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As It Happened -

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(generated from captions) having contributed something, I think, if you can leave this life no matter how small it may be, a much richer and happier life... I think you will have had, probably,

more engaging, more interesting.

Captions (c) SBS Australia 2006

Good evening. I'm Anton Enus.

Coming up in the news at 9:30 - Commodore Frank Bainimarama, Fiji's military chief,

has been sworn in as Prime Minister. The man he deposed, Laisenia Qarase, for a military dictatorship. says the country is headed of the US Congress, The Democrats have taken control

and for the first time of the House of Representatives. a woman is the leader to call for a new policy on Iraq. Nancy Pelosi's first move was A heated public exchange and the Egyptian President between Israel's Prime Minister to pursue peace in the Middle East. has marred a summit intended by Israeli forces It followed a deadly incursion into the West Bank. There it is! COMMENTATOR: Oh, he takes it! Australia beats England in 86 years. in the first Ashes whitewash in an hour. That and the rest of the day's news See you then. Is not. Is so. Is not! Is so, so, so. Peter IS real. Aren't you, Peter? Amazing Kodak quality. Kphoto at Kmart. Good as the real thing.

Mike, how's the south? OK, people, let's wrap it up. Well done, chief. All sorted here, Russ. Nothing to whine about here, Russ. Jen, central region? That's very good. the results now. Just sending through That's what I wanna see, people. (Softly) Yeah. Billy, you on target? or is it a YEAH!? Billy, is that a yeah YEAH! YEAH! (Gibbers) It's the boss. He gets emotional. MAN: Only Telstra's Next G Network stay in touch with staff helps business through mobile video conferencing across Australia. and wireless broadband Yeah! this afternoon? What time's your flight back I'm on the 5:00. 4:30. fly back together. I'll change it so we can Qantas, right? Mm-hm. sense of patriotism Because of your deep-seated unique marsupial treasure. and allegiance to our country's Actually, I fly Qantas

I like my beer in the evening because they know and my newspaper in the morning. Right.

OMINOUS MUSIC

belonged to them. The future, they thought, and their fire-magic. Entranced by themselves A gathering of arsonists.

a hydra with many faces... The SS - the SD, the Gestapo. The Death's Head units, Heinrich Himmler. And this man stood for the SS - A pedantic zealot, wanted to breed a master race. a former chicken farmer who now even by his own followers. In private he was laughed at, But he was not to be underestimated. Himmler's delusions were deadly.

they liked to see themselves. That was how the "master race". As the nucleus of what they called of self-sacrificing brutes. The prototypes Hitler's eternal soldiers. And their leader... a policeman.

of extermination. He led the merciless war behind the front. Against the weak, in the camps, And at the front. willing executioners. For that, Himmler needed Praetorians who asked no questions racial mania. but obeyed blindly - "soldiers like any others". Today they say they were GUNFIRE the military arm of the SS But on the battlefield, and the fire brigade. was both the spearhead Without any scruples. And unconditionally obedient.

Himmler said he had whole divisions with complete calm. that would face death "to give death and take death". They were trained With no thought of the losses. still believe in today. Slogans that a few of them No mercy... especially for those who resisted. to be elite soldiers. They were supposed they were also criminals. But all too often Oradour, Le Paradis, Wormhoudt... of war crimes by the Waffen SS. Just a few names from the list to defend ourselves with. hand grenades thrown in... And to be just put into a barn,

and then machine-guns... with automatic firing and all this. They came in It was cold-blooded murder. No one talked like that up here. on a grand scale. Here they talked of murder Which this man ordered. And for which he needed helpers. Heinrich Himmler... The ideological henchman,

The executioner, Reinhard Heydrich. OMINOUS MUSIC of the Nazi terror - Heydrich was the manager and the security service, the SD, head of the Gestapo

in occupied Czechoslovakia, and Hitler's governor of Bohemia and Moravia". the so-called "Protectorate the two faces of the Nazi regime - Heydrich personified with a gift for music. an architect of mass murder... His father was a composer. Even before Heydrich's birth, 'Reinhardt's Crime'. his father named an overture MELANCHOLY VIOLIN MUSIC

in occupied countries. Heydrich organised the round-ups Lublin, Poland, in 1942. The SS at work. Heydrich was everything rolled into one. A caring father... and a lord of death. to nameless perpetrators. He left the killing And their henchmen behind the lines. their "work". Criminals who have just finished Supermen? Hardly. hidden for decades, This amateur footage, of a police battalion was filmed by a member against so-called "partisans". during an operation often family men. They were quite normal men, What turned them into murderers? MOURNFUL MUSIC

never even thought of refusing. Most of them Of not sharing in the guilt.

about the criminals. The victims' faces say a lot What makes people inhuman?

The answer lies in the history of the SS. A warning from history. It started off very small in Munich after World War I. The Kaiser had abdicated. There was revolution. And right-wing ex-soldiers joined the so-called Freikorps, the "free corps". Revolutionaries had declared Bavaria a Soviet republic. The Freikorps had a different term for it... "The Jewish republic". They marched under the symbol of the Death's Head. Fanatical and ready for violence. They staged a bloody counter-revolution against Bavaria's Soviet government. There was one man who had not yet found his place in this confusion. Among the mourners for the murdered Bavarian Prime Minister, Kurt Eisner, was the young Adolf Hitler. He wore the red armband of the soldiers' Soviets. Among the wire-pullers on the right-wing scene was Captain Ernst Rohm with his clique of officers. Rohm's men said he livened things up. Hans Schweighart was a friend of his who committed a murder for the Fehme paramilitaries. Weapons which Rohm was supplying to a growing movement in Munich. He controlled the SA, the "Storm Detachment" of the Nazi Party. The brown-shirted storm troopers of the SA battered their political opponents in the streets. OMINOUS MUSIC For this man, who had now found his place

as a drummer who could draw in the masses. The greatest Hitlerist was Hitler himself. He believed his own rhetorical phrases. "We'll sideline him in time," Rohm said of Hitler. May, 1923. The bowling alley in Torbrau, a Munich beer hall. Here, Hitler found men who would swear what he demanded of them - "Loyalty, even unto death". They became his bodyguard and his power base for the struggle against Rohm. This was the birth of the SS. They were upright citizens... or so it seemed.

A stationer. A civil servant.

A watchmaker. They called themselves "Hitler's Storm Troopers". They followed the drummer like his shadow through the Munich beer halls. When Hitler made a grab for power in November 1923, they were his most reliable supporters. The henchmen in an amateurish coup. They occupied newspaper offices. Took hostages. Detained politicians. DRAMATIC MUSIC The flag-bearer in this putsch was the young Heinrich Himmler. It ended outside the Feldherrnhalle, or Field Marshals' Hall. Five Hitler storm troopers were killed and later built up as martyrs. SS candidates being sworn in in front of the Feldherrnhalle. A macabre annual ritual that turned history on its head. Opponents of the regime saw it as repulsive idolatry. Munich, 1924. After the failed coup, Hitler wasn't the only one before the courts. In the so-called Storm Trooper Trial, his bodyguards too were sentenced to imprisonment in a fortress. Soon Hitler and Rohm were openly quarrelling. Hitler made it known that a new SA could only be under his command. Frustrated, Rohm left the Party.

He later emigrated to South America. Hitler served his sentence in the fortress of Landsberg. For him, it was more a base than a prison. It was where he wrote 'Mein Kampf'. Only a few people would actually read it. Now the SA was marching under Hitler's command. He wanted to use the brown columns to win power, even though he distrusted this "unreliable mass", as he secretly called it. But he bound his storm troop even more closely to him. He now called it "the SS". The Schutzstaffel, or "protection detachment" - his bodyguard. He ordered them to march against their own brothers if necessary. He still held his Party troops together in a delicate balance. An internal film from the twenties shows SA chief Pfeffer holding authority over SS chief Himmler, who politely presents a document for Pfeffer's signature. Himmler's time had not yet come. In the late 1920s, the SA grew into a powerful army with millions of members. SA units gathered in Sturmlokale, "storm clubs", which were homes away from home for drifters and criminals. One SA unit in Berlin called itself the "Murder Gang", another, the "Gang of Rogues". This was the attitude they took with them to prison. It's worth a two-year sentence to cut the throat of a Communist swine! Don't keep sending my mother to me. I long most of all for you, comrades. The foot-soldiers of the movement. The SA became an instrument of terror in election campaigns. This Nazi film transforms the brownshirts into heroic victims in a street battle. Anyone who saw the reality will never forget it.

Elections in Weimar - a civil war with dozens of fatalities. For now, the SS and the SA were still cooperating. "No Marxist dares to disturb our meetings," an SS leader reported to Munich. Already the rivalry between the two Party organisations was growing. The SA men realised the competition they faced from what they called the "big-shot guard" of the SS. In Bolivia, Ernst Rohm was receiving more and more complaints from SA leaders. Hitler was keeping them down, depriving them of money and influence. Quoting Hitler's army nickname of Wolf, Rohm wrote back... "Wolf is a donkey" - Ernst Rohm.

In August 1930, the SA in Berlin openly broke with Hitler. People called them the "beefsteak storm-troopers" - brown on the outside, but red on the inside. The SA vented its rage in left-wing slogans... "Adolf is betraying us proletarians!" Josef Goebbels was Hitler's representative in Berlin. Facing hostile mobs of SA men, he turned to the SS for protection. He was even forced to call in the Berlin police. All this began the rise of a man whom many had underestimated - SS chief Heinrich Himmler. To achieve that, he had to obey this man unconditionally. For the first time, Himmler made himself

Hitler's indispensable faithful servant. "We have never disappointed our Fuhrer," he said. And they wouldn't this time either. (Soldiers sing in German) Himmler's SS restored order in the Berlin branch of the Party. He transformed the SS into a Party police force, one that screened would-be members rather than merely recruiting them.

The best. Or what they thought was the best. They were captivated by the dream of a Nordic community. They saw themselves as an elite, a kind of order. And, for some, the illusion still prevails even today.

An order with double standards. Mercilessness as a virtue. Hitler wanted a tool with which he could destroy his enemies.

Including those in his own ranks. But initially Hitler made a new pact with his rivals. He recalled Rohm to bring the SA into line. EERIE MUSIC Himmler was still loyal to both of them. When Hitler became chancellor in January 1933, the brownshirts celebrated it as their own victory. Golo Mann noted in his diary... My God, this is not the conservative revolution - it's the seizure of power by the plebeians. A stage-managed revolution. It opened a valve. The brown mob ruled with terror and violence. This footage was secretly filmed. The SS remained in the background while the SA ran riot. And soon they were destroying people. The SA put political opponents and personal enemies alike into so-called 'wilde Lager', "wild camps", such as this one in Oranienburg. All too many did not come back. In June 1933, the Berlin SA made the local court in Kopenick a torture chamber. For a week. They called it the "Kopenick Blood Week". An eyewitness reported... Thirty-five workers were floating in blood. The SA trampled on them with their boots. Blood and pieces of flesh were swept up and carried out in buckets.

It was like a warning of worse things to come. The SS. In front of the cameras, the men in black uniforms behaved like young aristocrats of the regime. They showed how fond they were of children and set errant youngsters on the right path. TRIUMPHANT FANFARE The regime's ceremonial honour guard. They were styled as guardians of virtue, and exhibited like the Giant Guards of Prussia's Friedrich Wilhelm I. UNEASY MUSIC They were their Fuhrer's elite. But other laws were applied to humans. By political criminals.

Rohm was oblivious of the threat posed by Himmler. He had his own million-strong army, which he was using for his own purposes. He was ambitious, but loyal. Rohm's "people's army" of brownshirts was a direct threat to the power of the army generals. UNEASY MUSIC The First World War captain despised the aristocratic cliques of the army's senior officers. The generals forged an alliance against Rohm - an alliance with Hitler. He needed the regular army for the war he had long been planning. The noose was tightening. But Rohm was fighting more openly than ever for his place in the new state. In support of Hitler... or against him?

The newsreels now presented him as an alternative Fuhrer. Rohm loved the limelight and pretending to be "close to the people". He grumbled to his peers that Hitler should "at least go on holiday". He sometimes made public threats in front of thousands of people. Hitler saw it differently. Protected by the SS, he wooed the SA at the Berlin Sports Palace. But he made no promises.

(All chant 'Sieg Heil!') He was courting Rohm's men, in order to vanquish Rohm. A blow that Himmler was to strike for him. But the man in the third row still had scruples. He asked Rohm for a meeting. Himmler's adjutant Karl Wolff recalls his boss's words.

Himmler's humility was an anachronism. For a long time, the SS had been collecting evidence, drawing up lists... Death lists. Death's Head units from the Dachau concentration camp were training for the strike against the SA. They were still only preparations for the real thing, manoeuvres in and around Munich... where, in June 1934, Rohm was taking a break from the power struggle. The SA's chief of staff was popular in Bad Wiessee. Punning on the Italian resort of Rimini, the locals called their town "Rohm-ini" in his honour. And he seemed oblivious of the danger that was looming. It was also no secret that he chose a secluded destination for his outings.

CHEERFUL BIG-BAND MUSIC Rohm's homosexuality had been well known for a long time. It now became another pretext for his murder. The 29th of June, 1934. Hitler arrived at the Rheinhotel Dreesen, near Bonn. Reports were coming in from Munich. The SA was apparently mobilising, preparing for the coup. Goebbels wrote in his diary... "Fuhrer is very serious." "On Saturday, he acts. Against Rohm and his rebels. "With blood." At 5.30 on Saturday morning Hitler, Goebbels and an SS detachment arrived in Bad Wiessee. Their destination - Pension Hanslbauer, by the lake. Rohm, his deputy Heines, and five other SA leaders suspected nothing. Goebbels wrote... "Arrest. Boss magnificent. "Heines pitiful, with a catamite. "Rohm remains composed." The code word "Kolibri" went to SS Brigadefuhrer Reinhard Heydrich. but by no means the last time, For the first, in motion. Heydrich set the wheels of death One of his murderers remembered... There were eight of us in Berlin. of enemies of the state Heydrich gave me a list of names or immediately shot. who were to be arrested The execution squads set out... through the lists. and worked their way of the SS execution units - Many people died at the hands in Stadelheim prison in Munich, Ernst Rohm and his SA leaders the SS Bodyguard Regiment in Berlin. dozens of others in the barracks of didn't hesitate for a second. Himmler's executioners could believe, It was a lie that not everyone devoted men who now became killers. a warning even to those blindly Now, old scores were settled. chancellor, was shot with his wife. General von Schleicher, the previous was Gustav Ritter von Kahr, Another victim in 1923. who put down Hitler's own coup in a swamp. His body was found mutilated who had also mocked the SS leader. Hitler's rival Gregor Strasser, The name "Schmidt" appeared several times on the list - for example, SA Gruppenfuhrer Willi Schmidt, nicknamed "Pig's Cheek". An SS unit found a Schmid in Munich. was a musician and journalist. Renate's father, Willy Schmid, just the victim of a mix-up - Not a member of the SA, instead of 'dt'. Schmid spelt with a 'd' didn't ask about that. But the murderers The SS took him away to Dachau. There he was shot on the spot. The family fled Germany. It was terrible. The SS had done its work... as the tool of a murderous will. Madness that is still alive today. Terrifying words. Quite ordinary men? for a criminal state. They were trained to commit crimes of the century. Ultimately, for the murder Their honour was loyalty, they said.

to be the epitome of terror The rise of the SS began with a campaign of murder. It was committed so efficiently, and so coldly, so unscrupulously to all that came later. it was a prologue A warning from history. Captions (c) SBS Australia 2006 Mike, how's the south? OK, people, let's wrap it up.

Well done, chief. All sorted here, Russ. Jen, central region? Nothing to whine about here, Russ.

That's very good. Just sending through the results now. That's what I wanna see, people. Billy, you on target? (Softly) Yeah. or is it a YEAH!? Billy, is that a yeah YEAH! YEAH!

(Gibbers) It's the boss. He gets emotional. MAN: Only Telstra's Next G Network stay in touch with staff helps business through mobile video conferencing across Australia. and wireless broadband Yeah! Is not. Is so. Peter IS real. Aren't you, Peter? at your favourite Kmart store Visit Kphoto ..at Kodak Picture Kiosks. Kphoto at Kmart. Good as the real thing.

That is the thing in my life. I love my choir. THE thing in my life, It's... it's soothing. If I'm very angry, or cross... unfortunately, I don't shout or rant and rave - should do, but I don't -

I can put some music on and sing. I love music. I feel uplifted. Oh! My soul sort of rises... and I'm lifted into a different world. And it makes me feel good. And particularly now, I'm bottom of the heap, 70 plus. You know, the older you get the lower down the heap people push you. I'm a different person. And when I stand up there...

the older people that come, And when you see, particularly faces, God, it makes you feel good! when you see the lights in their Australia 2005 Captions (c) SBS this afternoon? What time's your flight back I'm on the 5:00. 4:30. fly back together. I'll change it so we can Qantas, right? Mm-hm. sense of patriotism Because of your deep-seated

unique marsupial treasure. and allegiance to our country's Actually, I fly Qantas I like my beer in the evening because they know and my newspaper in the morning. Right.

This program is captioned live. Military dictatorship - cements his grip on power. Fiji's maverick military chief of the President It is the responsibility to articulate a new plan for Iraq they must defend their own streets. that makes it clear to Iraqis that lays it on the line. The new Speaker of the US Congress Testy exchange - the Israeli and Egyptian leaders trade barbs in front of the cameras. And the champagne flows in an Ashes whitewash. as Australia swamps England Good evening. SBS World News Australia. Anton Enus with Frank Bainimarama Fiji's military chief has tightened his grip on power. the elected Fijian government, Exactly one month after overthrowing has been sworn in Commodore Bainimarama Prime Minister. as the country's interim The man he overthrew says of a military dictatorship. Fiji is now under the control has a new role. Fiji's military strongman

he deposed in a coup last month. He's now replaced the prime minister cementing his hold on power, Commodore Frank Bainimarama he reinstated only yesterday. sworn in by the President who may think about challenging, I implore all those through whatever means or method, of His Excellency the choice and wisdom to think again.

now has the authority The military chief of Fiji's caretaker government. to nominate the new ministers He's promised to hold elections but not until conditions are, as he puts it, conducive. However, the man he deposed, Laisenia Qarase, will rule indefinitely. fears that Commodore Bainimarama

a military dictatorship in Fiji We are heading for of the army commander with the appointment as interim prime minister the position of military commander, and at the same time even hold so it is a bad combination. reasons One of Commodore Bainimarama's the Qarase government for overthrowing plotters of the coup in 2000. was its plans to pardon immunity for his coup. But the President will give him Alexander Downer, says Australia's Foreign Minister, Commodore Bainimarama's new role

and unconstitutional". "is clearly illegitimate by Australia's top policeman That's backed Fiji's ousted police commissioner, who's defended Australian Andrew Hughes. he's only been removed from office And my view is for the criminal justice system because he was prepared to stand up government of Fiji. and the democratically elected Mr Keelty has also cast doubt on the legitimacy of claims by Australian con man Peter Foster that the internationally monitored Fijian election was corrupt. Lauren Petterson, World News Australia. turned upside down today American politics were take control of Congress, as the Democrats

ending 12 years in the political wilderness. For the first time, a woman is at the helm of the House of Representatives. Nancy Pelosi immediately demanded a new policy on Iraq. From the outside, it was business as usual. Inside, a grandmother was about to make history. The honourable Nancy Pelosi of the state of California is duly elected. With six of her grandchildren present, Democrat Nancy Pelosi became the most powerful woman in American political history, called to the gavel by the now minority Republicans. The gentle lady from California, Nancy Pelosi. CHEERING AND APPLAUSE Gentle perhaps, and the kiss was a first for a new Speaker, but she is just two heartbeats from the White House, second in succession only to Vice-President Dick Cheney. It's an historic moment for the Congress, it's an historic moment for the women of America. Surrounded by children, Nancy Pelosi made her swearing-in ceremony a first as well.

For all of America's children, the House will come to order. She said it took a woman to clean a House, so the first vote was on ethics reform. But everybody knows the first priority is Iraq. It is the responsibility of the President to articulate a new plan for Iraq that makes it clear to the Iraqis that they must defend their own streets and their own security. A plan that allows us to responsibly redeploy our troops. In both the House and the Senate

there were calls for Democrats and Republicans to work together. I believe this is a new day in Washington and our efforts are going to be to work on a bipartisan basis. I accept this gavel in the spirit of partnership, not partisanship. But the rules of politics have not changed and two pictures said it all. The outgoing Republican leader of the House unhappy, unsmiling and on the sidelines. And the new Speaker of the House on the floor cradling her grandson, but all the while surveying the scene, giving instructions and getting down to Democrat business.

Prue Lewarne, World News Australia. Well, as Congress gets down to business, President Bush is preparing to announce a major reshuffle of his top brass. The two most senior military commanders in Iraq are to go and the national intelligence chief is being replaced. All this just days before the unveiling of a new Iraq strategy. The fallout from the hanging of Saddam Hussein continues, with protests over the timing and manner of his execution. And after the worst weeks of violence in Iraq, President Bush is expected to announce a major shake-up of the top brass. US media are reporting the President wants a clean sweep - a new plan and new commanders. General John Abizaid, who heads Central Command responsible for Iraq and Afghanistan, is to be replaced by a naval aviator, Admiral William Fallon. Described as a wild card choice, observers say the President was looking for fresh eyes on the conflict. Iraq's top military commander, General George Casey, is also set to go. In Iraq since June 2004,

he hoped to have US troops there reduced by the end of last year.