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A Royal Family -

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(generated from captions) THEME MUSIC This is a story about power,

love, triumph, tragedy and honour. At the end of the 19th century, and his Queen, Louise, the Danish King, Christian IX, their six children succeeded in marrying European royal families. into the leading as "the father-in-law of Europe." And Christian IX thus became known are all over Europe. Today, his descendants

quite exceptionally, And these royal descendants have, chosen to come together their family's incredible story, and talk about from letters and diaries a tale that they know that have been passed down to them and from the stories through the generations. private photos and films available, In addition, the family has also made been shown publicly. many of which have never When the father-in-law of Europe his sons and daughters-in-law invited his children, to Denmark every summer, and his grandchildren they came without fail, as England, Russia and Greece. and from places as varied royal families of Europe MAN: The whole used to assemble in Fredensborg. they were walking through the park And the story goes that who was lost. and they met an elderly gentleman "How does one get out of this park?" And he asked, And the king said, "Follow us." family, joking and laughing. And he noticed this very happy he thanked them, When they left the park, the pleasure of talking to?" and said, "Who do I have "I'm the king of this country. The king said, the Crown Prince. "That's my eldest son, the King of Greece, "That's my second son, Crown Prince Constantine. "That's my grandson, the Queen of England. "That's my daughter, the Empress of Russia "My other daughter, the Duchess of Cumberland." "and my third daughter, And the man was very happy. "I'm Jesus Christ," and walked off. He took his hat off and said, we'll look in detail In the following programs, and their spouses. at Christian IX's children down through to today And we'll follow their descendants where they can be found of Europe's royal houses. in practically all to meet three children But now we're going on European history. who all had a major influence at almost the same time. They were born as Queen Victoria of Great Britain, And they later became famous and King Christian IX of Denmark. Tsar Alexander II of Russia at the German castle, Gottorp. The story begins in 1818 has just been born Little Prince Christian and nobody has the slightest idea become King of Denmark he will one day "the father-in-law of Europe." and go on to be known as who became Christian IX, Prince Christian of Glucksborg, my great-great-grandfather, and who was um, was a young prince a very much Danish-related, family. out of a German, but also and they had no money. It was an enormous family in a large family Christian is the sixth child which over the next few years of no less than 10 healthy children. will come to consist Due to financial constraints, lived with his mother's family Christian's parents at Gottorp Castle near Schleswig. have a place of their own. But they will soon leaving no heirs. The Duke of Glucksborg dies The castle and the dukedom to King Frederik VI of Denmark. is then, so to speak, available In a document, of the dilapidated castle Frederik VI transfers ownership Christian's father, to his brother-in-law, Glucksborg's ducal line, and establishes the younger which 40 years later in all of Europe. will be known and recognised REGAL MUSIC In the following year, in the great power, Britain, there is much joy in Kensington Palace. when a little girl is born in unusual circumstances. The girl, Victoria, has been born one daughter, Princess Charlotte, George IV, her uncle, had only who died in childbirth. there was no heir to the throne. So suddenly, George IV realised that No child. So he asked all his brothers and illegitimate children - to drop their old mistresses because there were everywhere and mistresses - illegitimate children and to have prince or a princess. and to marry quickly rushed to Germany, So they all obliged, not extremely beautiful - found German princesses - they could still have children. but, I mean, who would have the first child. And it was a race, at the same time. Three brothers married the Duke of Kent, Yet it is the middle brother, who first produces a healthy child. from the House of Saxe-Coburg He has married a princess

Victoria. and together they produce a daughter, When she was born, to have a colonial empire... they were starting ..er, not much. she was ruling over half of... When she died, ..half of the world. SEAGULLS SQUAWK Prince Christian in Germany, Princess Victoria in Britain, and Grand Prince Alexander in Russia when the Industrial Revolution are born in a time Great Britain to the rest of Europe. is beginning to spread from that brings prosperity It is a development and the factories to those that own the mines and hard times for the many workers. WHISTLE BLOWS The childhood of Queen Victoria PRINCE MICHAEL OF GREECE: no brothers and sister was very unhappy because she had just after her birth. because her father died was not very kind with her. And her mother She didn't like her. crawling on a yellow carpet "I can remember "spread out for that purpose and was naughty, "and being told that if I cried and punish me. "my uncle would hear me when I saw him." "For which reason I always screamed to keep a detailed diary Age 13, Victoria starts

for the rest of her life. which she will continue with her first royal ball. At 14, she describes

"The doors were opened and the King leading me went into the ballroom. "I danced in all eight quadrilles. "We came home at half past 12. "I was very much amused." WALTZ FROM 'COPPELIA' BY DELIBES Among other things, the Princess sketches the ballet dancer Marie Taglioni whom she is fascinated by. Taglioni is the first dancer to complete an entire ballet en pointe. This happens during a performance of 'La Sylphide' which hails the start of the Romantic era in ballet. Victoria grows up so overprotected

that she's not even allowed to go up a staircase without holding someone by the hand. She remained in the same room as her mother until she was about... ..in fact, until she got engaged when she was 17 or something. Not only in the same room, but in the same bed. Er, and it was quite a restrictive upbringing. MAJESTIC MUSIC In St Petersburg, completely unaware of the fate that awaits him, Grand Prince Alexander grows up in the Anitchkov Palace. And before the boy has even started to speak properly, his father attempts to teach him drill. Alexander had a very, um, tough childhood. It was very austere and run to a military regime. And the poor boy had to do exercises and was treated like some... well, somebody much older. And he had a miserable time and never forgot how badly treated he was as a child. Alexander's uncle, the Tsar, dies suddenly in 1825. And because there are problems with the line of succession, 7-year-old Alexander receives a shock when he discovers that his father has agreed to let himself be proclaimed as Russia's new Tsar Nicholas I,

for this means that the little boy is now next in line to rule the enormous Russian Empire. CLASSICAL MUSIC

Prince Christian and his family move into Glucksborg Castle. He never thought of becoming a king. It was not in the line of the family. So he had a very, very normal life, very quiet. With a house full of siblings, Christian's childhood is far from boring. And according to his brother, Prince Hans, he and Prince Christian often got a thick, buttered slice of bread

to eat between meals when they were feeling hungry. "We stood on either side of the doorway. "And when our sister, Louise, came in, "we slapped the buttered bread onto her cheeks." The castle's toilets are built onto the outside of the building. And as they are open, everything drops directly down to the fish in the moat. These loos were very well liked by the boys. And they were shooting the fish out of the loo. And then they were going down with the boat and collecting the fish, enjoying to bring it home, and having it perhaps cooked for themselves. Christian is 12 years old the winter his father dies of a lung infection. His mother is now left with 10 children aged 2 to 20 so they have to live extremely frugally. With just three employees, the court at Glucksborg is probably the smallest in Europe. 13-year-old Christian takes leave of his mother and siblings to travel to Denmark. His aunt and uncle in Copenhagen have offered to look after him. And they're not just anybody - they are the Queen and King of Denmark, and they have no heirs. In Copenhagen, the young prince is initially placed in the cadet school under the supervision of a colonel. At 18, Christian takes up a captain's commission in the cavalry and moves into a very modest official residence in Horse Guards' barracks. QUEEN MARGRETHE: Frederik VI looked after him quite a lot. He didn't live with the royal family but he came regularly, and Frederik VI was very fond of him.

That is certainly one of the reasons why he, so to speak, was worked into the seam of the royal family. Shortly after Victoria's 18th birthday, her uncle, the King, dies.

At six in the morning, the Princess is fast asleep when her mother comes and wakes her. And she said, "Quickly, put on your dressing gown and go downstairs." And Victoria, not knowing, but guessing what happened... And she came downstairs and she saw the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and the Archbishop of Canterbury and they knelt in front of her and said, "You are the Queen." "I am very young "and perhaps in many, though not in all things inexperienced. "But I am sure that very few have more real goodwill "and more real desire to do what is fit and right than I have." She was surprised, frightened, but yet very... At once, she took things in hand. And her mother wanted to interfere and say, "You must do this. You must dress this way. "You must do that." She said, "No. Now I rule." 'LAND OF HOPE AND GLORY' PLAYS The 18-year-old Queen Victoria moves into Buckingham Palace which for the first time

becomes the royal family's preferred residence in London. And the coronation takes place the following year. Christian was 20 years old when he was sent by Frederik VII to Queen Victoria's coronation. And he was very aware that she was looking for a husband because she was also his age. And therefore, he decides to buy new clothes and hoping that could be a sort of an eye-catcher for her. The coronation is a success. But Christian has to accept the fact that he will not be Victoria's choice of husband. Despite the fact that she finds him attractive, it has already been decided who she will marry.

When you declare something to Quarantine, chances are you'll get to keep it, but in some cases you wouldn't want to. If you don't declare, it could be dangerous to Australia or your wallet.

Declare or beware: The lives of Queen Victoria,

Grand Prince Alexander and Prince Christian all changed dramatically in the next three years. All of them marry. Victoria's Uncle, King Leopold I of Belgium, is one of the few positive male role models

she has been close to during her childhood. GRAND DUCHESS JOSEPHINE-CHARLOTTE: Queen Victoria had a great respect for the political mind of her uncle. And she always wrote to "Dear Uncle Leopold" every single day to ask him about the way she should run the politics in, er, Great Britain.

And he arranged her to meet Prince Albert who was his nephew. 20-year-old Victoria wants to marry someone she loves. And is therefore not pleased

when a meeting is arranged between her and her German cousin, Albert. Yet the meeting results in everything falling into place. And Victoria is not long in coming to a decision - she proposes. "We embraced each other. And he was so kind, so affectionate. "I said I was quite unworthy of him. "He said he will be very happy to spend the rest of his life with me. "He seemed so happy that I really felt "it was the happiest, brightest moment of my life." They are married in February 1840. REGAL MUSIC

GENTLE MUSIC In 1838-39, the charming Russian Grand Prince Alexander spent 16 months travelling around, getting to know Western Europe.

This journey brought him, among other places, to England where he was the guest of Queen Victoria for three days.

After which, he continued to Germany. He was sort of shopping for a wife in Protestant Europe. Catholic princesses were too complicated marriages. And he passed by Darmstadt, but he was not supposed, really, to stop there because the only real Princess, Marie, was very, very young. She was 15, I think. But he saw her and said, "That's the one I want." His father was furious and his mother broke down in tears. But Alexander had no doubts. The young couple exchanged vows in a ceremony at the Winter Palace in 1840. And the same evening, a so-called Polish Ball is held, which lasts one hour. In Denmark, Prince Christian proposes to the beautiful Danish-German princess Louise of Hessen. She was in Copenhagen because her father and mother spent a very large part of the year in Copenhagen next to the royal family. And that's how they met. And there's was a certainly an...affair of the heart. It was not an arrangement. But it happened to be a very good arrangement from a dynastic point of view, from a political point of view and certainly from a personal point of view. As Christian is still just a poor officer, the wedding does not create a huge amount of interest. Frederik VI dies without leaving an heir. He is thus succeeded by his cousin, Christian VIII. By the time Christian VIII was the king, it was already getting a little bit dicey, to put it in a modern way, who would, in the long run... would take the succession to the Danish throne. King Christian VIII's son, Frederik, who was meant to succeed his father to the throne has a problem - he cannot have children. Thus, the King has only one real choice - to transfer the line of succession to his sister, Princess Charlotte. She has two children - a son Friedrich and a daughter Louise, who has just recently married Prince Christian. Friedrich is married to a Russian Grand Duchess, but when she dies in childbirth, he seeks comfort in his mistress, thus undermining his position as heir. Meanwhile, in the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein, the Duke of Augustenburg is of the opinion that he ought to be first in line to the Danish throne. Yet, as he has married beneath his position, the King chooses to ignore his claims as well. Realising that that is not to be, and that only a pretty poor and very modest prince, not even the oldest son of a pretty poor prince who was just put in place at Glucksborg, gets the whole loot, if you can say so, he revolts against it. BATTLE CRIES AND GUNFIRE The origins of the Three Year War, which breaks out in 1848, are extremely complex. As it was later said... There are only three people who know...understand this question. One went mad, one is dead, and the third has forgotten all about it. As commander of the Horse Guards, Prince Christian is unreservedly on the side of the Danes.

But his three older brothers are fighting for the enemy. Christian was in the army in Denmark so he had to be with the Danish people. And so it was very awkward for him and his brothers because it was really at the same time a brother war. The Prussians support the rebels. But the Danes, nonetheless, manage to maintain their position until Russia forces Prussia to sue for peace in 1850, and Denmark comes away from the war victorious. Christian VIII is dead and his son Frederik VII is now Denmark's king. Denmark simultaneously receives a new constitution, which means that the king's absolute power has been replaced by a democratic process in which the people get the right to vote.

Two years later, the great powers recognise Prince Christian as heir to the Danish throne. However, the choice of Christian is not met with universal approval in Denmark. By the time he became heir to the throne, we had had the first Schleswig wars of 1848 to 1850. And then, of course, by that time there was a great animosity towards anything that was remotely German in Denmark. In Copenhagen, Prince Christian and Princess Louise lived modestly in the Yellow Palace alongside Amalienborg Palace. All six of their children are born whilst the family resides here. They are Frederik, Alexandra, Dagmar, Wilhelm, Thyra and Valdemar. They had many children. At that time, one always had many children. And they were also educated in a very normal way of life like any other children who would have had to earn their own living. They had to make their own clothes. It is their mother who has made the decision that the girls have to sew their own dresses. She would have probably seen to it that her children were well and becomingly dressed and probably also not too expensively, for that is the family home from which they all came. And that is, I suppose... is what to them seemed the wonderful background that they brought with them into all their more or less illustrious positions in Europe in the following generations. GENTLE MUSIC In Great Britain, Queen Victoria is wonderfully happy with her husband Prince Albert. So happy that they have no less than nine children. The family now spend most of the year at Windsor. And as well as being his wife's closest adviser, Albert is also a good father to this children. He took care of the children because he loved his children and talked to them and taught them to...

..much more than it was done in these days, you know. Ordinarily, they were always kept by nurses and so on. Very difficult to develop their own characters. Especially in England where always everybody was told, "Children are to be seen, but not to be heard." Throughout her life, Victoria has recorded her surroundings in drawings and paintings and she produces many pictures of her children. And the boys all have to wear dresses until they're about six years old. PRINCE MICHAEL: When Queen Victoria ascended the throne, the English monarchy was not at all well-considered in Europe because her uncles had accumulated so many scandals and they were so 'debauche'. They were drunkards, they were debauche, they had debts, they had mistresses, One, even, George IV was bigamous. He was twice married at the same time. Everyone considered the English monarchy as the last one. I mean, it was a horror and an endless fountain of scandals. However, Victoria, who does not do anything without first gaining her husband's permission, behaves quite differently. She invented that style, the Victorian style, which is also a kind of ethic. It's a moral way of life - very severe, very austere. POIGNANT MUSIC Great Britain and Russia have not experienced the revolutions and rebellions which, driven by famine and unemployment, have spread through the rest of Europe. Karl Marx, who is now living in London,

has just published 'The Communist Manifesto' which ends with the words, "Workers of the world, unite." As a result of a rapid industrial development, over half of Great Britain's population now live in cities. In 1851, Albert realises his dream of holding the first world's fair, the Great Exhibition. He's the driving force behind the building of the impressive Crystal Palace, which is constructed out of steel and glass. And Queen Victoria opens the exhibition on 1 May. "The vastness of the building, "with all its decorations and exhibits, "and my beloved husband, the creator of this great peace festival, "uniting the industry and arts of all nations of the earth - "all this was indeed moving, and a day to live forever." With over 6 million visitors, the Great Exhibition is a great success. He was a great, um, enthusiast.

If you have a look at the things he's left behind, if you look at the Albert Hall and the whole area there, all these museums - the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum - that's all Prince Albert. Compared to Great Britain, Russia is extremely backward. The economy is in a terrible state. The population is principally made up of peasants, the majority of which are illiterate. In 1855, Alexander is crowned as Tsar Alexander II. When he ascended the throne, Russia was actually in a war, the Crimean War, where we were fighting the English and the Turks and the French.

Russia wishes to strengthen its position in the Balkans to secure access to the Mediterranean. But at the peace of 1856, Russia must take the role of the defeated party. Several hundred thousands have lost their lives in the fighting. The defeat, and the country's massive poverty, lead Alexander to concentrate all his energy on a radical reform program. He was my favourite son. The reason is, quite simply, because he was, er... ..a tsar looking for something to do for his people. Oreo Wafer Sticks - the only deliciously light wafer In England, immediately after the Crimean War, Queen Victoria writes to a self-sacrificing nurse who has drawn attention to herself by her care of the wounded, Florence Nightingale. "It will be a very great satisfaction to me "when you return at last to these shores "to make the acquaintance "of one who has set so bright an example to our sex." A couple of years later, Victoria's oldest daughter marries the Prussian crown prince and together they have a son, Wilhelm,

who will later become known as Kaiser Wilhelm II. QUEEN MARGRETHE: He was her first grandchild, which is very important. I think she liked him very much. And he doted on her. He was not much loved by anybody in the rest of the family, of course, because he was very difficult. He must have been a very difficult character. It's also about time that a suitable match is found for Edward, their oldest son and heir to the throne. Victoria studies the photographs of a large number of German princesses, but is not impressed by what she sees. Danish Prince Christian, meanwhile, has a daughter. CROWN PRINCE FREDERIK: Queen Victoria pointed her eye towards Denmark and found that Alexandra was a very good, eligible young lady who was suitable for... for Edward at that time. But, nevertheless, she had also heard that the Russian court had the same ideas, or were also in search for an heir. Victoria, therefore, hurries to get hold of a picture of Alexandra. She studies the picture in detail, and even though she thinks that the princess's brow is a little low and that her nose is a little too long, she is clearly a better choice than all the other candidates. But a tragic occurrence means that all plans of marriage are put on hold.

Albert is just 42 years old when he dies from typhoid. "I stood up, kissed his dear, heavenly forehead, "and called out in a bitter, agonising cry, "'Oh, my dear darling!' "And then dropped on my knees in mute, distracted despair, "unable to utter a word or shed a tear." QUEEN MARGRETHE: It was a catastrophe to her. She was completely traumatised by the fact of losing her husband. She felt completely lost and I think she must have had terrible problems.

PRINCE MICHAEL OF KENT: When Prince Albert died in 1861, Queen Victoria went into deep mourning for the rest of her life and always wore black. And for the first two years after his death, life in London and in England was very, very sombre and very quiet. There were no parties, there were no activities of any kind whatsoever. When Alexander II makes his name as the liberal tsar, the majority of the Russian population are peasants who live under slave-like conditions beyond the reach of the law. PRINCE NICHOLAS ROMANOV: In Russia you could not sell slaves, so if I sold my little property "with 100 souls" as we said, to you,

you were to take them and they could not leave you as they could not leave me. They were attached to the property. That was an obsolete system and it had to be changed. Alexander has decided to abolish serfdom so that landowners can no longer own their peasants. The nobility is in uproar, but Alexander will not be moved. "I'd rather liberate them from the top "than wait until they liberate themselves from the bottom."

The year 1863 results in major changes in Prince Christian's life. His daughter Alexandra finally marries Edward, the heir to the British throne. The ceremony takes place in St George's Chapel at Windsor, but the thoughts of the British foreign secretary, a guest at the wedding, are elsewhere. The Greek throne has suddenly become vacant and the great powers cannot agree on whom to put forward as the new Greek king. Yet during the wedding reception, the foreign secretary catches sight of Princess Alexandra's 17-year-old brother, Prince Wilhelm. A few weeks later, the Greek National Assembly elect him as their new king, under the name of George I. Denmark is made up of three main parts - the actual kingdom of Denmark, and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The old constitution states that the two duchies must always remain united. However, Frederik VII is keen on absorbing Schleswig into the kingdom proper, whilst letting Holstein remain a duchy under the Danish monarchy.

Prince Christian, with his knowledge of the German way of thinking, meanwhile, advises against such a change in the constitution. He foresees that this will be a red rag on the German states, which at the time were still thoroughly different duchies and kingdoms. Yet in 1863, the Danish king gets the proposal approved and catastrophe strikes.

Frederik VII dies without having signed the official documents. And the 45-year-old Christian now succeeds as King Christian IX. He is immediately placed in a desperate situation. On the one hand, he fears the consequences of signing the new constitution. CROWN PRINCE FREDERIK: But knowing that if he didn't do it, er... ..there would be a lot of turmoil at home in Denmark and some even predicted that there would be a sort of major uprising. Christian concedes after only three days and signs. But he adds that he fears that the new constitution will lead the country into misfortune. The fateful signature immediately provides

Prussia's newly appointed head of government, Bismarck, with a reason to declare war on behalf of the German Federation. DRAMATIC MUSIC The Austrian and Prussian troops move into Holstein and Schleswig on 1 February 1864. 57,000 men with breech-loading rifles and precision cannon completely overwhelm the modest Danish forces. The war ends later the same year and Christian is in despair. To him, it's a devastation.

Within his first year of reign, he's lost a third of his country. And the future is very, very uncertain. After Christian becomes king, he moves from his modest home to Amalienborg Palace, which consists of four nearly identical palaces. QUEEN MARGRETHE: They had the palace we now call Christian IX's Palace, which is actually the one I'm living in now. They were very simple and very humble and being the same with everybody. They lived at the royal palace as anybody would live in a normal house, which means that they had contact with everybody. QUEEN MARGRETHE: They were both remarkable people. Not particularly brilliant - neither Christian IX nor Queen Louise were brilliant people - but they were people who knew what they stood for

and they were completely sound. They had no fancy ideas, they were unassuming. Yet Queen Louise has hidden talents. PRINCE MICHAEL OF GREECE: She always remained behind her husband, leaving him being the king, the ruler. But she was, I think, a great personality and the mastermind behind politics, behind the monarchy, behind the family. And Louise is unusually fortunate at arranging good marriages for her children. Alexandra is already married off to the future king of Great Britain. And now her next daughter, Dagmar, is to marry Russia's coming tsar, Alexander III. The sumptuous wedding is held in St Petersburg, yet the parents of the bride are not amongst the guests.

Christian IX and Queen Louise were unable to attend their daughter's wedding because they didn't have the money to give a big enough show amongst the other royal courts of Europe and they felt it was better that they stayed away. In the Winter Palace, Dagmar's in-laws are having problems. The tsarina has tuberculosis and is forced to spend most of her time in the warmer climes of the Crimea, a long way from St Petersburg. My grandmother's grandfather, Alexander II... ..he had a mistress while he was married to Empress Maria. Alexander II falls fatefully in love with the 30-year-younger Ekaterina Dolgoruki, a 17-year-old lady-in-waiting. As the tsar's mistress, she is installed in a palace in St Petersburg where over the following years he spends many evenings. But then the assassination attempts against Alexander begin and his wife becomes nervous for the safety of her husband as he travels in town. PRINCE NICHOLAS ROMANOV: When she realised her husband was in danger, she told him to bring Ekaterina Dolgoruki and her children in the palace. They arranged an apartment for her in the higher reaches of the palace so the tsar would not have to leave the palace and risk his life in the streets of Petersburg. I don't think a wife can do more than that. That's true love. Queen Victoria has been paralysed by grief

since the death of Prince Albert and she has isolated herself from the rest of the world. For years after Albert's death,

she still sends letters on black-bordered paper. But the establishment of a close relationship

to a Scottish manservant, John Brown, slowly helps her recover her interest in life. PRINCESS BENEDIKTE: He followed her down to England from Scotland and stayed with her and sort of entertained her, but at the same time, was quite rude at times to her. But she obviously liked him a lot and the way, the simple way, because he was a very simple person. PRINCE MICHAEL OF GREECE: Queen Victoria wouldn't say no to a little drink, especially in her loneliness and her widowhood. And he was a drinker. So they would go on picnics with a teapot full of whisky to hide the unethical drink and they would drink the whisky in teacups and enjoy themselves like that.

I don't think he was her lover. Queen Victoria was very respected. They were scared of her, actually, I think. The family was a bit scared of Queen Victoria. "We are not amused," one always said that she said

when one said a joke which was a bit too...mmm. Even though Victoria does not appear to have a great sense of humour, something is bubbling below the surface. Queen Victoria had a cracking sense of humour. She was at Windsor, dining, and she was sitting next to an old, very deaf admiral, who went on and on with some story about a ship which had sunk off Portsmouth. And the Queen tried desperately to get him off the subject, asked him about his sister. And he, mishearing, said, "Well, we had to turn her over, examine her bottom "and give her a good scraping." Whereupon Queen Victoria disappeared into her napkin, howled with laughter, tears rolling down her cheeks. Victoria manages to regain contact with the rest of the world and she becomes a symbol of the immense British Empire. She was, of course, the central figure to a large extent in the, er... ..in the European history of that period. She had a great influence throughout the whole world. She was very important. She was the last monarch when England still had all the colonies - India and many, many other countries. And I think she was the most important of the last kings...of the monarchy as it used to be in the old way. he with an industry super fund, commissions to financial advisors.

His fees are higher. Industry Super Funds are run only to profit members. with an industry super fund In the Winter Palace, the Russian Empress succumbs to her fatal illness. MAN: While the Empress was dying on the first floor of the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, she could hear the children of the mistress running on the floor above her room. When she died, then Alexander II, shortly after, married his mistress. The tsar's family is shocked by his new marriage. The whole family - the children of the deceased Empress - thought that she was an intriguer, the second wife, an ambitious woman, a nasty woman who had killed their mother because of the grief that she imposed on their mother. Alexander II intends to modernise Russia and together with his brother, he draws up a new constitution which is very similar to the British. It was going to have free elections, it was going to have Members of Parliament and everything that is, er... ..let's say, valuable for the beginnings of a new democracy. MAN: They both read the project and they were delighted. And the tsar put the project in his pocket and said, "Tomorrow it will be published." But later the same day, things go wrong when Alexander is driving along the Ekaterina Quay near the palace. An assassin throws a bomb. The bomb exploded some metres from the carriage and did not even hurt the Emperor, but killed one or two Cossacks that were following the carriage. The guards asked the Emperor to remove himself from the scene as quickly as possible, but he wanted to assist the people who were wounded or killed. And then there was another anarchist who dropped a second bomb and that killed him. And they found in his coat the new constitution of Russia. The same day, his son, now Alexander III, is declared as the new tsar and Christian IX's daughter is now Tsarina of Russia. He took out the project of the constitution out of the pocket of his father and tore it to pieces. And that was the end of any project of reform and to have a constitutional monarchy in Russia. It's one of the big 'if's of history -

what would have happened if Alexander II had been successful in putting forward the new liberal constitution of Russia. As a result of his children's influential marriages,

King Christian IX, from tiny, unimportant Denmark, is now about to become famous as 'the father-in-law of Europe'. The King misses his children, and thus, every summer,

a large number of Europe's kings, queens, princes and princesses spend three to four weeks as guests of Christian and Louise, mostly at home in the palace at Fredensborg. For nearly a quarter of a century, Fredensborg Palace is the most international court in Europe. PRINCE MICHAEL OF GREECE: The gatherings in Denmark at Fredensborg and so on were enormous family gatherings. There were, of course, the Danes, the Greeks - us - the Russians,

the English, the Hanoverians, and also the French. They loved to talk together

because at that time, travelling was quite something. It was far, there were no planes, so when they gathered, they had many, many things to talk about. Christian and Louise's grandchildren are always at the centre of these gatherings. PRINCE MICHAEL OF GREECE: They had invented a bicycling club

and they had asked the tsar, their uncle, Alexander III, to be the head of the club. And they said in the letter that they suspected that he was too fat to climb on a bicycle. And he pretended to be absolutely furious about this incident, but yet he accepted to be the honorary president of the bicycle club. It becomes a tradition that the palace guests

scratch their names into the windows with a diamond. But some write more than just their name. One says, "That's what you are - just an old pig." Though the other one next to it writes - slightly different writing with a drawing of a cat - "Cat's bottom - that's you." (Laughs) Christian's daughter, Alexandra, always turns up with numerous suits for her father. But the King prefers to wear his old, familiar clothes, so his wardrobe ends up containing a countless number of suits he never wears. After 60 years on the throne, Queen Victoria can celebrate her diamond jubilee. "A never-to-be-forgotten day. "No-one ever, I believe, has met with such an ovation "as was given to me, passing through those six miles of streets. "Before leaving, I touched an electric button "by which I started a message "which was telegraphed throughout the whole Empire. "It was the following - "'From my heart, I thank my beloved people. "'May God bless them.'" Four years later, in 1901, Queen Victoria dies, aged 82. BAGPIPE LAMENT For her final journey, the Queen travels with memories from her entire long life - everything from rings, bracelets and necklaces to handkerchiefs and photographs. Fulfilling the wishes of his Queen,

her doctor places a photo of her friend, John Brown, in Victoria's hands. In Denmark, after 56 years of happy marriage, Christian IX has lost his influential queen, Louise. The couple's six children are now all well married, and Christian now has sons- and daughters-in-law and grandchildren in all Europe's major royal houses. In 1906, the 87-year-old King Christian dies suddenly. After his morning audiences, he retires to his bed.

When his daughter Dagmar looks in on him a few hours later, he is no longer alive. All the bells in the country announce that the father-in-law of Europe is dead. Copenhageners queue patiently in the rain for hours for a chance to pay their final respects to their king. In the following programs, each episode will focus on one of Christian IX's children

and we will follow their and their descendant's lives up to the present-day royal family. The next episode concerns Christian's eldest son, who marries a Swedish princess and whose descendants end up on the thrones of Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Luxembourg. GRAND DUCHESS JOSEPHINE-CHARLOTTE: Uncle Georgy took his teeth out and started to run after me and to put his teeth into my Dekollete. So I said, "Uncle Axel, Uncle Axel, save me from Uncle Georgy, "that old man who wants to throw his teeth into my Dekollete." That was my first impression of the Scandinavian family. Supertext Captions by the Australian Caption Centre www.auscap.com.au Coming up in SBS World News Australia at 9:30 - Labor leader Kevin Rudd has swept into the ALP national conference promising fresh thinking and change. Getting personal with the Prime Minister, he branded John Howard as a man out of touch and stuck in the past. Mr Howard doesn't really believe in a single idea

which didn't appear on black and white television. LAUGHTER Defying a veto threat - the US Senate has joined the House of Representatives in passing a bill that ties war funding

to a timetable for a pullout from Iraq. The vote sets Congress on a collision course with the White House. And a British military quandary - amid rising violence, fears that Prince Harry will become a target if deployed to southern Iraq. That and the rest of the day's news in an hour. See you then.