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(generated from captions) or Advanced Diploma level, to Diploma particularly in engineering skills. the opportunities available Check out Skills for the Future program. under the new Be what you wanna be, yeah... # SONG: # Do what you wanna do For more information, call: Or visit: you never know who's out there. Until you look, from income support into work. Take a look at who's moving You'll find your nearest free recruitment service at: Or by calling: During the Second World War were sent to a safe haven 1.5 million British children in the Blitz cities. away from the air raids in the English countryside. Most evacuees went to villages to spend the war But around 30,000 were sent overseas of the Commonwealth. in the far corners I was excited. was most exciting idea. To go on a boat especially

whether my parents were upset. I don't know I was more excited. An adventure that we were going on. I had a slight sinking feeling. When we got on the boat What was I doing? I was leaving England. Both parents and government

was the best option. believed that evacuation overseas it led to the worst single disaster However in September 1940, in the war. affecting British children of the doomed voyage. This is the story of the children and Britain was at war with Germany. September 3rd, 1939, that Hitler's Luftwaffe The government predicted a devastating bombardment on London. would begin hostilities with all over the capital. Air-raid alarms went off lived in West London. Twelve-year-old Derek Capel's family came on the radio - we were at war. Eleven o'clock, the announcement

the sirens sounded. About two minutes past, where do we hide? The whole family ran around looking, We had nothing. Where do we shelter? I think we probably... So we just... table or something at that time. We finished up under the kitchen It was a false alarm. and his older brother Bobby Seven-year-old John Baker also heard the siren in West London. after Sunday School It was in the morning and we walked home. and the air-raid warning went And we thought, what was that? That was it. Oh, right. It was the beginning of the war. following the outbreak of war, In the days a mass evacuation of children the government organised from the cities. and small towns in rural areas They ended up in villages of the German bombers. far away from the likely targets It wouldn't be easy for the evacuees turned upside down. whose world was suddenly at St Paul's School in London. Barbara Bech had been a pupil of course, I had loved St Paul's I did miss school because, I went to school with and all the friends of the earth. were scattered to the far corners any more schoolfriends, I never made is a bit sad. which when you're only 13, 14, But the predicted air attacks didn't happen. on London and the big cities soon started missing city life. Many evacuee children Their parents missed them too of the evacuees had returned home. and within six months over half came back to her family Fourteen-year-old Bess Walder in Kentish Town in London. running the barrage balloons I used to watch the girls who were on Hampstead Heath. dressed in soldier's uniform There they were, these barrage balloons sending up what a wonderful job! and I thought, remaining on the south-east coast In June 1940, it was the children who were facing the greatest danger. With the fall of France of Hitler's invasion plan. they lay directly in the path with her sister Barbara, Sonia Bech had been evacuated to the Sussex coast. her brother Derek and her mother offered an escape Life in the country of invasion. from the terrifying prospect I did not like the war. did usual things like farm and dog. I kept right out of it and in the war too much. I wasn't going to be interested And my favourite animal was a pig. when he saw me he'd put his chin up. He was called Pig-Pig and

"Pig-Pig, itchy neck, itchy." He knew I'd have a stick and I'd go and he'd open it up again He'd say... (Grunts) and I'd do "Come on, big boy". came the Battle of Britain. Then in the summer of 1940

for a German invasion, To pave the way the air defence provided by the RAF. Hitler first aimed to knock out in the skies above Sussex and Kent. Every day there were dog fights Derek Bech was nine. was raging all around us. The Battle of Britain when I heard a plane go over. I was constantly running outdoors

and I knew all the German planes. Course, I was in the spotting club I'd see where they were crashing. I had a front-line view and and pedalled away... I got on my bicycle to arrive on these crash sites. many times, I was one of the first on London was about to begin. By early September 1940, the Blitz to find themselves in the front line. Civilians, even children, were about St John's Wood in London was eleven. Colin Ryder Richardson from Well, you hear the air raid well, now is this a real raid? and then you think somebody else getting it? Is it gonna be near us or is it they're ours, or maybe the bombers. You hear the planes and think, maybe gets worse and worse And then the whole thing where they're dropping the bombs, and if you're in the area what to think or say or do. suddenly you just don't know You've taken the best cover you can it's gonna go away. and you just pray now became very appealing Evacuation overseas the safety of children. as a way to ensure a place for their sons and daughters Parents were desperate to secure

for friendly Commonwealth countries on the passenger liners heading like Canada or the United States. It was costly, however,

mostly better-off children who went. which meant that it was I thought it was a privilege. now that the decision had been made, It made me sort of more determined, to get on the liner and go. But I was very reluctant and I didn't want to lose them, cos I loved my parents but, on the other hand, they wanted me to go. Colin's parents had arranged for him to stay in New York. The reason we are in America is because we have been evacuated from England and our mother did not think it was safe to stay in England. I came here because the war broke out. To be safe.

Parents who couldn't afford private evacuation

wanted the same escape route as the rich. To help meet this popular demand

the government set up the Children's Overseas Reception Board to run a free evacuation scheme to Commonwealth countries. In its first ten days it was flooded with almost a quarter of a million applications. The first children to be selected were from cities likely to face intense bombardment. Fred Steels from Southampton was eleven.

I had the chance to go to Canada on the evacuation scheme if I'd like to go. I was over the moon, I thought it'd be a brilliant idea. Mum was a bit... undecided, you know. But I think she thought it might have been the lesser of two evils. The parents of John and Bobby Baker from London were also concerned about their safety. They arranged for them to be sent, together, to stay on their aunt's farm in Saskatchewan. I'm sure they must have been very apprehensive about letting us go... anywhere... It must have been a huge persuasion by the family as a whole to say, they'll be all right when they get to the relations in Canada. Jewish families knew they had special cause to fear an invasion. Many applied for places on the overseas evacuation scheme. Derek Capel's parents wanted him and his younger brother Alan to go to Canada. It took 'em a lot of heart-searching to do it. But they did it in the end. At that time, they didn't regret it because we were going to be safe, some of the family would be safe. Most children couldn't wait for their adventure to begin. But before they could go, they had to undergo medical examinations and what seemed like endless form-filling and delays. Bess Walder and her younger brother Louis had waited weeks for their letter of acceptance to arrive. My brother and I flung ourselves down the stairs and into the street and we were tearing the envelope apart almost in our keenness to get hold of it. I took it in to my mother and she said "Yes, this is it." For some, like 13-year-old Ken Sparks from Wembley, the parting was bitter-sweet. My stepmother was rather glad to see me go. It meant she had an extra room to spare which meant she could put my sister, who was growing up, into my room, which gave her a larger room which she could then let to a lodger. Because that's how she used to make her money, was by letting rooms to lodgers. She was awfully pleased to see me go. I think she wanted me to stay in Canada. On the evening of Friday 13th September, 1940, with the Blitz on Liverpool just beginning, the 'SS Benares' set sail for Canada with the evacuees on board. The 100 children who travelled were accompanied by ten guardians. Parents had given strict instructions to elder brothers and sisters to look after their younger ones. John Baker's older brother Bobby was twelve. My parents had said to Bobby that I needed to be looked after cos I was the younger one and it was his responsibility to look after me. I expect Bobby understood more than I did, really... But it was another adventure.

The three Bech children, Barbara, Derek and Sonia all travelled together as fare-paying passengers with their mother.

When we got on the boat, I had a slight sinking feeling. I was leaving England. What was I doing?

I was a bit, just a little bit nervous then for a moment. For most of the children travelling free under the government scheme the 'Benares' was a different world. The ship had seen service before the war as a modern passenger liner and as well as the children there were adult passengers and over 200 crew. Fred Steels had never been to sea before. When we got on board, it was like walking into a palace, it really was. You know, the blasted great dining rooms, little tables with chairs round them all laid out. And we could order anything we wanted

and I think most of us did. Because the children were segregated by sex for much of the time, elder brothers and sisters found it very difficult to look after the young ones. Bess Walder thought it was a blessing in disguise. I was relieved in some ways because my brother was out of sight and could have been out of mind. And particularly as he was quite a naughty boy and full of spirit, my father had said to me before going...

"You look after that young man." I couldn't.

Crossing the Atlantic to Canada in a merchant navy convoy was one of the most dangerous sea journeys in the world in late 1940. A fleet of German U-boats lurked off the west coast of Ireland, sinking as much as 40,000 tons of British shipping a day.

ROUSING GERMAN SONG One of the most celebrated of all the U-boats was U48, commanded by Captain Bleichrodt, a national hero. U48 had already sunk 18 British ships since war began. Rolf Hilse was its new radio operator.

I went on it five days before the 48 was sailing. And I saluted, I said "Captain... "I'm looking for Captain Bleichrodt." He said "I am Captain Bleichrodt. "Now first thing first. "There is no saluting on my boat. "When you see me in the morning..."

He said "You're radio operator, you're right next to me." He said "When you see me in the morning, it's 'Morning, Cap'. "When you see me at night going to bed, it's 'Goodnight, Cap'." From the moment the children and the rest of the passengers had stepped on board the 'Benares', they had to take part in lifeboat drills at least once a day. They were also instructed to have lifejackets with them at all times

in case of the need to evacuate the ship. We had lifeboat drills, probably most days.

Where to muster and bringing your lifejackets. And how to put lifejackets on and that sort of thing.

We did the drill but we never, I think, in any way had it suggested to us under what circumstances it might be needed. It was on the same basis as putting on your gas masks or going down to the air-raid shelters at school. You needed to know how to do it

but it didn't mean you'd ever actually have to do it.

I don't think anybody discussed not getting to Canada. We were on our way and that was it.

If there was any anxiety in the children's minds

it was allayed by the convoy that the 'Benares' headed up.

Brought up on tales of British naval supremacy they believed they were in safe hands. We spent a lot of time, if the weather wasn't bad, up on deck, watching the other ships and whatnot. We had a ship on one side, a ship on the other. They used to say, if we're torpedoed, at least we've got two ships to pick us up. The 'Benares' was protected by a Royal Navy escort of three ships - two corvettes and a destroyer, 'HMS Wincheslea'. These ships had sonar equipment to detect the presence of a nearby U-boat and depth charges to try to blow them out of the water. They had only sunk one ship so far, testament to the dominance of the German U-boats at this time. We heard them above us, you know, looking for us... But they never caught us as we were nice and quiet. And of course Captain Bleichrodt, he come and said "Tell me, what's going on up there?" I said "Nothing."

I said "Nice and peaceful up there." "Right," he said. "Periscope!" On September 16th, U48 was within striking distance of the 'Benares'

but its attention was diverted by an incoming British merchant ship. It would be U48's nineteenth kill. It was loaded. It was going to England. When you let more we get down the better, isn't it? Now three days into their journey the children were starting to relax and really enjoy themselves. Eating in the restaurant was exciting, and we had ice cream. Ice cream to me was something of a luxury that I'd never think of dreaming of. It was wonderful. BESS WALDER: The food was our principal thrill. Mountains of food, literally, were consumed.

Not because we were hungry by then, because we weren't. But just for the heck of it. The 'Benares' was 300 miles off the west coast of Ireland. The children noticed the naval escort had gone - called away to protect an incoming convoy. They were reassured

this was because they were out of the U-boat danger zone.

The captain said "We are in American waters. "We are going to be all right now.

"So please leave your lifejackets in your cabins." It was Tuesday, 17th of September, and the main concern of the crew

was to cope with a storm that was blowing up as evening approached. But beneath them U48 was lying in wait. Radio operator Rolf Hilse had spotted the unaccompanied 'Benares'. I said "Captain, there is something up there."

"Oh," he said "don't say these are destroyers!" I said "No, it isn't. They are freighters." "Ah," he said. "Are we going up?" I say "Hold it... "There is one here where the propeller goes a little bit faster." He said "How fast?" I said "It's not a destroyer, definitely not." He said "Well, we have a look." U48 rose to the surface to see if the ship they had detected was protected by a naval escort. We had a good look round. He said "There's nothing there," he said. "There's no escort. Where's the escort? "Well," he said, "we have a go at it." And we fired two torpedoes. Now he made a mistake. He miscalculated, so two torpedoes missed. On the 'SS Benares' the captain was oblivious to the fact that they were under attack and had just escaped a direct hit. He was still preoccupied with guiding the ship through the storm. I had a ball bearing which I put in the drawer beside my bed. When it didn't move, we were in calm water. When it started to hit the side of the drawer, one side to the other in time with the ship rolling

you knew you were in a storm. The more violent that that became, the more the ship was entering a bigger and bigger storm. So a simple way of knowing we were in for a rough time. So at ten o'clock at night, I was in bed reading my comics. With the storm showing no sign of abating,

passengers and crew on board the 'Benares' were about to go to sleep. We went to bed as usual and... I was reading and Sonia had gone to sleep and then I thought "Gosh, ten o'clock. "Maybe it's time to put the light out." On board U48, Captain Bleichrodt was preparing to launch another torpedo. ROLF HILSE: He said "Well, we'll risk another one, no more. "We only got four or five left." (Crew count down) I listen. When I hear 'Los!' I press the stopwatch. And he shouted down, he says to me, and he said "Hey, Rolf, watch out! "You should... we should hit him between 110 and 120 seconds." I suddenly heard this boom-boom. I thought oh, what's that? There was a funny smell in the cabin immediately. Not a nice smell. There was one hell of a crash and the top bunk fell on top of me. I was soaking wet through. I grabbed my brother, we didn't know what had happened.

There was rubbish everywhere, there was dust, dirt and everything. When the alarm went off the Bech family left their cabins and made their way to their muster station, the upper deck lounge. We all went up to the lounge, saying "What is it? What's happened?" So everyone said "We don't know. "Have we run into somebody else in the convoy, you know? It's odd." So we waited. Although she wasn't quite sure what was going on, Sonia Bech knew something was seriously wrong. When I got into the muster station, I did become very scared. And Barbara and Derek were sitting there, looking a bit scared too, and I remember thinking I must say my prayers at once. This is bad, it's going to be very bad, I must ask the Lord to protect us. So I said a prayer asking for protection and I said the Lord's Prayer because I knew it best. The ship was now flooding.

There was chaos as everyone made for the upper deck to get to the lifeboats. In the confusion, brothers and sisters were separated. Derek Capel lost his younger brother Alan.

My brother suddenly disappeared and I thought, I promised to look after him, care for him. I've looked after him every minute of the time. He was holding my hand, then suddenly he was gone. Derek would never see Alan again. The ship was sinking and time to get into the lifeboats was running out. I got all the people out of my cabin, there were four with me... Started up to the upper deck... Oh, I haven't got me overcoat, Mother'll kill me. So I went back and got it.

I discovered that I'd left my lifejacket behind. Now I said "Look, I've got to go and fetch my lifejacket." I was off like a rocket. Fortunately Bobby grabbed me, stopped me going, obviously because he knew that I'd get lost. I ended up with a lifejacket. Now I don't know whether this lifejacket came from somebody else and whether it was Bobby's. I would imagine it was Bobby's

because he obviously wanted to pacify me.

When the children arrived on the upper deck, the well-rehearsed emergency lifeboat-drill procedure descended into panic. I was grabbed by a man who said "Come with me." My rescuer lifted me up and literally threw me into a lifeboat. I had no time to think about what was happening to my brother.

All I knew was, I was in the lifeboat. Abandon ship! But the Bechs were still waiting for instructions. Suddenly the doors to the deck flew open, it was one of the officers. He said "My God, you're all still here! "Go to your boats, the boat's going down."

We immediately got up to our lifeboat... And it wasn't there. Gone.

Everyone scrambled for places on the last remaining lifeboats. Fred Steels was in one of the first boats to be lowered into the sea. They started lowering the lifeboat and got it down so far. One of the falls jammed and she tilted like that. We had visions of all going for a swim. They managed to straighten her out and got her down. Because of the treacherous conditions, most of the lifeboats failed to launch. In the ensuing chaos the Bech family were separated leaving Barbara alone on a lifeboat. It was just 30 minutes since the torpedo hit the 'Benares'. One suddenly saw her tip down towards the stern and the bows go up in the air... and slid away down to the bottom of the sea. And I thought "Gosh, I wonder what's happened to the others? "I think they must be all right "because they couldn't have drowned in front of me, "and I wouldn't have known it." I clung to that feeling that you couldn't lose your family in front of your eyes without a quiver. Barbara's sister Sonia and her brother Derek had managed to escape the sinking ship with their mother. They were in the sea clinging to a life-raft. We felt very much on our own,

and as we saw the ship go down I said to Sonia and she said to me "What a waste of ice cream!" With the convoy dispersed to avoid further losses there was no immediate hope of rescue. It was suddenly dark and there was an eerie silence as well because up till then we'd been... our attention had been watching what was going on. But when... in the darkness afterwards, we could hear the cries all around us of people calling out "Help! Help!" And there was this incredible silence and blackness...

I'll never forget it as long as I live, it was really frightening.

In the next few hours, many drowned or died of exposure. Eleven-year-old Colin Ryder Richardson was trying to help keep his lifeboat afloat. From time to time, when there was a lull in the sea, we tried to clear the boat of the dead bodies. The bodies were just floating in their lifebelts and our job then was to try to get them out of the lifeboat so that we weren't ourselves knocked over by these floating bodies. It was a pretty gruesome task. When he discovered that his brother Bobby was not in the lifeboat with him, John Baker was completely traumatised.

I remember... Bobby... not being there. I was wrapped in sacking, I believe, to the thwart of the boat and after that there was nothing of memory.

Once hypothermia - caused by exposure to the extreme conditions in the Atlantic - set in, falling asleep and drowning became a serious risk. I lost consciousness, I was hanging on for all my... was worth. but I went... dropped off and the next minute I found I was in the sea. And I saw this rushing water and I remember getting quite calm. I wasn't in a panic, I said "Oh, I'm going to die now. "I wonder what God is like." I remember distinctly thinking that. And then the next moment the 7th engineer pulled me out and he put me onto my tummy and made me spit out the salt water. Bess Walder clung to an overturned lifeboat. As the waves crashed over her, she was determined to survive. My one thought was I had to get home to tell my parents about my brother and why he did not come back. And how I'd tried, but found it impossible to look after him. Derek and Sonia Bech rode the Atlantic waves on a tiny life-raft. Their mother was desperately holding on to them, so they didn't slip off. On the raft, of course, it was bitterly cold all the time. But we did have one sense of pleasure and it was real pleasure

and that was when we used to pass water, to have a pee and we had to pee in our own trousers. The warm water was a real luxury just for a fleeting minute as it passed round our limbs, until it was washed away by the next wave. When it was dawn, my mother'd had enough. And Mummy said "Sonia... "Let's take our lifejackets off and go to sleep in the sea. "It's no good staying up here any longer, it's too much of a fight. "Let's go to sleep in the sea." And I said "No! On no account! We're not going to give up. "I'm sure somebody's coming to save us." What helped Colin Ryder Richardson survive was his unshakeable faith in the Royal Navy. I tried to conjure up the fact that any minute now, if I kept alert, I would see something that would indicate that rescue was just around the corner.

My mother had said "Don't forget, if there's any trouble "the Royal Navy will pick you up, will rescue you." When the destroyer 'HMS Hurricane' was first alerted about the sinking of the 'Benares' it was 200 miles from the disaster area.

of the 18th of September It didn't arrive until the afternoon in the water for over 16 hours. and by this time survivors had been to be rescued. John Baker was amongst the first When we got on to 'Hurricane', is of being in a bed in a ward. the first memory that I have anywhere near to me And everybody who came I wanted to know where Bobby was. And when they allowed me to get up, I asked where Bobby was. everybody I saw, that I was allowed to go in, Every nook and cranny of the boat I wasn't allowed to go in, and some that I looked for him. was never found. But John's brother Bobby

Over five hours, 'HMS Hurricane' picked up 'Benares' survivors scattered miles apart. Derek and Sonia Bech and their mother were rescued. But Barbara was still missing. Mummy was told, from everybody, "Ten children died in my boat..."

"Five children died in my boat..." "No children came out of our boat." And she kept on asking "Has anybody seen a little girl called Barbara? "Has anybody seen a little girl called Barbara? Suddenly this little sliding door slid back and a head popped round... "Is there a girl here called Barbara Bech?" I said "Yes." "Oh!" he said. "Your mother, brother and sister have been worried about you." was there, large as life. And finally, little girl Barbara to be picked up She was the very last lifeboat she was in the safest boat. because she was the safest boat, gave up the search for survivors. When evening fell, 'HMS Hurricane' who was recovering from her ordeal, Bess Walder, amongst those who were rescued. doubted whether her brother had been I'd got this hanging over me... What shall I say about my brother? on the door of the cabin Next day, there was a huge banging and a voice saying "Sit up, Miss." the commander of the destroyer. And who was it? It was "I've got a present for you." And he said And from behind his back, he produced my brother. Twenty-four hours after the 'Benares' had sunk, it was assumed there could be no more survivors. But one of the missing lifeboats, Lifeboat Number 12, had in fact embarked on an epic journey. The crew members were determined to sail 600 miles back to Ireland. One of the children on board was Ken Sparks. We didn't think we were gonna die. We didn't intend to die. We just wondered how long we had to stay in the boat, all cold and wet. I was the luckiest, I had me overcoat. All the other lads only got their pyjamas on. and six children in Lifeboat 12. There were 40 adults of food and water were rationed. To survive, their meagre supplies was dinnertime the following day. The first meal we had

a bit of sardine, beaker of water. It wasn't much - a ship's biscuit. were about eight inches long, The beakers they used and about an inch diameter. they looked like a cigar case,

at dinnertime and in the evening. You used to get that twice a day, (Man sings) to keep everyone's spirits up. It was essential by the crew members There was much singing with Mary Cornish, and story-telling for the children, one of their guardians. Mary, she had this lovely story, a lovely story,

'bout what we would eat when we were rescued. Now everybody had their own choices, but everybody... I don't know why because it was always sarsparella to drink and to eat it was usually very basic like fish and chips. Everybody fancied fish and chips and sarsparella. There was still no sign of land and supplies were running low. Then on the fifth day out at sea, it seemed as if help was at hand. We woke up in the morning, a lovely calm day. Little bit of mist and through it we could see a ship. We thought, wonderful! and getting towards her. Waving, and started pumping her propellers started up again. Then all of a sudden and just disappeared and left us. She started turning knock our morale. Of course, that really did By the eighth day, of food and water had almost run out. the lifeboat's supplies morale was plummeting. With everyone cold and exhausted, We were getting very lethargic. I was thinking about my brother... where he was, everything like that. and what had happened to him, Had he been rescued... And feeling really down. It's a plane.

and I thought... We were laying in the boat I can hear something buzzing. from under the canvas So I came out and looked up, and low and behold...

It looks like an aeroplane.

and they'd actually seen us. And it was. It was a Sunderland was dispatched to rescue them. A nearby destroyer, 'HMS Anthony' pulled up alongside us. Within an hour, the 'Anthony' in a bit of a blessed state... Course, we were all Cramp, frostbite, everything. So they lowered the big scrambling nets down over the side... I said "Right, up you come" and nobody could move. We're all sat there. And nobody could move. So they come down and pick us... lift us up off the boat. Scotland, there was a hero's welcome, When they arrived at Gourock in feared lost on Lifeboat Number 12. especially for the children confusing really, y'know. Well, it was a bit stuck in your face, Suddenly having a camera happening, how you got on, all this. and wanting to know what was on anything and say, y'know... You can't really put a finger You felt this or you felt that. that you knew you were alive. It's just the fact writing a letter to his parents. Ken Sparks was filmed cos you don't when you'll get home. They said, you'd better write home and wrote a letter to my parents So I sat down and told 'em I'd survived and I was quite well and I was eating a lot of food. Naturally because, after all, we hadn't eaten that much, had we? Just a few days earlier, Ken's parents had received a letter informing them he had been lost at sea. I've still got the paper where it says I'm dead, funnily enough... or missing presumed killed. The 20 children who survived, like the Bechs, became heroes for a day. When we got to my house, the taxi driver looked at my mother and said  and you see I do it now... He said "Madam, I do not want a fare. This has been an honour." and I still do. And I thought that was wonderful

was celebrated in the press. The courage of the 'Benares' children But they were reluctant heroes. was given a medal, Colin Ryder Richardson for Brave Conduct. the King's Commendation by receiving this, I felt terribly embarrassed cos when was I gonna wear it? people would say, what is this... To wear it would mean and I'd have to repeat the story. what's it about, it was such a distressing story. I was reluctant to do that because from my parents So I kept on trying to hide it "Why aren't you wearing your medal?" who kept saying And I said "Well, I've mislaid it upstairs" or something like that. "I'll see if I can find it." British newspapers reviled the Nazi torpedo attack that killed 80 innocent children. But the 'Benares' was an unmarked ship and merchant shipping was targeted by both sides. When the crew of U48 heard what they had done, they were stunned. We all sat down and said, what the hell did happen here? And it was our first officer... He said "Look, lads" he said "Don't waste so much on it." He said "This isn't our fault." And he was right there. This wasn't our fault. For many years happened to his younger brother Alan Derek Capel agonised over what had and whether he could have saved him. He only found out the truth in 1982 and rescuers met up again. when the 'Benares' survivors A first reunion, first big reunion. We had a reunion it was. that my brother had been rescued When I found out by 'HMS Hurricane' on the first day, and had been picked up on the rescued boat but had died of exposure and had been buried at sea. "I was coxswain on that boat". One of the crew said were allowed to go to the funerals He said "90% of the crew "90% the crew were in tears..." and... he said... he said "to see such a waste." And that really hit me, that did. But after that, I realised I couldn't have done anything anyway. At the annual reunions, the survivors remember the brothers, sisters, friends, and colleagues they lost at sea. BELL RINGS Out of 406 passengers and crew on the 'SS Benares', 258 died, including 80 out of the 100 children on board. It was a loss that led to the immediate ending

of the overseas evacuation scheme. John Baker remains haunted by the belief that his older brother Bobby sacrificed his life for him on the 'Benares'. these years have passed by... I mean, now in hindsight, after all Bobby gave a great gift to me. be grateful, And... I shall ever forever possibly gave me his lifejacket. Because he gave me his... And he has given me sort of... which he didn't have. 65 years... of life So I'm grateful. Captions (c) SBS Australia 2006

MELANCHOLY VIOLIN between the village and the lake We lived on top of a hill next to the cemetery.

had lovely wild flowers The cemetery

for my mum.

I had to walk very fast To get there past Gipsy George and family. under the graves The Gipsies lived in the cave as I imagined the skeletons and I was pretty spooked sticking out through their ceiling. One day I watched in horror

as young Joe and his brother next door tried to put their sick old dog out of its misery. When the dog refused to die quickly, they let it go. It lived for another three years. Our chooks slept in the open on the lower branches of a tree. But they weren't safe. A fox would spin and dance underneath the birds until they got dizzy and fell. MELANCHOLY VIOLIN Sam, our black pig, was my friend. looking after him. He loved me spending time and white snow covered everything. Winter came I heard wild shrieks fill the... One crisp morning SHRILL VIOLIN to slaughter the pig. The butcher had come on the white snow. Sam ran bleeding I felt sick. sausages my friend would make. Little did I care for the lovely After the long winter nights we welcomed the warm rays of the sun. I was glad winter was coming to an end. A Gipsy boy practised his Fox Dance routine. This was a ditty of rhymed obscenities accompanied by jerking movements. He would amuse summer tourists with his performance just for a few coins.

Some summer nights my brother and I sneaked through the back fence of the garden cinema. We had to keep low and hide behind the bushes. It was so exciting to watch forbidden films. MERRY PIANO MUSIC Zika, my mother's beautiful and scandalous friend, lived by the lakeside. She would go swimming naked in the lake at dusk. MERRY PIANO MUSIC Half the population of the village was watching her... much to her delight. Summer was the best time. My mother loved to go to the beer garden where bright lights, music and dancing filled the night. I could dance too. Grown-up shoes.

TANGO PLAYS

TANGO WINDS UP

Captions (c) SBS Australia 2005

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Nearly a decade ago, a man's fantasy became reality in a forum never seen before -

Kitchen Stadium, a giant cooking arena. The motivation for spending his fortune to create Kitchen Stadium was to encounter new, original cuisines, which could be called true artistic creations. A la cuisine! DRAMATIC MUSIC To realise his dream, he started choosing the top chefs of various styles of cooking.

And he named his men the Iron Chefs, the invincible men of culinary skills. Iron Chef French is Hiroyuki Sakai. Iron Chef Chinese is Chen Kenichi.

And Masahiko Kobe is Iron Chef Italian. Kitchen Stadium is the arena where Iron Chefs await the challenges of master chefs from all over the world. Both the Iron Chef and challenger have one hour to tackle the theme ingredient of the day. Using all their senses, skills, creativity, they're to prepare artistic dishes never tasted before. And if ever a challenger wins over the Iron Chef, he or she will gain the people's ovation and fame forever. Every battle, reputations are on the line in Kitchen Stadium, where master chefs pit their artistic creations against each other. What inspiration will today's challenger bring? And how will the Iron Chef fight back? The heat will be on! TAKESHI KAGA: If memory serves me right, sumo wrestlers are not known to be discerning about what they eat. To them, eating is part of their training. And as far as I know, sumo wrestlers are the only professional fighters who prepare meals called 'chanko' by themselves. As I was becoming more intrigued with the sumo diet, I found a relatively decent chef who was once a sumo wrestler himself. His ring name back then was Fuyoho. And one would think that the menu would be exclusively for sumo wrestlers but I was pleasantly surprised. His dishes more than qualify as quality Japanese cuisine. So now let me introduce today's challenger -

a chef who was once in the sumo ring, head chef of Ononishiki in Osaka, Kiyotaka Ikegawa. Ikegawa's father was also a sumo wrestler named Ononishiki. Following in his father's footsteps, Ikegawa was accepted into a sumo training stable at the age of 16, and was given the job of an orderly of Grand Yokozena Kitanoumi. I assume that the energy of the former grand champion came from the food Ikegawa was preparing. The sumo career came to an end without him becoming a top-ranker. Well, when he was active he was aggressive, an aggressive fighter, which I can see in his personality. I can see that now as, well, as I look back. At age 19, he was promoted to middle rank. But later a serious knee injury prevented him from further promotion, retiring at age 25, with his last ring name Fuyoho. At my stable we had Yokozena Kitanoumi. My dream was to at least make it to the level of a sword carrier to assist the champion in his ceremonial appearance,

to return the kindness he extended me when I was first started. After some years of formal training, he once again followed the footsteps of his father