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ANZAC 90th Anniversary Dawn Service -

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(generated from captions) above Anzac Cove in Gallipoli where, And good morning from the lawns This program is captioned live.

inspires what thought to be sparing His lips hold a prayer that His lips hold a prayer that His lips hold a prayer that come. the tide is the ripple of chaos to the tide is the ripple He senses ad venture, but riding from his chest, eerie grip, his heart leaping forth There on the ship, in the night's uncertainties rest. whispering ship, the abyss of There on the ship, on that Let's listen to that. composition 'Ninety Years Ago'. poet Rupert McCall. He was his heard the recietdal of a poem by Earlier during the prelude, we to share with you this morning. have, I hope, a remarkable ceremony have, I hope, a remarkable ceremony have, I hope, a remarkable ceremony the dawn service this morning. We the dawn service this morning. We He will deliver a reading during The Prince of Wales will be here. New Zealand, Helen Clark, arrive. think I saw the Prime Minister of Minister of Australia is here. I virtually in place. The Prime tell you that the official party is some musical tributes - I should years ago. The prelude has included years ago. The prelude has included years ago. The prelude has included than the diggers who fought here 90 bunch, many of them not much older stoic, chillily and dedicated of that documentary. They're a little later, we'll show you part little later, we'll show you part re-enacts the Gallipoli landing. A documentary that partially They're watching part of a which has almost concluded. viewing of the prelude ceremony, here. I don't want to disturb their barricades a few minutes away from barricades a few minutes away from They're crammed against the when the sun comes up we'll know. when the sun comes up we'll know. how many people are here. Maybe short time ago. It's hard to know - they were still coming in a - they were still coming in a part of the estimated 20,000 crowd whispering because I have people, Australia. The people here - I'm for most of you back home in and I know that it's the afternoon course, it is only the morning here course, it is only the morning here I said 'good morning' because, of I said 'good morning' because, of It's good to have you here with us. It's good to have you here with us. will break on the 90th Anzac Day. in just a few minutes time, dawn above Anzac Cove in Gallipoli where,

Goodbye, and God bless, cobber, so team today. brothers in arms, mates on the same Australians, New Zealanders, lies under the ground wooden crosses stand brave an Anzac grimly abound, there on his grave, grimly abound, there on his grave, lonely grave, with the others that There on his grave, on that lost, peace he returns, 90 years ago. He is hit, and it burns, then to the commander yells "go!". the commander yells "go!". calm shade of blue and with that, For the moment, the sky turns a now to meet with his end. puts ice in his knees, he prepares puts ice in his knees, he prepares Where death blows a breeze that is theirs to defend. is theirs to defend. Turks never budge, the high ground In defending their homeland, the In defending their homeland, the In defending their homeland, the 'sacrifice' tragically fitted. blood would spill, the word There on the hill, so much young he's committed. hill, he is scared but, by God, There on the hill, that unwinnable species is born 90 years ago. the slouch hat is worn, a new grin with a knockabout glow, where the fly-ridden stench, shines the From the dearth of a trench through From the dearth of a trench through innocence dice on those shores. venom, he somehow survives, but his venom, he somehow survives, but his The riches reign venom, -- rain defined, he scrambles and claws. Running and falling, confusion planneded. even reach, nothing unfolded as There on the beach, some would not There on the beach, some would not through as they land. desolate beach, dawn filters desolate beach, dawn filters There on the beach, on that nigh, 90 years ago. landscape is forming, the moment is landscape is forming, the moment is character ready to flow. Now the around him in similar vince, a thought for his mum. Khakis inspires what thought to be sparing

Anzac, lest we forget, 90 years ago. forget, 90 years ago. The legend of As the legend of Anzac and, lest we As the legend of Anzac and, lest we As the legend of Anzac and, lest we will know all from a tale pray our children Gallipoli, home to a coast in us Gallipoli, home to a coast in us journey as friends. journey as friends. journey as friends. journey as friends. with respect and continue this with respect and continue this ascends. Enemies once, now we stand the doff, the flame of our freedom the courage, the kinship, the duty, that these spirits deliver. Ch for that these spirits deliver. Ch for sew hard to depart from the pride sew hard to depart from the pride and shiver. Here in my heart, it's and shiver. Here in my heart, it's and shiver. Here in my heart, it's my heart, I can't help but tremble my heart, I can't help but tremble Here in my heart, with the beat of 17 years, 90 years ago. snow, please cry no tears, he was that in winter is lashed by the the face of a small humble stone could never betray. And this, on the say the words in a strength we

actually watching the finish here around 20 minutes time. Well, we're service which will start in just service which will start in just prelude to the official dawn short time ago here as part of the Ross Edwards that was played a And that was part of the Chorale by

It was unbelievable, what they achieved. When you look around the crowd here tonight, so many young people. Why do you think that this battle, this campaign, is so significant to Australians still and New Zealanders of course? Well I think, Tracy, because they're the same age as the soldiers were. The soldiers were 17, 18, 19, 20, the same as these kids. It's now been were the more athletic ones. Knoll and Battleship Hill. They couple of hours, they got to Scruby there in half an hour. Within a voice of one of the ones who got up right. We heard in the prelude, the some of them were under. That's some of them were under. That's extraordinary feat, given the fire hour of landing, which was an some of these cliffs within half an some of them were at the top of It's eerie. Isn't it the case that way up the cliffs as we're here. I can just feel them working their right here behind us at North beach. right here behind us at North beach. right here behind us at North beach. men would have landed on the beach 'Ninety Years Ago'. Thousands of time that they landed by now, time that they landed by now, amazing. We're here right at the amazing. We're here right at the certainly has. This story is campaign has fascinated you. It historian, Jonathan King. This 'Sydney Morning Herald' author and eye on it. Joining me now is a finale will be but we're keeping an don't know what the surprising it was a spectacular sight. We cliffs around Anzac Cove here and played it earlier, they lit up the you now. Certainly, when they eagle eyes on it as we talk with emotional finale. We're keeping our emotional finale. We're keeping our spectacular, surprising and has been promised to have a of the sound and light show that

around for 90 years and there's been nothing else to dislodge it. It got into our psyche so early. Coincidentally, the number of people that landed in the first 24 people that landed in the first 24 hours, the first day really, were 16,000. I reckon the crowd here tonight is the same number, 16,000. Do you think so? I'm waiting for light to come up, for the day to come up, so we can see. They were catering for up to 20,000 and they've crammed everybody in during the course of the night. That's right. Gary Beck, the director of the Australian war graves, has printed 20 security bracelets. Earlier, it was announced at 15,000. This is the number of people that had to crowd on to Anzac Cove and North Beach this time 90 years ago. It's an incredibly eerie feeling, to feel we're part of a recreation of that mood. It feels like an extraordinary moment in history. This is my first time here. It's wonderful. Perhaps you'll join me again later. My pleasure. Historian Jonathan King. 8,700 Australians and 2,700 New Zealanders paid the ultimate sacrifice here on the hills and in the gullies and in the trenches around Anzac Cove at Gallipoli 90 years ago. One of them was Lieutenant Colonel William Malone from New Zealand, who died in the fierce fighting. In fact, it was New Zealand's most fierce battle at Chunuk Bair. He wrote a letter home to his wife shortly before he went to that battle. Quinn's Post, 8:15pm, August 5, 1915.

And you're now seeing part of a didgeridoo solo that was played a little earlier here in the prelude to the dawn service by William Barton. The sound and light show finished here just a short time ago. We'll show you parts of that, highlights of that, in just a few short minutes, in fact, before we go to the dawn service. Now, for those of you who are perhaps a little hazy on the historical details of this campaign, we have some background here, some background on how it started, how it happened and some of the major events, some of the major battles of this campaign. It's a campaign that many historians agree probably launched the birth of three nations - Australia, New Zealand and Turkey. Have a look at this. At the beginning of a new century, there is often the prospect of hope and better times. In the case of Australia and New Zealand, hope lay in independent nationhood as the curtain went up on the 20th century.

But, against a backdrop of an increasingly restless Europe came responsibility. Germany's invasion of neutral Belgium led to Britain's declaration of war. In Australia and New Zealand, thousands of men enlisted to fightor their own enlisted to fightor their own countries and for the British Empire. A volunteer force of 20,000 Australians formed the first Australian Imperial Force, the AIF, and sailed to Egypt with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. The news came through that Turkey had news came through that Turkey had aligned with Germany and Austria-Hungary and feared invasion by Russia, Britain's ally in this war. Soon, all the European powers were at war. The Dardenelles were strategically vital. But naval attempts by vital. But naval attempts by Britain and France to control the waterway ended in failure. A land attack was called for. 30,000 Australians and New Zealanders would form the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, the Anzacs. Zealand Army Corps, the Anzacs. Their eventual mission would be to land on Gallipoli along with Britain and other allied armies. Britain and other allied armies. Britain and other allied armies. Britain and other allied armies. The goal was to move up the peninsula and capture the Turkish capital. Initially, the Turkish Army was not seen as powerful. It Army was not seen as powerful. It Army was not seen as powerful. It was believed the Turks would quickly collapse once the British landed at Cape Helles. How long those predictions were. A Hobart those predictions were. A Hobart teacher wrote of the landing, "I turned around and a man in front of me dropped, hit in the head. This me dropped, hit in the head. This was the first casualty and soon was the first casualty and soon there were others. Three men were hit before the boat struck the shore. We were faced by almost perpendicular cliffs. After about a minute or two, we started to climb."

minute or two, we started to climb." The first streaks of dawn appeared The first streaks of dawn appeared at 4:04. The sun rose at $ 5:15. By dawn, two divisions were ashore. The casualties were high. The first Anzac Day, as we now call it, was a day of terrible slaughter. Hundreds were killed on both sides. Many stories flow from the fateful Many stories flow from the fateful landing and subsequent events. Some landing and subsequent events. Some never made it to the telling. A few never made it to the telling. A few are legendary, like that of Simpson are legendary, like that of Simpson and his donkey. Private John and his donkey. Private John Simpson Kirk Patrick was originally from the north of England. An from the north of England. An official war historian wrote, "On the night of April 25, he annexed and donkey and each day and half of every night, he worked continuously, bringing wounded to the dressing stations down on the beach. Simpson escaped death so beach. Simpson escaped death so many times that he was fate listic. Furious shrapnel fire never stopped him." him." him." He was finally hit in the heart by a stray bullet in shrapnel gully. a stray bullet in shrapnel gully. Simpson is the story of all stretcher bearers. He epitomised the Anzac spirit - good to his mates, whistling as shrapnel fell around him, courageous for the sake of others. Stories of temporary truce. Over the months of bitter fighting, Turks and Anzacs grew to admire one another's courage. On 24 May an unusual suspension of arms was agreed so both sides could bury was agreed so both sides could bury their dead. Some had been there their dead. Some had been there since the landing. The stench was terrible. A lull in the storm of war. But the fighting would resume, such is the horrible way of for all sides, such is its irony. In the words of a Turkish soldier: Stories of ordinary Turkish soldiers for the events at soldiers for the events at soldiers for the events at Gallipoli are as important to their history as they are to ours. They Turkish heroes, like a Colonel who was sent to the heights of Chunuk was sent to the heights of Chunuk Bair where the Turks were faltering under British naval bombardment and the strong stand of New Zealanders. The Turks regained the summit and no British Empire soldier ever again held the Dardenelles from again held the Dardenelles from that peak. This Turkish Colonel became Turkey's first president in 1923. In 1934, he wrote in part of the Anzacs: Gallipoli's Turkish defenders lost over 85,000. British Empire and French troops 45,000 from the beaches of Helles to the cliffs, gull yisz and trenches of Anzac in gull yisz and trenches of Anzac in the space of some eight months. An Anzac called Gallipoli "one long cry" the Australian poet Banjo Patterson said: General Sir Ian Hamilton, who led the official land expedition wrote: We shake hands with the people of We shake hands with the people of those countries we first fautd against. We've become friends. All against. We've become friends. All of us have found time to remember them whom we lost. All of us have found time to contemplate a more found time to contemplate a more peaceful future together. (Last Post plays) Welcome back to this special Nine Network coverage of the dawn Network coverage of the dawn service at Gallipoli. This is live coverage and you are watching pictures from the memorial lawns just above North Beach, which is just up from Anzac Cove. Down there in the official area, you can see that the party has taken its that the party has taken its position. They are members of position. They are members of Australia's federation guard and Australia's federation guard and Australia's federation guard and the New Zealand Defence Force. The masters of ceremonies, Air The masters of ceremonies, Air Vice-Marshal Gary Beck retired is about to speak. We're just waiting for the official We're just waiting for the official proceedings to begin. I'm joined by historian Jonathan King. You've a few of these, haven't you? A colleague of mine, a Turkish historian, says he came in 1980 and there were 300 people. People told him that would be the last time there was such a big crowd. It's gone from 300 in 1980 to 16,000 minimum today. It's extraordinary,

isn't it? It used to be held down the beach at Ari Burnu Cemetery and Ari Burnu Cemetery is tiny. You can understand why they had to move it. Ari Burnu Cemetery is about a tennis court size and this is about two football ovals. That's how big it's grown since 1980. They moved it here in 2,000. Prime Ministers, Your Royal Highnesses, ministers, ambassadors and national representatives, distinguished guests, veterans, ladies and gentlemen, on behalf of the governments of Australia and New Zealand, I welcome you to Anzac. Also on behalf of our governments, I wish to thank our Turkish hosts for their generosity and understanding as we prepare for these very special services and as our people visit each year in ever increasing numbers. We grate think acknowledge the extraordinary assistance we've received from security forces and Turkish National Parks. While this remains National Parks. While this remains an Anzac service, we recognise its international character and we ask that you all join us in in program. The program is presented in two languages and I trust you each have a copy. The 70,000-strong Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, consisted of a New Zealand contingent, a Newfoundland, Indian contingent, two divisions of the new and untried Australian and New Zealand Army corps, a Royal Navy division and a French colonial division. I now invite the Chief of the Defence Force New Zealand to present the prologue. Exactly 90 years ago this morning, our countries embarked on a military mission on this very ground that, over the next eight

months, was to combine extreme tragedy, gallantry, occasional inspired leadership at the lower levels, gross incompetence at the strategic levels, endurance, cruelty and compassion. Above all, it was to rob our respective countries of much of our youth and destroy our innocence. But it was also to give us this day on which we commemorate many things, but mostly pride in those young and not so young men who came here and lost their lives. And, for those who survived, in most cases losing their ability to ever lead a normal life again. None of us here this morning can ever really conceive of the hell on earth that this place was for all involved over eight months. We must never forget that, while New Zealand lost 2,700 men killed, Australia, some 8,700, British forces over 21,000, the French 10,000, the Turks, who were defending their homeland, lost nearly 87,000 men. Those eight months were a defining time in the life of our two nations. Side by side, our men fought unrelentingly. Side by side, they grew in respect for their Turk opponents. Side by side, they grew critical of the high command and of the British strategy. In those eight months, the men of our two nations developed a sense of independence and confidence that, as soldiers, they were the equal of any, friend or foe. It is that sense of national self-confidence which embeds Gallipoli in our national psyche of Australia and New Zealand. We could argue that, as these statistics show, Gallipoli was, in fact, only a precursor of a larger, more painful ordeal by fire. On the Western Front over the next three

years, our nation's soldiers lost more comrades than in any other conflict. Even in all our battles spread across the globe during the far larger Second World War, New Zealand and Australia never experienced the concentrated losses that we suffered on the Western Front. It is no coincidence that the unknown warrior of each of our nations was brought home from the battlefields of France. Yet Anzac Day remains pre-eminent in our historical memory. Perhaps that is because there are so many lessons still to be taken from this day and this campaign. We can take deserved pride from the gallantry of our men but we must also look behind it. There was no glory 90 years ago. Rather, we look back now and see the tragedy of their sacrifice. Indeed, as we look back now, we see the folly of the high command of the time. Our military professionals today see in this campaign joint warfare at its worst, at least from the British side. at least from the British side. Lack of quard nation, lack of focus, blunders and the -- coordination, lack of focus, blunders and the squandering of life. Perhaps the Gallipoli campaign was a water mark of our nation's imperial subservens. We have learned valuable lessons from that experience. No commander today will risk young lives needlessly. Even in the Second World War, our national formations were committed to battle only with due consideration. General Freiburg, commanding the second New Zealand division in the desert and Italy consist epbltly monitored the casualty rates, not hesitating to call off battle as the cost rose too high, as he did just before the final assault on Monte Cassino in 1944. General Freiburg was himself a Gallipoli veteran, winning a Distinguished Service Order for service here. His abhorns of the tragedy of Gallipoli served his country well in the Second World

War. There a are parallels in the Australian experience. Colonel Scott Cam, later to become -- Mustafa Kemal, later to become President Ataturk, was another. President Ataturk, was another. Just think what our countries would have been like today had those tens of thousands of young Anzacs not died on foreign soils but had lived their lives normally and created a future generation of their own. Those young men were the adventurers of our nations. They were the Rhodes scholars or the mineworkers or the gum diggers. They were the young businessmen, they were the farmers and they were sometimes straight from school. They were all volunteers in the service of their country. They were the very such around home nations gardener their strength and determine their future. But they were never to be given that chance. Their lasting legacy is that they laid down a challenge to the people of our nations who survived them. As Dr John Mcrae wrote some two years later in France, "To you from failing hands we throw the torch, be yours to hold it hard, if ye break faith with us who die, we shall not sleep, to poppies grow in philanders fields." For all of us here this -- Flanders fields." For all of us here this morning, this is our challenge. Look around you now. This is where the Anzac legend starts. Later this morning, many of you will be at Lone Pine or Chunuk Bair. They deserve to be remembered as the story of Anzac. The Australians who took and held Lone Pine for a time and the New Pine for a time and the New Zealanders who captured Chunuk Bair, only to have it retaken some three days later. These Anzacs were the bravest of the brave, fighting in appalling conditions against an eke weal brave and determined enemy. Their courage, determination, endurance, and perhaps, above all,

their selfless commitment to not letting their mates down, are the touch stones that we must ensure are never lost or forgotten. A young New Zealander probably summed up the thoughts of all fighting men on both sides when he wrote home, "-- having just seen his best friends killed, "I didn't cry, unless Gallipoli was one long cry. If you cried once, you'd never stop. There were friends going every day and sometimes every hour of the day, wonderful friends. I grieved inwardly. That was all you could do. As the war went on, you could forget the death of a very fine friend in five minutes." Today, our Anzacs are serving in countries in many locations around the world. From Iraq to Afghanistan, from Kosovo to Cambodia, from Sierra Leone to the Solomon Islands, and New Zealanders and Turks serve side by side in Bosnia and , again, in Afghanistan. And it is no longer Afghanistan. And it is no longer Afghanistan. And it is no longer just men who are our Anzacs. Our women are fully represented in most of our deployments. They stand into danger with equal commitment to their mates and their countries. their mates and their countries. The Anzacs of today may come from a different background. Certainly different background. Certainly they're more questioning of their destiny, maybe more cynical of leadership - although that is leadership - although that is questionable - but I will wager that they have the same base values that they have the same base values of our forebears. And they would eke weal suffer the trials of our en-- equally suffer the trials of en-- equally suffer the trials of our an crestors should they ever be our an crestors should they ever be our an crestors should they ever be called upon to do so. I am certain called upon to do so. I am certain that the youth of this country, of that the youth of this country, of whom we are all guests today, would do the same. As today progresses, all of us will learn something more of our heritage. By simply being of our heritage. By simply being here, we are already doing that. here, we are already doing that. This land is sacred to all nations whose men fought and died here. Australia and New Zealand realise Australia and New Zealand realise the high water mark of imperial subservens. We realised that we must shake off the shackles of colonial dependence. We must stand for what we believe in and we must for what we believe in and we must be prepared to defend our ideals whatever the cost and the modern Turkily was born here. That was the chief of the New That was the chief of the New Zealand Defence Force, Air Marshal Bruce Ferguson. Jonathan, he had choice words to say about the folly choice words to say about the folly of the high command. Well he was justifiably very anti-British . As, you know, -- as you know, the you know, -- as you know, the British mucked the whole thing up. This is the chief of the Australians Defence Force, General Peter Cosgrove. 90 years ago today, there gathered off the coastline of Gallipoli one of the greatest invasion fleets the world had ever invasion fleets the world had ever invasion fleets the world had ever seen. In dozens of transports and Royal Navy warships were assembled Royal Navy warships were assembled soldiers from many countries, for soldiers from many countries, for this was truly a multi-national force. It was one which represented force. It was one which represented force. It was one which represented the alliance of two empires - the British and the French. For the men of the Australian and New Zealand Army corps, the Anzacs, this was a special moment. In a last message from their commanding officer, the Anzacs were told that what they Anzacs were told that what they were about to do would go down in history to the Glory of the soldiers of Australia and New Zealand. But what they achieved here at Gallipoli went well beyond conventional military glory, although they gained that in great although they gained that in great measure. In this challenge terrain, measure. In this challenge terrain, against brave and determined Turkish soldiers, they showed steadfastness, courage and, above all, a wonderful support of each other in the emotional and physical stress of war. When we wander over these barren but beautiful hills, we become aware of a deeper legacy of those distant battles. The carefully tended crementries and carefully tended crementries and memorials, which we see all around memorials, which we see all around us, are silent reminders of the terrible price that war has extracted from all its participants. This dawn service, which has become so much part of our Australians and so much part of our Australians and New Zealanders have chosen to remember what happened in Gallipoli and subsequent conflicts, allows us to reflect upon why we are here. It to reflect upon why we are here. It is not to glorify war. It is to honour the memory of those men and honour the memory of those men and women of all nations who fought here. We remember their essential humanity, for they were not unlike us. They struggled to live well and, us. They struggled to live well and, if needs must, to die with as much if needs must, to die with as much dignity as war allowed. For us, that is example enough. It is that tradition that draws us here today for, on Anzac Day, we commemorate all those who lost their lives in war. Chief of the Australian Defence Force, General Peter Cosgrove, who, amazingly, is on his first virs to amazingly, is on his first virs to Gallipoli. Only just a few weeks before his retirement. And now the before his retirement. And now the Prime Minister of New Zealand, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, the Right Honourable, Helen Clark. At dawn, at Anzac Cove on 25 April, history speaks to us. We sit in awe, history speaks to us. We sit in awe, wondering how we would have felt as young troops coming ashore on

landing craft not knowing what the new Daewoo bring. We look at this challenging terrain, with its steep challenging terrain, with its steep hillsides. We marvel at the courage hillsides. We marvel at the courage that it took to move across it that it took to move across it that it took to move across it under fire with fellow soldiers moving, falling all around. Later, as we move to the Hilltop to Lone as we move to the Hilltop to Lone Pine and then along the ridge to Chunuk Bair, we come to understand so much more about the carnage about this 7-month campaign, which ultimately ended in failure for the Allied Forces. We know that all sides bore devastating casualties. For New Zealand, the Gallipoli campaign saw the highest percentage of casualties in any campaign in our history. Back home, in our towns, cities and rural districts, towns, cities and rural districts, few families or communities were left untouched by this tragedy. As left untouched by this tragedy. As the battle unfolded, the troops had to come to terms with the reality we can hardly imagine. Day and night, no-one was ever safe. Even night, no-one was ever safe. Even between battles, people died from sniper fire, sometimes in mid-sentence. To add to the mid-sentence. To add to the difficulties, there was no replacement clothing, too little food and water, and no sanitation. food and water, and no sanitation. As well, the Anzacs often lacked enough of the fundamental tools of combat - field telephones, artillery shells and timber and corrugated iron with which to build trenches were all in short build trenches were all in short supply. The men had to learn to make their own hand grenades out of make their own hand grenades out of jam tins. That the soldiers accepted and dealt with all this seems, from today's perspective, a triumph of bravery, ingenuity and endurance. It was in such endurance. It was in such conditions that a lasting bond was formed between the New Zealand and Australian soldiers. Australia's official historian, Charles Bean wrote of the fighting, "In the

first few days of the campaign , in this fierce test, each saw in the other a brother's qualityless. As brothers they died. Their Lloyds lay mingled in the same narrow trenches. As brothers they were trenches. As brothers they were buried. Three days of genuine trial buried. Three days of genuine trial had established a friendship which had established a friendship which had established a friendship which centuries will not destroy." And so it's proved to be. The Anzac spirit it's proved to be. The Anzac spirit has manifested itself time and again in our history. In recent again in our history. In recent times, it's seen our military forces work together in East Timor, the Solomon Islands and in disaster-stricken South-East Asia disaster-stricken South-East Asia after the tsunami. We know that, as in the past, we will be called on to work together again in the future. But Gallipoli has significance for both New Zealand and Australia in another sense too. and Australia in another sense too. It was here that our young nations It was here that our young nations began to become of age. It was from here that we began to think of ourselves, not just as servants of the British Empire, but as distinct the British Empire, but as distinct national entities. Thus, out of catastrophe, each of our nations emerged with a new sense of certainty about our own destiny and certainty about our own destiny and our own place in the world. For our own place in the world. For Turkey, too, Gallipoli was a turning point. The invasion was repelled, albeit at great cost to human life. The commander human life. The commander responsible for the defence of responsible for the defence of Gallipoli, Mustafa Kemal, Ataturk, Gallipoli, Mustafa Kemal, Ataturk, was to rise within a few short years, to be the founding president years, to be the founding president of modern Turkey. His legacy to his people has been immense. Today, as we commemorate the Anzacs and the sopldiers of other Allied -- soldiers of other Allied nations, we also commemorate the Turkish soldiers who fell defending their homeland. The words on the wall before us are those of a Turkish veteran, who wrote simply, "Their

duty was to come here and invade. Ours was to defend." No joy can be found in what happened on the killing fields of Gallipoli. But, amidst death and disaster, there was courage, there was honour, and there was respect between there was respect between adversaries which laid the foundation for reconciliation. We do, indeed, owe a debt of gratitude to Turkey for setting aside this land as a Peace Park and for welcoming us each year as we commemorate this deeply significant part of our history. As the successes, and de-- successors and descendants of the soldiers who fought here, it is our responsibility now to reflect on their service and their sacrifice and to work for a world in which future generations will not face the horror which these brave men faced with bravery and with honour. Thank you. APPLAUSE I now call on a Major who will quote the famous quote from Mustafa Kemal, Ataturk, in Turkish. (Speaks Turkish)

(Speaks Turkish) That was Ataturk's famous quotation delivered in Turkish. Bear with us, you're about to hear it in English. We'll now have the same quote in English. The founder of Turkish republic and the owner of the victory, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's letter to the Australian and New Zealand mothers, Australian and New Zealand mothers, written in 1934. "Those heroes that shed their blood on the soil of this country, here you are in the lands of a friend country. You are lying here side by side with our men. May you rest in peace. Those mothers that sent their sons from distant lands, wipe away your tears , since your sons are lying in our bosom. They are in peace and they will rest in peace. Since they sacrificed their lives on our lands, they have become our sons as well. APPLAUSE The Prime Minister of Australia, the honourable John Howard, will

now address us. now address us. 90 years ago, as dawn began to break, the first sons of a young nation assailed these shores. These young Australians with their New Zealand comrades, had come to do their bit in a malstrm, not of their making. Over eight impossible months they forged a legend whose grip on us grows tighter with each passing year. In the hills, ridges and gullies above us, Anzacs fought, died, dug in and hung on. Here they won a compelling place in the Australian story. Today we remember the 50,000 Australians who served in the Gallipoli campaign. And the more than 26,000 who've fell or were wounded here. We remember too the sons of New Zealand, who died and suffered. And let us not forget the sons of Britain - France, India, Newfoundland and , of course, Turkey, who died in their countless thousands on this peninsula. Gallipoli began our involvement in a cataclysism that would cut down the youth, not only of Australia, but of many countries across the world. Nearly two-thirds of the

330,000 Australians who served abroad in the great war would become casualties. 60,000 would never see Australia again. We remember today a century of Australian sacrifice. The more than 100,000 Australians who have died in war and for peace in our name. in war and for peace in our name. From Kokoda to Lon Tan and Afghanistan. Those who fought here in places like Quinn's Post, Pope's Hill and The Nek changed forever the way we saw our world and ourselves. They bequeathed Australia a lasting sense of national identity. They sharpened our democratic temper and our questioning eye towards authority. We used to say that the ranks of the original Anzacs were thinning with each passing year - they are all gone now. Now, what swells with each Anzac season is a hunger for their stories. Now, we remember them not as old soldiers, but as young Australians, often from the same suburbs, streets, districts and towns that we come from. Just as many of you have come here today with your brothers and your mates . So it was 90 years ago that the young of Australia surged forward to enlist with their brothers and their mates. We imagined young men swimming amidst death and danger, anything to escape the heat, the

fatigue, the flies and the lice. We think especially this morning of the families broken here and in other foreign fields. James and Jannette Hallihan of Western Australia sent four sons to the Australia sent four sons to the great war, three never came home. One of them, Wally, survived Gallipoli on the western front, Gallipoli on the western front, only to be killed in the final only to be killed in the final exchanges of November, 1918. History helps us to remember but the spirit of Anzac is greater than a debt to pass -- past deeds. It lives on in the valour and sacrifice of young men and women that a noble Australia in our time, in scrub, in the Solomons, in the villages of Timor, in the deserts of Iraq and the coast of Nias. It lives on through a nation's easy familiarity, through Australians looking out for each other, through courage and compassion in the face of adversity. And so we dedicate ourselves at this hour, at this place, not just to the memory of Anzac, but to its eternal place in the Australian soul. Soon, we go to Lone Pine, where the names of almost half our Gallipoli casualties are recorded. One of them buried there is Noel Edwards of Bendigo, who took part in that charge against Turkish trenches. Before heading into no-man's-land, Noel shared a meal with his two mates. Gill was severely wounded in mates. Gill was severely wounded in mates. Gill was severely wounded in the attack, Curly was to win a Victoria Cross. Noel fell at the

Victoria Cross. Noel fell at the place the Turks called 'The Ridge place the Turks called 'The Ridge of Blood'. After the war, Noel's mother penned some words that evoked the painful loss of life's promise. That echo down the ages, promise. That echo down the ages, promise. That echo down the ages, and remind us why we are here. How and remind us why we are here. How shall I miss him when from overseas shall I miss him when from overseas the Anzacs come amid shouts of victory. When eager voices answering smiles awake, and hands press hands for old remembererance press hands for old remembererance press hands for old remembererance sake, for many a face will wear a mask of joy with heart strings mask of joy with heart strings mask of joy with heart strings aching for the absent boy. In our time, and for all time, we will remember them. APPLAUSE The call to worship and prayers will be conducted by a member of the New Zealand Defence Force and a member of the Royal Australian Navy. We gather this morning from the four corners of the world. We are drawn to this holy and sacred ground. And we pray. We meet together on this special Anzac Day together on this special Anzac Day to remember all those who gave their lives in the conflict at Gallipoli and in all wars. And meeting year after year we honour and will keep precious the memory of those who died. We recognise the courage, determination and commitment of those who fought for their country, seeking justice and peace for all. We remember too those who survived with terrible injuries. We remember those heart-broken parents, families and friends who endured the grief of knowing their loved ones would never return. We acknowledge before God our own inability to live at peace and ask him through this service to give us the spirit of peace. May we live lives that are worthy of those, our forebears, who sacrificed their lives on this peninsula. Our first reading this morning is a reading from Psalm 121, which will be read by his Royal which will be read by his Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales. I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills from whence cometh my help. hills from whence cometh my help. hills from whence cometh my help. My help cometh even from the Lord, who hath made heaven and earth. who hath made heaven and earth. He will not suffer thy foot to be He will not suffer thy foot to be moved and he that keepeth thee will not sleep. Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. shall neither slumber nor sleep. The Lord Himself is thy keeper. The Lord Is thy defence upon their right hand so that the sun shall not burn thee by day, neither the moon by night. The Lord shall preserve thee from all evil. preserve thee from all evil. preserve thee from all evil. Yae, it is even He that shall keep thy soul. The Lord shall preserve thy going The Lord shall preserve thy going out and thy coming in from this time forth forever more. We will stand together and sing our first hymn, 'The Recessional'. CONGREGATION SING 'THEY RECESSIONAL' CONGREGATION SING 'THE RECESSIONAL' (All sing) * Lord got of hosts, with us yet # Lest we forget, lest we forget

Please be seated. Our second reading this morning - Matthew reading this morning - Matthew 5 verses 1-9, will be read by the verses 1-9, will be read by the director of Veterans Affairs, New Zealand. Now, when Jesus saw the crowds, He Now, when Jesus saw the crowds, He went up on a mountain side and sat went up on a mountain side and sat down. His disciples came to Him and he began to teach them, saying, "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted. Blessed are they will be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Blessed are those who hunger earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. in heart, for they will see God. And blessed are the peacemakers for they will be called the sons of God." Let us call upon our good God as we Let us call upon our good God as we Let us call upon our good God as we pray. Let us pray, heavenly Father, as we are surrounded surrounded by memories of the grim surrounded by memories of the grim reality of war, we pray for peace in our world. Prosper the efforts of all those who labour to bring understanding and reconciliation between nations, that all people may learn to live peaceably together to the honour of your name. Amen. O God of all mercies and comfort, we pray for all those who continue to suffer through the wars of men and nations, by loss of home or faculties, by loss of friends or loved ones, by loss of happiness or security or freedom. We play for those whose hearts are still bitter those whose hearts are still bitter and find it difficult to forgive. and find it difficult to forgive. May they know your pardon and peace. May they know your pardon and peace. Amen. And let us all dedicate Amen. And let us all dedicate ourselves for the purpose of peace. God of peace, as we remember and God of peace, as we remember and honour those who fought and died here, may we be reminded of their courage and sacrifice in the cause courage and sacrifice in the cause of justice and peace. This morning, we dedicate ourselves to work for peace in our world, our country, and our relationship with others. As we leave here, may be the remembrance of those who fought and laid down their lives at Gallipoli inspire us to live in peace, to let peace live. Amen. And the prayer that Jesus himself taught us: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come. Your will be done on earth as in heaven. Give us today our daily bread, forgive us our since as we forgive those who sin against us. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil for the kingdom, the

power and the glory are yours, now and forever, amen. Please stand as we sing our next hymn, 'Abide With Me'. Leading the prayer there was principal chaplain Eric Burton of the Royal Australian Navy. (All sing) * Abide With Me, fast falls the eventide # The darkness deepens, Lord with me abide # When other helpers fail and comforts flee Help of the helpless, Lord, Abide With Me With Me # Swift to its close ebbs out life's little day # Earth's joys grow dim, its glories pass away # Change and decay in all around I see # O thou who changest not, abide with me with me # I fear no foe with thee at hand to bless # Ills have no weight, and tears no bitterness # Where is death's sting? Where, grave, thy victory? # I triumph still if thousand abide with me gsh - thou Abide With Me please be seated. The first official wreath this morning will be laid by the New Zealand Prime Minister, the right honourable Helen Clark Zealand Prime Minister, the right honourable Helen Clark . The Prime Minister of Australia, the Honourable John Howard

His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales As the official wreath-laying ceremony continues over the next few minutes, let's reflect on what we see. I'm counting about 100 people in the immediate slopes above the beach here. That's the extraordinary thing - to look around you as the light got brighter, people right up on the range, Walker's Ridge and the edge where the Anzacs would have seen Turks shooting back at them. It's a - I got a creepy thing on the back of my neck. It took me back 90 years. That's what the Anzacs would have seen when they came ashore - Turks shooting back at them. We have gone back in our minds here. Where the Anzacs at this time 90

years ago? We're now at 6:20 local time and the landings started at 4:30. The landings started at 4:30 and the 9th and 10th Battalions landed down at the south of North Beach we had the 11th and 12th and men from the 11th and 12th ran up the beach where we are now and in two hours, they got up on to Scrubby Knoll, Battleship Hill, about 2km inland so they could see the Dardenelles. It was a fantastic achievement. But, unfortunately, they got cut off, they got cut off by the Turks and they had to retreat. They didn't get enough reinforcements and nobody ever got there again. That's one of the tragic ironies of this campaign, was that these brave men under fire disorientated and disorganised because of the way the landing was carried out actually got further on the first day than they ever would again in eight months of bloody fighting. Twice as far. We never got more than 1km inland, so they got twice as far on that first day. If the British leaders had been really flexible and lat rall thinking, they would have said, "Quick, get reinforcements out to them and dig in and get support." But they were actually ordered back on some occasions by people who said, "That's not part of the plan.". So, all of the people here today criticised the British. Helen Clark, Air Vice-Marshal Ferguson, one of the strongest things that came out of today was the anti- -- anti-British comments from the key speakers. I could hardly believe it. Especially with the Prince of Wales there. It's not often that you hear it. Normally, and particularly normally from political leaders and defence leaders, normally there's a little more diplomacy. I wonder what the Prince was thinking about all of that. Well, I felt very sorry for

the Prince of Wales. But he's - his predecessor, King George V, had very incompetent leaders. He had Lord Kitchener, the minister for war and Ian hammilityion who spent most of his time out on a ship, who had to be sacked eventually for incompetence and a whole sting of incompetent leaders and they were largely responsible for a mismanaged campaign that led to the deaths of Australians and New Zealanders. By the way, you know who would be pleased? The Anzacs would be pleased here today that their leaders, particularly the New Zealanders, were critical of the British that September them to their death. -- sent them to their death. As we watch the wreath laying, we see eerily in the horizon - certainly close up to the shore, HMAS 'Anzac' and on the horizon other warships. Including British and French. We are witnessing here in the 16,000 odd people are witnessing here the closest thing witnessing here the closest thing you can experience to what it would have been like the original landing. Ladies and gentlemen, would you please be upstanding for the owed. The Anzacs would be thrilled that The Anzacs would be thrilled that we remembered them. You'd like to they so. -- you'd like to think so. This is -- you'd like to think so. This is the Ode of Remembrance enter the national president of the royal New Zealand returned and services association. They shall grow not old, as we that

are left grow old. Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in At the going down of the sun and in the morning, we will remember them. We will remember them. (Last Post plays) SILENCE BLOWS REVEILLE Ladies and gentlemen, would you please remain standing for the final blessing. Unto God's gracious mercy and protection, we commit you. The Lord

bless you and keep you. The Lord bless you and keep you. The Lord make his face to shine upon you and be gracious unto you. The Lord lift up his count nens upon you and give you peace both now and evermore and everybody said "amen". That was the final blessing from chaplain Lance Lukin of the New Zealand Defence Force. (Band plays the Turkish National Anthem) (Sings) # Australians all let us rejoice for we are young and free

# With golden soil and wealth for toil our home is girt by sea # Our land abounds in nature's # Our land abounds in nature's gifts of beauty rich and rare gifts of beauty rich and rare # In history's page let every stage advance Australia fair advance Australia fair # In joyful strains, then, let us sing # Advance Australia fair. # # Beneath the raidiant sun # We'll toil with hearts and hands # To make this Commonwealth of ours # Renowned of all the lands # For those who've come across the sea sea # With boundless plains -- we've boundless plains to share # With courage let us all combine to advance Australia fair to advance Australia fair to advance Australia fair # In joyful strains , then, let us sing advance Australia fair. #

(Sings 'God Defend New Zealand' in Maori) (Sings) # God of nations at thy feet # In the bonds of love we meet # Hear our voices, we entreat # God defend our free land # Guard Pacific's triple star # From the shafts of strife and war # Make her praises heard afar # God defend New Zealand. # APPLAUSE AND CHEERING Ladies and gentlemen, please be seated. The party will now dismount. And the Catafulque party is now leaving the main area. They were from the Australian and New Zealand from the Australian and New Zealand Defence Force. The official party will now depart. I'll simply ask that those of you in their path immediately to clear in front of me, clear that path as the prime ministers leave. That concludes our live broadcast. And now the official guests, as you've just heard, the master of ceremonies, Gary Beck, has announced that the official guests will now leave and that concludes the dawn service for the 90th anniversary of Anzac Day. On 25 April 1915 they came ashore. This morning, Jonathan, we've had a sense, as much as we possibly can, 90 years after it, in peacetime, of perhaps what they went through. I think so. We're in the same location. We were here in the dark. We had to wait for it to become light, for the dawn to break. We went through the same freezing bitter cold and, as I say, we were about the same number of people. We also had the ships out there on the Aegean sea. It's about as close as you can get. And when you think about the kids that died, we remember them. It's a funny thing, because they came away on what they thought was a granddad venture, too. The view of war, I think, back then, was different to now, would you say? Well, it was pre-machine gun. They didn't realise machine guns. They also didn't know about aircraft that could drop bombs. Tanks were introduced in that war. The war before that, the Boer War, was a cavalry war with horses and charging with, you know, swords. It was 303 rifles. It became very different war. They went off for adventure. I interviewed the last 10 Anzacs from Gallipoli, from here, before they died. They all said, "Oh, we just went off for a bit of fun." Some of them might have had a bit of fun but they certainly had

an awful lot more than they bargained for. Oh, it was a terrible experience, Gallipoli. It was good that General Cosgrove said, "We're not here to glorify war." All of the last Anzacs from Gallipoli said, "Please don't glorify what we did at Gallipoli. We don't want to fight on foreign shores again. It was a mistake." Today, we celebrate their bravery and courage. Cosgrove was right. I certainly think we haven't glorified it today but we have commemorated it well and truly. Thank you very for your company. I hope that you've enjoyed what you've seen here during our morning and during your afternoon. I hope that you have felt that you were here with us. If you missed it earlier, we're going to show you, we're going to close now with some shots, some shots from the sound and light show, from the prelude to the dawn service just a short time ago. Thanks for being with us. Bye. Supertext Captions by the Australian Caption Centre. www.auscap.com.au