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(generated from captions) Coming up in tonight's news - Hello. I'm Amrita Cheema. has declared martial law in Somalia. a transitional government of the capital, Mogadishu, Pro-government forces took control after Islamist militants withdrew. of Iraq-style chaos. Some analysts are warning in gang violence in Rio de Janiero. At least 19 people have been killed when a bus was set alight. Seven of the victims died for the annual Haj pilgramage. 2 million Muslims are in Mecca a similar journey The ceremony traces made by the Prophet Mohammed. a bad A-League season even worse And an on-field fight makes for Perth Glory. of 9:40. See you then. Details at the slightly later time

of the United States, Richard Nixon, On February 21, 1972, the President arrives in Beijing the global balance of power. for a visit that will shift the previous three months Mao has been ill for with neurasthenia, he's suffered from, a psychosomatic illness on and off, all his life. he'd be well enough At one point, it seemed unlikely his distinguished American guest. even to meet he was barely able to stand. His legs had become so swollen, exactly the medicine he needs. Nixon's visit turns out to be APPLAUSE Mr Prime Minister this evening, and all of your distinguished guests all of your American guests, on behalf of for the incomparable hospitality... I wish to thank you Nixon's visit, coming to Red Beijing, the leader of the capitalist world even nine months before. would've been inconceivable

'AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL' PLAYS combined to bring it about. Many different factors Russian patrols clashed repeatedly In the late 1960s, along the Ussuri River with Chinese fisherman the two countries' border. which marks of the islands in the river. Then came a dispute over ownership are brought in. Finally, heavy weapons AGGRESSIVE CHANTING Mao receives Edgar Snow, At this point,

he'd known since his days in Yan'an an American sympathiser more than 30 years before. to Mao's next guest - Both to Snow and President Yahya Khan of Pakistan - the Chinese leaders hint

a strategic dialogue they're ready to contemplate the United States. with their old enemy, A year later, team is invited to Beijing. the American national table tennis subtle for Washington to comprehend. Mao's earlier signals have been too even the White House can understand. This is a message In July 1971, to pay a secret visit to Beijing, Zhou Enlai invites Henry Kissinger since 1949. the first by an American official APPLAUSE the rapprochement, Once Mao had approved most radical associates - even the Chairman's including his wife Jiang Qing - played their part. one of her revolutionary ballets. The Nixons dutifully sat through Nixon's visit was instrumental that had made him so ill that winter. in lifting Mao out of the depression with foreign affairs, His sickness had had nothing to do the byzantine political intrigues it stemmed from his own inner circle. being waged among His wife Jiang Qing and her allies with the military power holders had fallen out led by his successor Lin Biao. Mao's long-time secretary Chen Boda, in the leadership, who now ranked fourth found himself caught in the middle. (Crowd chants) the Central Committee met at Lushan, In the summer of 1970, mountain resort the same tranquil but ill-fated had been purged 11 years earlier. where Peng Dehuai History was about to repeat itself. the Politburo Standing Committee The five members of led by Mao and Zhou Enlai make their entrance. the Defence Minister Lin Biao, Next to Mao is his successor, military faction of the leadership. who leads the so-called

and Mao's security chief Kang Sheng. Then come Chen Boda Lin and his allies, including Chen, to name a new head of state believe that Mao is preparing to take the job himself. and campaign for the Chairman It turns out to be a really bad idea. At the closing session, take their places on the rostrum. only four of the five leaders Kang Sheng and Lin Biao. Mao and Zhou Enlai,

to kick him upstairs Mao suspects a plot and has made Chen Boda the scapegoat. is for the moment untouched. Lin Biao, visibly ill at ease, not to be seen again for 10 years. Chen disappears from view, against Lin Biao harden. A year later, Mao's suspicions He travels in the provinces, of the regional military commanders. canvassing the support he returns to Beijing. Then abruptly, without explanation, is unclear even now. Exactly what happened of a plot to assassinate Mao. The Chinese authorities spoke later But how serious it was was aware of it is another matter. and whether Lin himself is that something occurred What is certain that a showdown was inevitable. which convinced Mao For the second time in five years, his appointed successor. he prepared to purge Lin had become Mao's alter ego, By the mid 1960s, his shadow, his closest follower. helped him to the last. Lin's brilliance as a general submitted meekly to their fate. Everyone else the Chairman had purged Lin did not. and best of the stratagems He employed the last of ancient Chinese military art. On September 13, 1971, he fled. in Russia as he'd hoped, But instead of finding asylum and crashed, his plane ran out of fuel killing everyone on board. PEOPLE CHANT and a year after receiving Nixon, 18 months after Lin's defection

Mao rehabilitates Deng Xiaoping, the second-biggest capitalist roader the Cultural Revolution. he'd purged in can hardly conceal their dismay. The radicals, led by Jiang Qing, to take power when Mao dies. Deng will become their main rival our full potential - So before we can reach our destiny, if you like - there are three fundamental questions we have to ask ourselves. in our lives?" "Where are we right now 2, "Where do we want to be?"

in the most effective way?" And 3, "How do we get there This bloke's onto something. (Sniggers) In 1973, Mao appears for the last time before a major Party gathering. But he's too weak to stand, and contrary to all protocol, the delegates are told leave before him in order not to witness his physical decline.

Despite his deteriorating health, Mao's mind is as whimsical as ever. The curtsies of the ladies in this Zambian delegation intrigue him.

So does Henry Kissinger's very tall wife. But by 1974, the end is nearing not only for Mao, but also for Zhou Enlai, whose been diagnosed with cancer. That winter, the Premier got up from his sickbed to make one last effort to counter Mao's utopian left-wing ideas and put China onto the path of economic modernisation. Many sympathised with that goal. But for Zhou, it was too late. Within a year, he was dead. SOLEMN SINGING The coterie of Chinese communist society turned out for Zhou's funeral. Among them, friends of his youth like Sun Yat-sen's widow Soong Ching-ling. One possible candidate for the succession Hua Guofeng - a Hunanese like Mao, recently promoted from a post in the provinces. But most people thought the likeliest choice was the man who'd been gradually taking over the Premier's duties, Deng Xiaoping. No public mourning ceremonies are organised. But when Zhou's body is taken at dusk for cremation, more than a million people, alerted by word of mouth, line the streets of Beijing to bid him farewell. In April at the Festival of the Dead, crowds throng Tiananmen Square bearing wreaths and poems of remembrance denouncing the radical leaders who opposed Zhou and implicitly criticising Mao himself. The demonstrations are blamed on Deng Xiaoping, who is purged yet again. Deng's fall confirms Hua's rise.

He is officially confirmed as Premier, succeeding Zhou Enlai, and is appointed the Party's first vice chairman, making him effectively Mao's successor. But the Chairman is now rapidly failing. In June, he receives the Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The meeting lasts only a few minutes. In late July, northern China is struck by an earthquake in which a quarter of a million people die. Chinese television shows heroic scenes of survivors being brought out of the ruins, saying, "Long live Chairman Mao." But most Chinese see it as an augury. The mandate of heaven is about to change. SOLEMN MUSIC PLAYS His death on September 9, 1976, brought about a sea change in China. CHANTING Sidney Rittenberg, who'd been with the Chinese communists since the 1940s and had been imprisoned at Jiang Qing's behest during the Cultural Revolution, was a rare witness to her fall. Just about a month after Mao's death, one day in my cell, I heard, the little prison courtyard, right across an unmistakeable theatrical voice saying, uh, "Oh, Chairman Mao, Chairman Mao, to your legacy, to your cause." "I will always be loyal

one actor in the world And I knew, "There's only "that performs like that." And then I heard the... and the gongs and drums ..the songs and the music from the neighbourhood people...

people's communes ..from the neighbouring

over their P.A. systems. there was great rejoicing. You could hear to put two and two together. So, you know, it wasn't hard arrested with her While Mao's widow and other leftists are stridently denounced,

Mao himself is left unscathed. And his successor, Hua Guofeng, who ordered the arrests, consolidates his position as Communist Party Leader. (Band plays solemn music) A year later, Hua presides over the opening of a vast mausoleum built in Tiananmen Square to house the Chairman's remains. Next to him stands Deng Xiaoping, who's been resurrected from political oblivion for the third time and will become Hua's main challenger. For the next two and a half years, Deng and Hua engaged in a bitter struggle should be interpreted. over how Mao's legacy of Mao's policies as Hua wanted, Ought China to follow the letter approach as Deng preferred? or should it adopt a more pragmatic and Hua was removed from power, Deng's views prevailed the unfinished business leaving Deng free to settle had left behind. the Cultural Revolution After year-long preparations, are put on trial Jiang Qing and her three main allies before a special court. are broadcast nightly Excerpts from the proceedings and transmitted around the world. on Chinese television MURMURING AND LAUGHTER LAUGHTER It's the best performance of Jiang Qing's life. But it doesn't help her. She's sentenced to death, commuted to life imprisonment, and eventually commits suicide in her cell. The widow of Liu Shaoqi is there, watching. She and her family

have recently visited the makeshift prison in Kaifeng where her husband was held. 10 years after Liu's death, his ashes are finally laid to rest.

(All yell and cry) WIND HOWLS Today the founding fathers of Chinese communism are the star exhibits in a local version of Madame Tussaud's. On Deng's instructions, were declared to have been Mao's actions "70% correct and 30% mistaken", a verdict which allowed Deng himself dream of China's modernisation. to pursue a very different This is history as it should be, distract the visitor's attention. bereft of awkward facts that might sitting in this chair is Lin Biao, The person who really ought to be the Cultural Revolution. Mao's deputy during in this exhibition. But he doesn't figure

Hua Guofeng. Nor does Mao's successor, In this remodelled version of China's past, society advances uninterruptedly towards an ever brighter future. (Man sings) # What have I become # My sweetest friend? # I will make you hurt # I would find a way. # Deng's gloss on Mao's revolution is today holy writ. To question it would open a can of worms the Party would much rather not think about. It's been left to others to re-examine the past. This affected ammunition plant in the western suburbs of Beijing with old Maoist slogans still preserved on the walls - known as "the factory" - is China's leading centre for contemporary art. Mao looms so large in China's recent past, and in such complex fashion, he so dominates its history

and often irreverently, reworked. that his image is constantly, of satire and irony To artists he's a subject to disconcert and shock looking at the past and at themselves or simply to provoke people into in wholly different ways. used by Andy Warhol in the '60s, The use of Mao as an icon was first have gone about it, but, um, the way Chinese artists of popular interest, um, coincided with a whole movement a revival of interest in Mao Zedong, um, as, um... ..as almost a mythical hero. going back to a period of history Chinese pop art has a lot to do with where culture was propaganda. The factory brings together dozens of different artists. Well-known official sculptors work on commissions for government buildings, like this statue of Deng Xiaoping, destined for a public square in his birthplace in Sichuan.

In earlier times, the statue would have been of Mao. Nowadays the official sculptors prefer more commercial subjects like these Tang warriors. But younger painters, like Shi Xinning, one of whose recent works was commissioned as a birthday present for a senior member of Mao's family, have taken up the challenge. Another artist who consciously seeks to fuse Chinese and Western ideas but in a more classical manner, is the sculptor Sui Jianguo, whose monumental headless Mao jackets all over the world. are in collections a leading state university here, As a professor at of Chinese art. Sui teaches the official canons he overturns them. As a nonconformist, of Sui's red dinosaur series. That may be one of the messages

Proudly stamped, "Made in China", is a blow-up of a child's toy. at one level the dinosaur it's a subversive metaphor At another, for an entire political system.

the Chinese Communist Party was born. This is the area where, 85 years ago, Today it's been redeveloped shopping precinct as Shanghai's trendiest with galleries showing modern art, for well-heeled 20-somethings designer boutiques and foreign restaurants. In short, many of the things of its existence trying to eradicate. that the Communist Party spent most It's a symbol, if you like, China's motto - of what today could be if you can't beat them, join them. SONG: # You # By my side

# Get no reply # To clarify you # You just know you're wasting my time # You're wasting my time # There goes a good gone by... # overlooking the Bund, At this show in a nightclub the clothes from Europe, the models are from Shanghai, agnes b., designed by the French group, one of many competing for a share

lucrative Chinese market. of the increasingly a waste of my time # A waste of my time, # You wastin' my time... # keeping up with your peers - Following fashion, making money, especially for the young - that Mao drummed into China that's what's replaced the values when their parents were this age. What would he make of all this? Mao championed women's rights. As a young student, exactly what he had in mind. But this may not have been (Woman sings Chinese folk song) Another Western import has helped to fill the void that Maoist ideology has left. The Internet in China is protected by a national firewall

which blocks access to foreign sites the government regards as hostile and monitored full-time by thousands of Chinese police. But its long-term effect in spreading information and changing people's ideas may be greater and more insidious than the authorities think. Every Chinese town has its Internet cafes where the young spend hours browsing websites looking for a date or reading and writing blogs and their fantasies. which recount their hang-ups is the work of 23-year-old Chun Shu. One of the most popular blogs With five novels to her credit -

semiautobiographical accounts of a Chinese girl in China - of the tribulations a defiantly unorthodox message. Chun Shu puts out Chinese style. It's "make love, not war" Sex, not politics. WHISTLE SQUEALS One day, that will change. But not yet. Mao's successors are offering The social contract is bread and circuses. social and cultural freedoms Prosperity plus greater in return for not rocking the boat.

Internet growth is part of the mix. Few parts of the Chinese countryside are more remote than Wuqi, where 70 years ago Mao proclaimed the end of the Long March. Today the area's being transformed. Oil has been discovered. The result is that instead of all the oil revenue going to the state, part now goes to the district authorities who pump it back into the local economy. $200 a year may not sound much, but in this part of the world, it's progress that no-one starves. For the first time in Chinese history, the country is free of famine. Oil has brought the peasants consumer goods - at home - 80% now have television sets and also infrastructure. GOATS BLEAT HORNS BEEP old China coexists with the new. In small towns like Bao'an, against corrupt officials, The peasants struggle the wealth that's being generated. greedy to use their power to seize Chinese fall back for guidance Where Maoist values no longer apply, in this new world they're creating on much older traditions.

this afternoon? What time's your flight back 4:30. I'm on the 5:00. fly back together. I'll change it so we can Qantas, right? Mm-hm. Because of your deep-seated sense of patriotism

and allegiance to our country's unique marsupial treasure. Actually, I fly Qantas because they know I like my beer in the evening and my newspaper in the morning. Right.

Local peasants make up the bulk of the workforce of Sun's agribusiness corporation,

gathering outside their workshops at 6:00 each morning for roll call and a pep talk.

When Sun arrived in this rural county south of Beijing 10 years ago, he had the idea of raising capital by storing and selling the village's grain. From that humble beginning, biggest private companies in China. he built what is today one of the 500 on a combination of business acumen, The Dawu Corporation has thrived paternalism and philanthropy. get subsidised meals and housing The workers and their families for their children, and free schooling more than most countries - which in China - has always been the best hope and seek their fortune elsewhere. of those determined to break free in the Confucian sayings Sun's principles are reflected on the walls of the factory canteen he built to honour his mother. and in the small Confucian temple would have been damned as heresy. In Mao's day, those ideas

But, as with much else in the Chairman's legacy, Communist Party theorists here at the Higher Party School in Beijing insist there's no contradiction.

In a way, the Party has no choice. Something has to fill the gap that Maoism has left, and Confucianism at least has the merit of being authentically Chinese. By train from Beijing, the sage's birthplace is a full day's journey south. He lived and died 2,500 years ago at Qufu, an ancient city in Shandong. Today, the Confucian temples and groves

have become a tourist attraction as Chinese young and old reconnect with their cultural roots. Confucianism influences Chinese thought in the same way that Christianity informs Western values. And like Christianity, it too has had its wars of religion. Qufu still bears the scars that the Red Guards - Mao's iconoclasts - inflicted in the 1960s. (Plays traditional melody) But in China, no-one has had a monopoly of destruction. When the Chinese weren't doing it themselves, foreigners did it for them. The old Summer Palace just outside Beijing, built by the Jesuits for the Emperor Qianlong, was destroyed in 1860 by British and French troops during the Second Opium War. The Chinese Government is renovating the site. In the new post-Mao era, national pride is a key part of the glue that holds the country together. So today, 30 years after his death,

how much of Mao's legacy remains in China? More than you might think. From the amulets with his effigy which taxi drivers hang from their windscreens to protect them against accidents

to his portrait on the banknotes with which China's new capitalists amass vast fortunes,

Mao still turns up in the most unexpected places. (All sing in Mandarin) On Sunday mornings, rain or shine,

50 or 60 middle-aged people gather in Beijing's Jingshan Park just behind the Forbidden City to sing together the revolutionary songs they learned in their youth. It's a Maoist revival meeting. Nostalgia for the Maoist era, when all Chinese were poor together and official corruption was unknown, is commonplace. Here at Panjiayuan - the city's biggest flea market - dozens of stands sell Maoist memorabilia. Like people everywhere, as the years pass, when Chinese look back, they tend to remember mainly the good things -

comradeship and equality and the belief that Mao was leading them towards a brave new communist world. ROUSING CHINESE MUSIC PLAYS The downside of Mao's dictatorship - the cruelty and the violence - is almost consciously put out of mind. Even the Cultural Revolution has lost its power to shock. He's become a legend... ..part of the pantheon of Chinese gods and folk heroes, of bodhisattvas and demons. Here in Chengdo, the capital of Deng Xiaoping's home province of Sichuan, the city centre is being cleared to make way for giant office blocks and department stores. But one structure is untouched.

To the Chinese state, Mao's image is sacrosanct. Inconvenient truths which might tarnish it are quietly forgotten.

SIDNEY RITTENBERG: Up to the present, history - well, at least the Cultural Revolution, outstandingly - is swept under the rug and ignored... ..studiedly ignored. And it think it's very unfortunate. Very unfortunate. I think they need to study Mao very carefully - both what was right about Mao, which was a great deal, and what was wrong about Mao, which was also a great deal. Because that's part of the immediate past,

out of which present China is growing. The result is that many young Chinese,

even at a top university like this one, are woefully ignorant of their own history. China has just marked - or rather did NOT mark - the 40th anniversary of the Cultural Revolution.

Not a word appeared in the Chinese media. Mao's great upheaval might just as well never have happened. The problem is that so much of what Mao believed in

is diametrically opposed to the policies of China's present rulers. For most Chinese, the historical Mao - strategist, poet, politician, the man who caused the deaths of more of his own people than any other leader in history - has faded, giving place to an idea, a myth.

Each morning, hundreds, sometimes thousands, of people form a queue that snakes halfway around Tiananmen Square. They're here to visit the mausoleum where Mao's body lies in state.

30 years after his demise, Chinese take a more nuanced view of his legacy than Westerners. As a peasant revolutionary, Mao destroyed old China and presided over the the birth of the new. As China's leader, he gave the country back its self-confidence, then he tried - and failed - to make his ideas immortal. In death, he still evokes among his own people respect and awe. Like the monkey king of Chinese legend, he turned heaven upside-down,

allowing his successors - more practical, less visionary men - to make China what it is today. Supertext Captions by the Australian Caption Centre Captions copyright SBS 2006

This program is captioned live. Somalia's Prime Minister preparing to enter Mogadishu as pro-government forces take control. Preparations under way to hand over Saddam Hussein to Iraqi authorities for his execution.

19 killed as gang violence erupts in Rio ahead of New Year's celebrations.

And Perth Glory team-mates come to blows on the field.