex between men and between women on a similar basis to any other sort of sex.

And that was one of the key points that they pounced upon. NEWSREEL: Number 10 Downing Street gets more than its share of protests and demonstrations in support of just about every conceivable cause. Last week was no exception.

It was the biggest protest ever staged in Britain against sexual permissiveness. The catalyst behind this massive petition

is a typical, middle-aged housewife who resides far from the flesh pots of London amid the tranquillity of an English country garden. Mrs Whitehouse hopes shortly to bring her crusade down-under. This week to the faithful on the other side of the globe, she gave this clarion call. Oh, well, if you'll take the last decade...

And, I mean, if I were able to say something to Australia, I would really say this - do learn from our experience in Britain during this last decade. Don't take on its face value the arguments of the permissives.

Not least because, as I said earlier, they've got a fortune to make out of all this. I mean, I'd sort of predicted that the likes of Mary Whitehouse might make noises... I'm not interested and none of our people are interested

in turning the clock back, you know? ..but what I didn't predict was that the... ..the prosecution authorities would follow that through and launch a prosecution, that the police would launch a prosecution. And that was the first indication that, "Hey, something is going on here." NARRATOR: If the book did come to grief, though, even in supposedly swinging Britain, did it fare better in more liberal Denmark, its homeland - where in 1969 all censorship had been abolished before 'The Little Red Schoolbook' was even published?

NEWSREEL: Why Denmark? Why Copenhagen for the world centre of the pornography business? Why here the place for old men's dreams and young men's fantasies? 'Hamlet' probably was the first juicy story to come from Denmark until now, but these days the juicy story business, illustrated and in full colour, has become one of Denmark's greatest industries. At $2 Australian a time, books like these are exported to the world. And they're enough to make the Australian censors and censors in a lot of other countries too quote a line from Shakespeare - "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark." If we did anticipate trouble... ..we did not anticipate trouble to the extent that we got. Let's see why there has been such a rush on 'The Little Red Schoolbook' here in Melbourne. Well, my husband's a schoolteacher and he'd like to read it

before the students read it, so he knows about it.

In Denmark and in other countries...

..I think the Italian...no, the Greek publisher was jailed. I think it might have been when the military had the power. But... ..we did never expect so much attention, really. But we got it. (Laughs) I think the book was banned by the Pope. So I was not looking very much forward to go to Italy... (Laughs) ..some years after, but nothing happened. But that was...but I think all the fuss in these countries

were about sex and drugs, really. It discusses intercourse and petting, pornography, homosexuality, abortion, VD, methods of abortion.

And this is one of the things that, frankly, has bothered me over 'The Little Red Schoolbook'. The let...many...most of the letters, I think, I've received have said, "Look, we haven't read the book, "but we've read the chapter on sex, and that's enough."

Well, I have read it all and I have read it with my sixth form and with a group of 14-year-olds.

They have condemned it 100%. But I don't think we knew that it would cause such a lot of trouble. And I think that moral pollution, as we said,

is undermining and destroying the fabric of character in individuals and in countries. And overseas, no, not at all, because I think we hadn't imagined that it would be translated into 19 other languages in such a short period. And this is a French version. The publisher, he couldn't get the book printed. 'Pequeno libro rojo de la escuela'. I think this is the Portuguese one. The factory, and the workers at the factory, they said, "We won't print this.

"It's dirty, it's rubbish, and we've never seen things like this, "so we won't print it." So they had to change to another printer and then, I think... (Laughs) ..everything was upside down, the newspapers were there. NARRATOR: Soren Hansen and his co-author Jesper Jensen have not met each other now for more than 36 years, ever since the publication of the book. But if they were not out to cause trouble, either here or around the world, looking back on it now what did they actually intend? (Both laugh) Jesper. (Both speak Danish) We wanted an understandable language. And if you look at these chapters in the book about sex and drugs, I think at that time that was the best written about these two things, at that time. If I may put it this way, we really wanted trouble. (Laughs) But a constructive one. But I think we wrote 'The Little Red Schoolbook' to change the public schools, and we were not satisfied by the situation in the school. And we had tried in many ways to point out what was wrong in articles in newspapers and in magazines and so on, and then we thought that it was a very slow way to do it and maybe there was a quicker way to point out important things about the public schools. SONG: # Zoom, zoom, zoom. # 4WD Ute of the Year. Bloody turkey. BT-50. 4WD Ute of the Year.

NARRATOR: The motives of those behind 'The Little Red Schoolbook'

may seem honourable, but was there any thought among them

that the censors, at least of other countries, were there to be tested, as well as the notion of free expression itself? We didn't at all talk about censorship. That was not on the agenda at all. No. We didn't want to... (Speaks Danish) ..challenge the freedom of expression. No. No, no. No. No. Not at all. No, we didn't expect problems from the censors. In the sense that most of the country, most of the States and Territories - I think all of the States and Territories except for Queensland were part of an agreement with the Federal Government that if something had been approved for importation by the federal censor that would be permitted for distribution in their State, subject to ministerial discretion. Were you surprised by the puritan reaction to 'The Little Red Schoolbook'? I was not surprised at it.

In fact, I sweated five lonely weeks

before I made my decision to release it. I released it for the reasons I've given because I thought it was right. But we knew it was gonna be...the battle would be joined very quickly when Queensland announced that it was gonna ban the book immediately.

So we were furiously printing copies of the book to get it out to as many places as possible

before legislators had a chance to create new legislation following the Queensland lead. At one stage we had something like 350,000 copies of that book...

..out of the printers and circulating somewhere in Australia. But as we were publishing, of course, we were then faced with an enormous amount of publicity and exposure. Megan, how many copies have you sold since the raid? Roughly 500. Have you had any more visits from the vice squad or the police at all? Only to deliver the summons for the court case next Thursday. And this was complicated by the fact that

to people on the anticensorship side of the debate this became a cause. And causes take their own roads. 'The Little Red Schoolbook' came along when we'd really been campaigning against censorship for a solid two years. through our explorations of sexuality And through those campaigns and how important it was we also became aware

out to people. to get basic information I'd grown up, We ourselves had grown up, about sexuality. knowing almost nothing in publishing it? What were our motives were really political motives, Well, really it was...they

they were anticensorship motives. of political ideas They were part of a broader set you know, from racism, sexism, that went through to everything, authoritarian power to suppress ideas anticensorship, anti the use of from being expressed, and even thoughts was really what we were about. publishing 'Thorunka'? REPORTER: Are you going to continue to make a statement. It would be unwise of me no statement about the future, I have said I have made but I haven't said that I wouldn't.

Wendy Bacon in Sydney, So we had, for instance, with her university newspaper, in her newspaper printing slabs of the book then handing them out in schools. incredibly controversial. Of course, this was we could really do, There was nothing being under the hammer ourselves. would not have the money Most schoolkids a 'Little Red Schoolbook'. to go and buy been coming in trying to get it? REPORTER: Well, have many youngsters

25 schoolkids in this afternoon. Oh, there have been about 20, it in a tabloid newspaper format So what we decided to do was publish free to schoolchildren. and go out and distribute it behind 'The Little Red Schoolbook' REPORTER: Wendy Bacon, the idea with the parents, is that it should be discussed not just handed out to children. Do you realise you're rubbing by doing this? a lot of people up the wrong way 'The Little Red Schoolbook' I think the idea of 12-year-olds, about that age group, is that it was a book written for with their parents. for them to discuss, if they like, who were opposed to the book, The conservatives that was their biggest fear. their biggest fear Well, not necessarily against the book - but their biggest argument and targeting schoolchildren, this was gonna be promoted facing this terrible stuff. you know, young people were gonna be And here's Wendy shoving it down their throats. But if 'The Little Red Schoolbook' was the immediate cause of the fuss, in another way it's merely the catalyst for a wider debate on the dangers of censorship - the permissive society, or the dangers of depending on your point of view. WOMAN: Wendy Bacon,

legal advocate, journalist. activist, libertarian, Little Red Schoolbook' in Sydney I think Wendy Bacon published 'The that she did anything - for every other reason to draw attention to herself,

to be photographed in the press. to be on TV, publicising Wendy, I mean, Wendy was about and, you know, that would be her main motive, as far as I know her. Wendy, for more than half your life you've been a very public person and you've always been prepared to support your beliefs with actions. What gave you that sort of courage and strength? What I really wanted to get across was the issue of censorship and why I had done what I did. The other reasons would be political. You know, we should be trying to liberate society from oppression and from the authoritarianism of the state, the Church, our parents, etc. But, basically, I think it was an attention-getting device, which certainly worked. BACON: 'The Little Red Schoolbook' is a really anti-authoritarian piece of literature, which is one of the reasons why we liked it. It's a very simple statement of the fact that schoolkids should have rights, they should take control over their learning, if they can. It would be threatening now. That is enormously threatening. 'The Little Red Schoolbook'... We felt that publication of a very liberating act. ..was, in fact,

for various reasons. People go to bed with one another to high school students, MOOREHOUSE: We were distributing it had never been available. and all this information And there was a radical spin to it. that lots of...all sexuality That is, it was saying within, well, whatever boundaries - that didn't harm others, I suppose, and abusive - was acceptable. was not cruel and harmful (Reads) "Sex. "There are still a lot of schools practical information, "where students don't get "where they get it too late, or misleading information." "or where they only get inadequate adolescents, I suppose, of Australia. So the motivation was to liberate the Ha! And ourselves at the same time. but knowing the people involved Well, there's something in that, just trying it on. I think they were really how far they could go, You know, seeing the idea of radicalism, seeing how far they could push of "We can do what we like." with 'The Little Red Schoolbook', And they weren't just doing that they were doing it with... (Stammers) ..you know, what you could say on the media, four-letter words in the media. you know, pornography I mean, Wendy was publishing, and all that sort of stuff, or path-breaking. and I didn't think it was liberating Nobody objected to it. for publishing that sort of stuff. She wasn't locked up and arrested

the poem which they did as well, And publishing 'Eskimo Nell', any censorship barriers that didn't really break down

because they'd already gone. with the trial you've made any gains REPORTER: Wendy, do you think that in your fight against censorship? always think in terms of gains, It's hard to tell, but you don't

you can't always tell at the time. I have got no regrets at all. But I'm glad of everything we did. we didn't have any limits At the time we said we were about was really... and I think a lot of what would come out and they'd say, You know, people...the media "Student newspaper publishes filth." the top, it was a bit of a joke, And to us, yeah, it was so over and stimulated us to publish more. and in a way that just led us

You know, we saw it as fun. terribly interested in pornography. It was not so much that we were seen very little pornography For myself, I'd actually until 1970 moved by it one way or the other, and I don't think I was terribly but I was very keen to challenge the laws that was going on. and the actual self-censorship

It's hard to convey to you now how outrageous and how dramatic and startling and frightening it was four-letter words on the page. to see the word... and erotic descriptions To see accurate of sexuality on the page. obscene ballads, published. To see old ballads,

It was... like people in Eastern Europe I mean, it must have been papers for the first time. suddenly reading uncensored political pre-eminently has seen the victory This is the decade which in his age-old battle of the civil libertarian

dramatic and literary censorship. against what he has called And I think it is possible now to assess the results. We were enjoying, as I said earlier, freaking out the authorities - whether they be the university authorities, the churches, the politicians and so on. So there was an element of...

..as I said, of nihilistic... of rebellion where we expected nothing except to enrage them.

One of the firmest opponents of literary censorship, Morris Ernst, now says that this is not what he fought for. 'Ulysses' yes, he says, but sodomy and masturbation no. I don't know whether it was in 'The Little Red Schoolbook' a female guide to masturbation but certainly in 'Thor' there was which opened my eyes, I remember, was allowing a tap... because one of the methods to come down onto the clitoris... ..pressure of the water ..by somehow arranging... under the tap in the bath. ..the girl arranging herself I thought, "Well, that's new." We were full of bright ideas. however unwittingly, And yet the truth is that, it was they who opened the gates. And what do their words matter now? GOLD: There were some elements amongst the conservatives who saw it as being both filthy and communist. And they also had a rationale that Communists were using filth to undermine Western society at the same time. Mind you, many of the communist parties, including the Maoist Party in Australia, were totally against the book because they thought it was filthy. Well, the book is a political document. I think this is fairly obvious, and from very far to the left. But then it goes on on every page to state as incontrovertible fact things which are very debatable points of left-wing political dogma. So... ..it is true that part of the accusations against it was that it was a tool of the communists. But the book itself was hardly that. I think it was very much in the tradition of civil libertarianism and liberalism. Something that... ..because of the propaganda wars at the time was overlooked. NEWSREEL: There's no foolproof way to tell if someone's a communist. No easy way to decide if communists are fools or traitors or patriots. A few key words like 'progressive' and 'contradiction', a few habits of speech, such as always calling Russia the 'Soviet Union', and the Vietcong the 'National Liberation Front', are giveaways, but some non-communists use them too. The only way to decide if they're fools and perhaps even traitors is to read their papers and pamphlets as well as those of their opponents. MOOREHOUSE: I don't remember any of us seeing ourselves as Maoist. In terms of our relationship to politics, we had no faith or interest in the Labor Party... ..or the Communist Party, and nor the Liberal Party. All of them...all of them were repressive. BACON: We certainly weren't Maoist revolutionaries, but we knew Maoist revolutionaries. In fact, my brother was a Maoist revolutionary at Monash University. And, you know, there would have been things in common with Maoist revolutionaries, but I guess the difference of the people who were based around 'Tharunka' and the publishing of 'The Little Red Schoolbook' in newspaper form was that we were opposed to authoritarian socialism. We were opposed to an authoritarian state, whether it was in a capitalist society or in a socialist society, so we never believed in, you know, the Communist Party and we never believed in the Leninist state. One of the things to the credit of that '60s movement that I can still say is positive about them is that they were essentially anti-authoritarian. They didn't go wafting off into fantasies, "Joe Stalin is a wonderful person. "Mao Zedong is heaven on earth." That was the sort of view that the Sydney left, or certainly the Sydney leftists I knew, wouldn't countenance. NARRATOR: What about the authors themselves, though? Were they inspired by the spirit of Marx or even Mao himself? I still can't remember what situation, at what table, in what...

I think... ..I got the idea from Mao. Yeah, OK. And this red book for the masses. Yeah. We thought we were part in a culture of revolution in Denmark. That was, as I said, before we really knew what was going on in China. Before we really had the information

of this catastrophe in China. It really was. But we had sort of a model there. I mean, in my reading of it it came more from the kind of Erich Fromm... ..sexual liberation movement that began from some of the Freudian theorists in the early '60s, and which became a kind of popular movement by about 1969, 1970. I don't think it had much to do with Maoism at all. Oh, yes... ..'The Little Red Schoolbook' came out of Freudian Marxism.

And the idea of the Freudian Marxists was that if you released sexuality you would somehow overwhelm or undermine capitalism. And this is a very attractive idea, you know, fuck your way to the revolution. But that's the motivation behind it. We called it 'The Little Red Schoolbook' because Mao Zedong had sent out his little red book... ..and we could imagine every pupil in Denmark standing in the schoolyard with a 'Little Red Schoolbook' crying up to the headmaster, "Now it's time to change the school. "Now it's time to change the school." So that was just a funny dream and that was just to... Well, it was a good idea, wasn't it? To follow that. It was sold in a great amount too. Everywhere. So we just joined that success, really. That was just a stunt, I think. It was really this anarchistic...

And there was a bit of anarchism in it too, yes. VOICEOVER: Looking back, it wasn't the big things that made the real difference. It was the little things - the little pieces of timely advice. ..to sort of put flesh and blood to this abstract discussion of democracy in school. And we wanted to further democracy by information. NARRATOR: But if 'The Little Red Schoolbook' was neither as Marxist or Maoist or as filthy as its critics claimed, could the fuss behind it have been because it got caught up in the crossfire of international events? I think the authorities were aware it was related to attacks on Vietnam and the, you know, "make love, not war". NEWSREEL: Well, it was all peace on the march. "Cool it," they told each other, "Don't spoil it now." They had made their point with their massive protest. And the student unrest and the student rebellion. NEWSREEL: Bricks, rocks and bottles shattered at least a score of the windows.

Red paint splattered the stone structure in two places. Rebel flags were attached to the building. And I think they saw, you know, that there were quiverings of anticapitalist feeling or Marxist feeling that... ..without actually pinpointing it perhaps, that this belonged in a sequence of other things. NEWSREEL: 11 policemen were hurt, one hospital treated 20 injured. There were 31 arrests. This little book was, of course, a small part of the general... ..well, 'uprising' is too big a word, but the movement of students and young people. NEWSREEL: Very few are over 35. Most are in their early 20s. Some who watched from the downtown office buildings gave the peace sign in support of the demonstrators. Others who looked down didn't like what they saw. In America, of course, it started perhaps in the civil rights movement in America. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountain side. And then went on to Paris... ..with the student uprising there. NEWSREEL: This demonstration is in the Latin Quarter for the reopening of the Sorbonne. Tomorrow it might be to put pressure on the negotiations.

I see this little book as a part of this movement - the '68 movement, what happened during this year and a couple of the following years. an anti-authoritarian movement It's a part of that - and a wish to... ..have democracy from below. as an icon, Here 'The Little Red Schoolbook', of political protest. was part of that whole period It was a...I mean, dramatic times. how intense it was. Very hard to imagine, 30 years later, about the Vietnam War... It wasn't only about the argument about conscription... ..it wasn't only (Crowd chants) We are the people! We are the people! We are the people! intense clash of civilisations. ..it was also about an incredibly NEWSREEL: The Weatherman faction a Democratic Society, of the Students For to moral virtue in street fighting, which finds something close trying to serve an eviction notice here. on the South Vietnamese Embassy by the underground movement overseas. Yes, we were very inspired I think We were inspired by France 1968, that were happening in Chicago - we were inspired by things like huge demonstrations. All of that was what we read, reflected that in what we published. and to some extent we actually in the United States. It isn't very different As you know, very many of America's cities are financially as well as intellectually and morally bankrupt. centres of violence Many of them have become of guerrilla insurgency. and really centres does not want Australia I'm absolutely certain that Mr Chipp to go down along this road. that the society would never change And a lot of us had that thought, in our own underground way and we would just go on living free magazines and distributing them. and publishing our papers and (Sings) # It's time to begin # Yes, it's time... # of a change of the law. Some people saw a possibility # Time for freedom # Time for moving... # it was gonna go on like this forever. But most of us, I think, felt that # It's time to begin # Yes, it's time... # liberation was on its way. We didn't realise that # Time for children # Time to teach them... to get a government in Australia We didn't realise that we were going in fact have very similar tastes not long after that that would and interests to us, would come about naturally. and that, therefore, a lot of change # Yes, it's time... # no help on our side. So we fought it as if there was 'The Little Red Schoolbook', though, NARRATOR: Can the fuss over really be attributable to the fact that it was part of the spirit of youthful rebellion, both here and abroad? the changing times deeper reasons than that? Or were there that the other sections, There was a real concern of the book, the other three-quarters challenged authority. which was about empowerment, the education system. Particularly in that authority had to win, And that this was a battle otherwise they would lose control. running the asylum. The inmates would be (Reads) "Demonstrations. have to line up in the playground "If, for example, you don't want to straight into the classrooms. "demonstrate by just going with a certain teacher "If you're dissatisfied organise a strike. "and he refuses to talk to you out in the playground "Get everybody to stay "during his lessons all day." So it had a political motive. the political motive. And the politicians saw that this student protest Well, it now seems

is spreading to schools. which started in the universities reaction be if in the next few days Very briefly, what would your after reading this book? your pupils organised a strike Well, in the first place, I don't particularly like the idea of strikes. about your objections? Could you be more specific the slightest necessity Well, I don't think there's because most of the freedoms for them to have a strike we have had for years. that the book advocates Miss Manners. It must be a wonderful school, They're wonderful children. I like to think that it is. all of you. Thank you very much indeed,

some of the lines of comment Let's go now on

rather than advice in this book. It says, "Teachers are dogs on leads. tigers," and this sort of thing. "Two, all grown-ups are paper Is this the way you look at teachers? Now, do you agree with this? as all paper tigers. No, nobody looks at teachers about the strike - But, if I could just mention goes on strike the first thing. nobody, not even a worker, You try everything first of all then you go on strike. and then if you fail, that you should be advised Do you think it is right, any of you, teachers as dogs on leads? in a book like this to regard as paper tigers? To regard your own parents going to tell the children, We thought that we were if we couldn't tell the teachers. We were going to tell the teachers, you have to be a rebellion against this system.

You have to uprise against it. just to be a... It's not in your interest ..a pupil in school sitting down try to tell you is important. and listening to what the teachers So that's one of the things we... ..we did - we tried to do. the real controversial thing Well, I think to the children. was that we went directly Yeah, absolutely. Around the grown-ups. Around the parents. Parents, teachers and everything. Around the teachers. all the fuss was about. That was what I think so too. No, that that was the problem. They wouldn't admit at that time... that was what the fuss was about. Yeah, they wouldn't admit that But, in the end, it was that. No. Of course. may have been subversive, NARRATOR: 'The Little Red Schoolbook' at least in its pitch to kids. Was it really that influential, though? Did it actually achieve anything? would not do again? And is there anything its promoters if we achieved anything. That's a good question - but I don't know. So, maybe a little bit, It was just a drop in the flood.

Or...I don't know how you say it, but... ..that's all, I think. any of you has been... MAN: Do you think you've read most of it, most of you. You've read it, if not thoroughly,

by it already, any of you? Have you been influenced

good ideas on what to do, BOY: Well, I guess there's some accept it as a bible. but, I mean, no-one's going to 'The Little Red Schoolbook', Tim gave me this little thing called in Australia, did you? which I don't know if you had regarded as a communist tome Yeah, it was like a...virtually that was, you know, at the time was...they were trying to ban and it was full of probably quite practical advice, really, in a way.

You know, it said it was... Why do I remember that? It said it was OK to masturbate. That's the first thing I remember about it.

But it also sort of said that you've got rights and you should stick up for yourself at school. And, of course, it was hopeless, really, being at boarding school with Marist Brothers and trying to, you know, impose some kind of free will. And I ended up leaving after a year, basically. 'The Little Red Schoolbook' was the undoing of me. BACON: I worry, however, that that sort of period that we had, where you really could explore your ideas... And we did have whole days at the university where people sat down and talked about things, we did have...you know, as students we thought we could tell our lecturers... And I think this is reflected in 'The Little Red Schoolbook'. We did think we could tell our lecturers, "Look, we don't like this curriculum. "You know, we think the students should be involved "in rewriting the curriculum." And it does sadden me now that there's so little of that. We published - and I'm sure it was inaccurate - how to make an atom bomb.

I'd now not do that 'cause I don't want other people making atom bombs and dropping them on me. BACON: Back in those days I don't think I'd seriously thought through a lot of those questions. And I think they are very tricky questions. But what we were saying is, "It's not up to other people "to set the limits," as they were so confident in doing. I mean, I think the sort of inner city intellectual culture... ..of not even Australia but of certainly North America, which I know fairly well, is riddled with ageing '60s leftists still living out their youthful fantasies. It's kind of pathetic in one way that they haven't grown up, but in another way it's kind of very depressing because they're perpetuating the same set of ideas which in my view have caused such havoc in the world, especially at the social and personal level. Well... (Both laugh)

We wanted to change the world.

Didn't we? Yeah. Definitely. And we wanted to start with the school. BACON: And I think it would be interesting to see today if you went and handed out a newspaper outside schools, with that sort of material in it, I think the right-wing, mainstream media, for a start, would be down on you like a ton of bricks. They wouldn't be able to stand that. If I was deciding to publish 'The Little Red Schoolbook', or a new version of it, the same today as I did then, I have a strong suspicion that the result might be even worse. If we published that book today, I think everyone would laugh. I think they would laugh. I think it couldn't cause any trouble.

I think no-one would take our jobs in the public schools,

or such things. I think nothing would happen. One might wish that this relatively insignificant little publication had never been published, never been brought to Australia, but the fact is that it was. So maybe in one level it had changed some people's attitude and given them some tools to... ..to see new things in society. But on the...well, it was just a part of a movement. It was just a little bit of a whole revolution in society, you know. Supertext Captions by the Australian Caption Centre Captions copyright SBS 2007 This program is captioned live. The SAS bids farewell to its hero Matthew Locke, killed in Afghanistan. Labor keeps its lead amid claims it will change its policies if elected. New allegations of a secret government plan

over Gold Coast doctor Mohamed Haneef. And a record fine for the Visy packaging firm, after demands for jail time for price-fixing. Hello and welcome to SBS World News Australia. I'm Amrita Cheema. Matthew Locke - the Australian SAS soldier killed in a clash with the Taliban last week - will receive a posthumous NATO medal for his service in Afghanistan. There was an emotional tribute to Sergeant Locke at his funeral in Perth today, attended by his family, army comrades and political leaders. The Prime Minister has spoken of the personal burden he bears, for ordering Australian service personnel into war zones. A decorated soldier laid to rest. The country's military and political leaders among those who gathered at Perth's Karrakatta Cemetery to pay their final respects to Sergeant Matthew Locke. Political foes putting the election campaign on hold to honour the Special Air Services patrol commander who was fatally shot in southern Afghanistan last week. All Australians, whatever their political persuasion,

are united in this expression of our grief today, but a grief which can never match that of his own family. They were joined by former SAS commander Governor-General Michael Jeffery, who only last December presented the soldier with a medal for his services in Afghanistan. Hundreds of mourners including past and present SAS members heard an emotional tribute from widow Leigh, who read a poem written by their 12-year-old son, Keegan. Sergeant Locke's was the second military funeral in as many weeks, after soldier David Pearce was laid to rest in Brisbane. by a roadside bomb Trooper Pearce was killed earlier last month. in the same Afghan region Prime Minister John Howard Clearly shaken by the recent deaths, made a candid admission. earlier today I think about it a lot who sends men and women into battle because I'm the person in the end responsibility and I feel a very direct that occurs on the field of battle. for any death or injury

sending his condolences Defence Minister Brendan Nelson from Brisbane contingent of Australian troops where he farewelled the latest to southern Iraq. of Sergeant Major Locke The tragic death of the sacrifices of course reminds us

under our flag, that are being made in our name, in remote parts of the world. in a memorial service Sergeant Locke will be honoured at his hometown in NSW next week. World News Australia. Auskar Surbakti, the election campaign Halfway through to dent Labor's lead, the Coalition hasn't been able opinion poll. according to the latest is highlighting comments But Treasurer Peter Costello Peter Garrett by Shadow Environment Minister as a reason not to trust Labor. Mr Garrett's remarks reveal Mr Costello says that Labor is saying "me too" now if elected. but would change its policies Three weeks down, three to go. the halfway mark, As the campaign hits its election winning lead. Labor's maintaining you need all the help you can get. Nah, it's OK - not celebrating yet. The Labor leader's This is a marathon. It'll be really tight, it's really tight and one of the reasons in Mr Howard. is we have a very clever politician Mr Howard won't comment on polls,

direction when it comes to strategy. and says he's not planning to change

world record for saying "me too". He says Labor's set a new I won't be there to copy, If Mr Rudd becomes Prime Minister some decisions of his own. and he will have to make

the clever politician, This is Mr Howard,

the sky will fall in one moment always saying that if you elect a Labor government, and the next moment saying have the same policies. the Labor Party and Liberal Party

The Treasurer's seized on reports told a radio journalist that that Labor's Peter Garrett we'll change it all." "once we get in, is a pretence. The Kevin Rudd "me too" policy It's just a pretence to change it all. because he intends, if he get's in,

the conversation as unremarkable. Mr Garrett has downplayed short, jocular conversation. Well, I thought it was a casual, Copied or not, of dollars in campaign promises, both parties have made billions is warning and Westpac CEO David Morgan and interest rate rises. that could fuel inflation risk to Australia's economy. He says inflation is the biggest

No new promises today the funeral with the leaders attending Sergeant Matthew Locke. of SAS patrol commander Kathy Novak, World News Australia.

Billionaire Richard Pratt and his VISY group of companies have been fined a record $36 million for price-fixing in the cardboard packaging industry. But that's not enough punishment according to the corporate watchdog, the ACCC. for jail terms for cartel activity, It's repeated its call to the Federal Government which it recommended more than three years ago. wasn't in court today, The cardboard king and his daughter refused to comment, Richard Pratt has definitely lost, but this is one battle in Australian corporate history - today being handed the largest fine $36 million -

price-fixing and cartel scheme for engaging in a 4-year with packaging rival Amcor. Two former executives over the scandal - who've since resigned and general manager Rod Carroll - CEO Harry Debney were fined $2 million between them. the Federal Court decision The ACCC hailed as a major win for all consumers. and they got caught. They decided to run the gauntlet, is also asking for the ability But the consumer watchdog

engaging in cartels, to send senior executives to jail into line with many other countries. so Australia can be brought on the Australian economy. Cartels are a cancer

They are insidious attacks on consumers, they are deliberate, secret, collusive acts that are undertaken by companies and by their executives, to satisfy one motive only - self-enrichment, and that is their own their own greed for profit. a criminal conviction Richard Pratt will escape has yet to implement a promise because the Federal Government criminal charges for price-fixing. made three years ago to introduce

that this was the worst cartel Justice Peter Heerey told the court to come before the courts in the 35 years has been illegal in Australia. since cartel behaviour has now come down, But while this judgment

for Visy and Amcor - it may not be the end of the matter have flagged class action major customers to recover up to $700 million. were: Justice Heerey said Visy's actions He added, "This was not the case misguided sense of corporate loyalty "of an employee acting out of some by Mr Pratt and his executives "and any contrition expressed of regret at being found out." "probably had a substantial element consumers have been affected. The ACCC says all Australian Anyone who has in the past bought a chocolate bar or a piece of fruit originally packed in a box made by Visy or Amcor has probably been ripped off. acts as a warning to others. But the ACCC hopes this case World News Australia. Karalee Tilvern, is back in the headlines tonight. The Mohammed Haneef case for a full judicial inquiry Labor has called following claims and the Immigration Department that the Federal Police the former Gold Coast doctor's visa conspired to cancel on terror charges. if he was granted bail by Dr Haneef's lawyers Emails obtained and the Immigration Department appear to confirm that the police to thwart the magistrate's decision. had a secret plan to cancel the visa He said the decision