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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) who could see yourself in a car If you're the kind of person to cool itself, that soaks up the sun and produces fewer emissions, that ingeniously saves fuel to park itself that has the intelligence even before it occurs, and can detect a collision perhaps you're a Prius person. Toyota Prius. The all new 3rd Generation See more at SBS World News Australia at 9:30 - Coming up in Coming up in

Western Australia's Supreme Court has made a landmark ruling quadriplegic the right to die. effectively granting a Perth The State's Chief Justice ruled right to direct his own treatment that Christian Rossiter had the be administered against his wishes. and that food and water should not killed in the Kokoda air crash The first bodies of the 13 people to Port Moresby. have now been flown out retrieved from the wreckage, Six bodies have so far been it will take to recover the rest. but it's not known how long The Government has rebuffed calls for renewable energy legislation from the emissions trading bill, to be split off in the Senate yesterday. which was rejected been ordered out of her local pool And a Muslim woman in France has swimming suit known as a 'burkini'. for wearing a full-length See you then. Those stories and more at 9:30. My name is Ronald Reagan. of 16 million Americans to... Last year, the contributions of the United States The future 40th president from his fellow countrymen is campaigning for donations for a radio station in Germany. version of truth to the Eastern bloc. It will broadcast the American Radio Free Europe. the Iron Curtain with the truth, This station daily pierces and bringing a message of hope answering the lies of the Kremlin

trapped behind the Iron Curtain. to millions The overall goal of this campaign was to show that Radio Free Europe institution was an American-sponsored and the people working for it and so forth. believed in American ideals to hide the fact In reality, it was also officially by the CIA. that it was being sponsored is your chance and mine The Crusade for Freedom to fight Communism. your contributions to: Join now by sending Crusade for Freedom, General Clay, New York City. Empire State Building,

Radio Free Europe broadcasts From 1950 onwards, to the countries under Soviet rule... Romania and Bulgaria. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, The radio station is based in Munich, the American-occupied zone. capital of Radio Free Europe From the very beginning, and its sister station Radio Liberty of the Eastern European governments. are a thorn in the side Not even murder is beyond them. the former head of security, Richard Cummings, knows a thing or two about it. was a very, very exciting time. From 1980 to 1989, in Munich, It was also a very trying time. we had murder attempts, We had bombings, we had kidnapping attempts. of people in Munich. We had continual harassment We had arrests of spies in Munich. how I got through the day. And so sometimes I was wondering are dead. The eyes of the security cameras the radio stations are still alive. But the memories of

in the Soviet Union Elvira and Waldemar are growing up their mother, a teacher, where, despite the danger, is listening to Western broadcasts.

listen as well. Elvira and her brother Communists is world domination. ARCHIVE: The avowed goal of the takes shape in the late 1940s. The idea for a propaganda station

The US are alarmed. falls under totalitarian rule. In Europe, one land after the other seems unstoppable. The march of Communism and the secret police Protected by their armies are using every means the leaders of the Kremlin of a modern dictatorship at the disposal in their effort to warp and mould in these countries the 70 million people into instruments of their power... to enslave others. into slaves who can then be used was an information curtain. The Iron Curtain From the perspective of today everywhere age that we live in, in this all-news, all the time, it's hard to remember how isolated could be, in those days. peoples behind the Iron Curtain the Iron Curtain is not a barrier. For radio waves, of later years, remembers. Ross Johnson, one of the directors was on the air from New York, The first broadcast the tape was made in New York or at least in Germany on 4 July 1950. and it was put on the air to work ourselves out of a job. We thought our job was if Communism finally collapsed, In other words, at least in Eastern Europe, which I was convinced it would, for Radio Free Europe any more. there would be no need Radio Free Europe in 1954. Ralph Walter joins and works for RFE... He marries a German for many years in many varied roles. a friend from college in Minnesota. At RFE, he meets Paul Henze, mark a new era at RFE. These people, and those like them,

I was only 28 years old. When I came to Radio Free Europe, in the management team I became one of the principal people Radio Free Europe that organised and directed during the entire 1950s. Radio Free Europe was very creative that Radio Free Europe involved in the sense very young people together bringing a team of mostly the means of broadcasting. and giving them for refugees from Eastern Europe. Post-war Munich is a haven RFE finds its employees. Amongst them, means hitting the jackpot. For these refugees, a job at RFE of our East European staff The quality was extraordinarily important. The radio could never be better who did the program. than the quality of the people My job is newscasting... ARCHIVE: in my native language - Polish. Reading the news in seven languages Radio Free Europe broadcasts to an audience of over 70 million. an exile from Czechoslovakia. My colleague, The news is straight, factual news without editorial opinions or tactful omissions. News as you might hear it on the radio in America or in any free country. The news in Hungarian...

New York, Romanian... Not everybody at RFE is willing to show their face - for fear of attacks and concern for their families back home. Among the countless listeners are Daniel Schlanger's parents in Bucharest. Sometimes during the night my father was building a little tent out of pillows

and hiding there to listen to something. And I think I was six, seven years old, and I couldn't understand why he's playing there and what he's doing. It took me a couple of years to understand that my father is listening to Radio Free Europe. Only a few streets away Gertrud Dumitrescu is also listening with her parents. To listen to something like this was really dangerous. You never know what would happen if they would catch you doing it. But the feel of the fear was there all the time. Wherever a breach in the Iron Curtain presents itself, people flee, risking their lives. At the age of 19, Gertrud Dumitrescu comes to Germany with her family. A friend suggests she try her luck at RFE. Once a listener, she now becomes an announcer... at the CIA-sponsored propaganda station. Propaganda's a loaded word. It shouldn't be, but it is. But... let's just say, the most effective broadcasting was the truth, let's put it that way. If there'd been an effort by anybody, whether CIA or State Department or anybody else, to control things on a day-to-day basis, it would've been a failure. We had political commentaries, we had economic commentaries. We had programs for women, programs for youth. We had church programs... we had agricultural programs. We really covered the whole spectrum. (Women sing) And the news was the news - whether good, bad or indifferent, from our point of view. because the smooth, rich dark chocolate they produced

There is a second CIA-sponsored station in Munich... Radio Liberty broadcasts exclusively for the countries within the Soviet Union. Long before he joined Radio Liberty, Alexander Mannheim was a fervent Communist. The history of Radio Liberty starts with a bang. Suddenly there seems to be an opportunity for freedom from Soviet domination in Eastern Europe. It is a fire which needs to be tended. Some Eastern Europeans thought in terms of early liberation. The same kind of liberation that

And there were a number of revolts in Eastern Europe during that time, culminating in the great uprising in Berlin on 17 June 1953. The revolt starts as a strike of East Berlin's workers. Like wildfire it spreads through society. Soviet supremacy is in danger. June 17, 1953, is a baptism by fire for young Paul Henze.

He is in charge of news at RFE. It happened that everybody else in the management team was travelling somew at Radio Free Europe in Munich was travelling somewhere and I found that I was in charge of all of the broadcasts. In special newscasts,

RFE reports to their spellbound audience in Eastern Europe.

For the first time, a Soviet-occupied country is challenging their oppressors. Glued to their radios, people in Eastern Europe hear of Soviet tanks quashing the revolt in its infancy. How many people actually die will never be known.

At RFE, as well as in US politics, two opinions prevail. One side believes that Soviet rule can be broken with force, country by country. The other aims for peaceful evolution, without bloodshed. RFE aims to report as concisely as possible -

about the events in the West, anyway, but also about everything behind the Iron Curtain - like a radio station in any democratic country. The most important single aspect of Radio Free Europe's success is that we concerned ourselves with the interests of the people to whom we were broadcasting. It wasn't our job to sell America. It wasn't our job to sell England. Our programming concerned itself with what was of most concern to the people in the countries to which we were broadcasting. (Woman sings) No other Western broadcaster to Eastern Europe did that. You live in a closed world where reality's controlled all the time, and that's all what you know. And suddenly you discover on a wall a window that you can go and open and see a different reality. Grateful letters sent to cover addresses give an impression of the impact of the radios in the East - sometimes in unexpected areas. "Our church has already been closed for three years. "The people have no place to pray. "For this reason, we thank you sincerely "for broadcasting the church service on Sunday. "It is a real pleasure to hear the word of God." At a certain moment, you didn't know with whom you're talking, who are your friends, who are the people that you can talk and that comes back to the same old story, when you start living a double life, basically, the life, the interior life with your thoughts and your dreams, and the life you share with others. Because you don't know who's sitting in front of you. MAN: We are explorers. Humans are. Today, there is a new frontier to explore - energy. At Chevron, we're trying to find it At Chevron, we're trying to find in ways once unimaginable - mapping uncharted territory 8km below the sea, long before a single mark is ever put in the ground. So we drill more intelligently, more respectfully, to power the new explorers. This is the power of Human Energy. Chevron. We're "Take a jumper, in case." We're kneepads, mouthguards and double bows. We're low-emission sedans. We're the safety bar, not the roller-coaster. We're mowing the lawn, washing the car and walking the dog. We're half-an-hour after eating before swimming. We're "In two kilometres, turn left."

We're factor 50. I find there's nothing better than one of those light, fruity conversations and Lady Grey. lemon peel and a hint of bergamot to liven up the day. After all, it is essential to freshen up on current affairs. It's all part of the zest of daily life. Mmm. Along with a few scrumptious cupcakes. Lady Grey is for refreshment. Tea is for Twinings. after the uprising in Berlin, Three years the Munich stations succeed in a sensational scoop. At the 20th convention of the Communist Party, Khrushchev, the new leader in the Kremlin, delivers a speech, in which he denounces his predecessor, Stalin. An incredible incident, which calls into question the direction of Soviet politics. The full text is passed to the stations and they pull out all the stops. Khrushchev's speech is translated In the summer of 1956, riots break out in Poland. The Poles at RFE plea for restraint. But in the fall, a revolution develops in Budapest. Laszlo Megyeri was a teenager back then. that we lived in a workers' paradise They kept telling us and then you could see people almost starving. People disappearing from our street for no reason. And people were even afraid to ask what happened to them? what happened to them The Communist system was crumbling so quickly, it was just amazing. Did anybody have the feeling that a revolutionary situation was developing in Hungary? Not at all. We were surprised. I think the Hungarians themselves were surprised. I'm sure the Hungarian Communists were surprised, Moscow was surprised, I think everybody was. The policemen disappeared, the secret police disappeared, the Russian troops disappeared too. So it was like... almost like a very happy atmosphere. The reporting of the Hungarian desk will create a decisive crisis for RFE. For a considerable period of time it appeared that Hungary would be successful in liberating itself. Then, I think it was a Sunday morning, I was out in the garden, where we lived in Feldkirchen near Munich and the news came

that Soviet troops were marching on Budapest.

Encouraged by RFE's broadcasts, the Hungarians put up fierce resistance. Radio Free Europe gave us hope. Rightly or wrongly, I assumed that the US military was mobilised in Germany. And that they would air-drop us weapons, because we knew that we were facing the mighty Communist empire. Nobody at Radio Free Europe really believes in a US-intervention. I don't think anybody in the West would have been prepared to move the American Army into western Hungary. I think there was great fear that anything like that could have led to World War III.

In Budapest, people were dying. and fight They were going out in the streets They were shooting each other, they were trying to destroy Soviet tanks, they were trying to kill Soviet soldiers, and the Soviets were trying to kill them. The hopes of the Hungarians remain unfulfilled. People in the West listen helplessly to the last call of a pirate station in Budapest.

Things got pretty dangerous there. So we decided, on 29 November, to escape to Austria. Via Austria, Laszlo Megyeri escapes to the US. An estimated 200,000 Hungarians flee with him in long treks to the West.

It was hard for everybody. I think we all... in a sense, we all felt ourselves Hungarians during that period. Radio Free Europe is held partly responsible for the bloodbath in which thousands of Hungarians have been killed. On both sides of the Atlantic, voices are calling for a shutdown of RFE. But there is no evidence - the tapes of the broadcasts have disappeared. Decades later, copies are found in a German archive. Many of the broadcasts were terribly emotional. No professional journalist would recognise them as responsible journalism. Some of the Hungarian broadcasters who'd done quite responsible programming before the revolution started, um, got carried away.

Radio Free Europe was accused of telling people how to make Molotov cocktails. There is one program, this is three weeks of non-stop broadcasting, basically, there's one program that talks about how Molotov cocktails were made in World War II.

Gasoline in glass bottles... Molotov cocktails are the people's anti-tank weapon. It is impossible to say whether history may have taken another course

if Radio Free Europe had acted differently. The Cold War is here to stay. Hungary has shown

Radio Free Europe has to accept responsibility for its listeners. The station has learned its lesson. We were living in comfort, on the edge of the Englische Garten, but they had to live with this every day, for a couple of generations. And we knew that, and we didn't in any way want to mislead them or exploit them for some temporary advantage. The Communist regimes, of course, weren't happy at all with this operation. And they did a lot of things against it. I often wondered why they didn't do more, and it's never been clear to me. Because we were a real problem for the governments of those countries and they knew we were a real problem, and they had no idea what to do about it.

The Communist regimes fight the stations also with super-charged jammers,

which render the broadcasts almost inaudible. Probably the most distinctive sound that I have in my ears talking about Radio Free Europe was when the Communists are trying to interfere in the waves of the sound. And it was a kind of echo that was coming and going, and the sound was disturbed and coming back to the... Sometimes now, when I am an adult and this way back in my past, I don't remember anything about the broadcast actually, the content, and coming and coming and going, but I remember this sound going and that was the feeling of our reality, that this is going and coming and going and coming, and hoping that one day we'll be able to land on this reality. A highly sophisticated system of short-, medium- and long-wave transmitters as far as the Urals. carries the broadcasts as far as the Urals. And from Taiwan to the Asian region of the Soviet Union.

ran the transmitting site Jim Lambert, for many years, in Lampertheim, Germany. When the news is jammed,

to nearby frequencies, RFE's technicians try to move the transmitting power. or they increase

on the highest technical level. It's a cat-and-mouse game their own battle. The audience is fighting sophisticated antennas, Secretly, they are building with the best reception. and looking for the locations of listeners is growing up. Meanwhile, a new generation Denes Agoston is one of it.

I was in elementary school. And we have a neighbour who actually had a real radio station. He was a ham-radio operator. Then he occasionally left me alone in his room. And I was tuning the radios, you know, this way and that way and I heard spoken Hungarian language. And when the guy returned I actually as a big discovery I told him "Hey, actually we can listen to Hungarian radio." And he become very, very serious, he said "No, we don't. This is illegal." But I told my mother that I listened to Hungarian radio, Radio Free Europe, 'Szabad Europa Radio' as it was called in Hungarian. "No, no, we don't listen to that. Then she was very serious. She said "You should never listen to that." It was a double "No, no." Which for a boy means "Yes!" VOICES ON RADIO, STATIC was one of the first people at RFE. The Hungarian Geza Ekecz His code name is Cseke Laszlo. Against major resistance at RFE

of rock music. he's betting on the persuasive power is one of his biggest fans. Denes Agoston, in Budapest, He was very popular. a guy who was extremely engaging. Not a hero, really, but this was And we just loved to listen to him. And he was a good DJ. the story behind the music, He was playing the music, he gave us he actually started with a hit list of the music. So hey, he really had a real good party. In the East too, rock'n'roll causes a sensation. Suddenly, there is something that electrifies young people both in the West and in the East. Rock music was advertised during Communism as a rotten behaviour of the Western youth who is getting drunk on Coca-Cola, I'm not kidding you. ROCK'N'ROLL MUSIC I was 16 years old, when I had my first Coke. A friend of mine and I went to a place which we learned that may have a few bottles of Coke. and it was bubbling. We opened it, we poured it out It was kind of strange taste. You know, we started to drink it. We ordered a second bottle. bottle, the two of us, And we had finished the second and we didn't want to admit except that you started to blurp. that nothing is happening So we ordered a third bottle. and I said "Do you feel anything?" We finished the third bottle and have some wine." He said "No, we should go after the Hungarian revolution, 12 years to shake off the Soviet yoke... again a country is trying Czechoslovakia. SIREN

In Munich, Ralph Walter has become the Director of RFE. Now he is responsible for RFE's policy. The situation in Czechoslovakia changed very, very rapidly. And it wasn't too long before you had Czechoslovak media, press, radio discussing matters which were, had been utterly impossible. They got ahead of us, and we were rather more cautious in our broadcasting than they were in what they were discussing. There are many similarities to the riots in Budapest 12 years ago. There was no violence whatsoever, no hint of violence, no regime repression, or riots, nothing of that. there were no demonstrations

Ralph Walter remembers in Hungary only too well. Radio Free Europe's mistakes He's determined not to repeat them. I became increasingly concerned Personally, that it could end badly. and began to think And I then dug out the er... kind of a post-mortem had done, in 1956, which the policy office of our Hungarian broadcasting. and it became very clear to me And I reread it, could be made again. that that kind of error it is not only the Russians. This time, The combined forces of the Warsaw Pact invade Czechoslovakia. Only Romania disobeys. When I got the call from the newsroom

at about one o'clock in the morning, that the... what had happened, we all collected in the building and we immediately put in effect certain precautionary measures which had not been done, in 1956. Ralph Walter resorts to extreme measures. Censorship. It has never happened before at RFE. Everybody accepted that this was an emergency and we had to rally around and it was done. DRAMATIC MUSIC under political pressure, In 1971, the US is forced to admit is financing the Munich stations. that the CIA and worldwide CIA scandals In the shadow of the Vietnam War for a total shutdown. more and more voices argue don't have only friends. Even within the CIA, the stations for Eastern agents, For some, they are a playground totally out of control. deaths and murder attempts. There is a series of mysterious is that of Georgi Markov, The most spectacular certainly a freelancer for RFE. as the "Umbrella Murder". It goes down in history the personality cult Georgi Markov attacked of Zhivkov in Bulgaria. was extremely high as well, Markov's listenership heard Markov's programs. all the listeners in Bulgaria

They were extremely effective. Zhivkov was very nervous. the personality from the dictator, Once you take away the cult of the emperor is now naked. the dictator has nothing, an umbrella with a tip The weapon is bizarre - can be launched. from which a poisonous pellet at first is hardly noticeable. For the victim, the projectile in London, in September, He was injected with the pellet on Zhivkov's birthday. would take place on the birthdays It seemed lots of attacks of the respected government leaders back to the government leader as a gift apparently from the Intelligence Services. and died two or three days later He was attacked on the birthday under excruciating pain. RFE is a goldmine. of expert knowledge Nowhere else the same amount about the Eastern bloc can be found information than the CIA had Radio Free Europe had far more or anybody in the German government in the American government had

or the British government. to everybody who wanted it. RFE's information was made available One of the ironies here is that, broadcasts were jammed as much as these as the leaders tried and as much from the audiences, to keep the reception away avid followers of these broadcasts, they themselves were among the most generally in the form of transcripts, in the form of transcripts,

that went to the top party leaders, of written reports to the top party leaders. top secret reports

Under the new name RFE/RL and Radio Liberty are merged, Radio Free Europe physically and organisationally, from the CIA. and US Congress assumes control broadcasting continues as usual. Despite the shake-up, And thus, March 4, 1977 greatest moments. becomes one of RFE/RL's

of 7.2 has hit Bucharest. An earthquake with the magnitude desperate family members From all over the world, about their loved ones. call RFE/RL to enquire to 24-hour service The station switches addresses and telephone numbers and broadcasts the names, of the people missing. to emigrate to the West in 1977. The Lind family is granted permission They land on a strange planet. At the end of the 70s, Communist countries is increasing. the economic hardship in the I grew up in a house very respected doctor. of an old, one of them, the daughter, He had two kids, with us, was living in Romania and was living in the States. and the son escaped Communism we stayed in line One night, with his daughter, to buy cheese. for something like 12-14 hours And we came home to her father we bought one kilo of cheese! and were so happy, my son from Los Angeles called me, And the father tells us "You know, "he just bought a new Mercedes. "And I'm wondering which of my two kids is happier now. "The one that bought the Mercedes, "or the one who bought the kilo of cheese." Actually I believe that the one with the cheese was happier, because the feel of the victory that he manage to stay in line and to get the cheese, they didn't finish it before we get to buy it, that was an achievement! But there is hope for change. The Polish cardinal, Karol Wojtyla, has been elected Pope.

APPLAUSE 1979, John Paul II's visit to his home country is a political earthquake. 'Non abbiate paura'...

"Don't be afraid" is his motto and the Poles make it their own. Only a few months later, the shipyard workers at Gdansk strike. Lech Walesa. Lech Walesa. A young man becomes their leader, RFE/RL shows caution - too much, as some may think. February 21, 1981, it is almost 10 p.m. An explosion is shaking night-time Munich. BLAST It is RFE/RL itself which becomes the target of an attack. This area of the building is where the bomb was placed. There were two terrorists walked in with 15 kilos of plastic explosive, nitropenta, left it there. Approximately 9.47 is when the bomb exploded.

Only after the fall of the wall, it is revealed that the Romanian Secret Service, 'Securitate', commissioned the bombing... for $1 million. DRAMATIC MUSIC

They wanted minimum casualties. They could have placed a car-bomb out there at 9 a.m. and they would've had hundreds of people injured or killed. They didn't want to kill people. It is a happy birthday message for the station's 30th birthday presented by Carlos, the terrorist of international fame. In the middle of the first floor is where a KGB agent actually worked. His office was totally destroyed because of the effects of the blast. He then complained to his KGB handlers that he could have been killed. The situation in Poland does not escalate as feared. Lech Walesa has not been forgotten. He learns, via radio, that he has has been chosen for the Nobel Peace Prize. But there is a drop of bitterness. He cannot receive the Prize in person. The Regime would not permit him to return. So he takes part in the ceremony by sitting by his radio set. Once more, RFE/RL show that they deliver vital information - on time. In April 1986, the fourth reactor of the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl explodes. The disaster becomes the worst-case scenario for the USSR as a whole.

Chernobyl, in terms of the suppression of news, which the Soviet authorities did for a week, leaving people exposed to a nuclear radiation disaster, the spill-out... and the only source of information about that coming from the Western broadcasters that really is the beginning of the end of the Communist system in Eastern Europe. The beginning of the end... Jim Lambert learns of it at the transmitting station in Lampertheim. ROCK MUSIC Only one year later, everything is over... The Velvet Revolution in Prague, Hungary demolishes the border fence, Solidarity builds the first democratic government - and the Wall collapses. Time stands still. The Cold War is over. Eastern Europe has freed itself from Communism in a peaceful way. has achieved its goal. Radio Free Europe The Cold War lasted half a lifetime. Now, within only a few weeks, the Iron Curtain disappears into thin air. When I found myself in Buda, overlooking the river, the Danube and Pest, it was a very emotional experience for me, because I never thought I'd make it.

And I was almost on the verge of tears. And here I was, I couldn't believe it. Sometimes I'm looking at my kids and I'm trying to think how can I explain them what I went through, how it was. And sometimes I know that whatever words I'm going to use, they're never going to understand how it was, and in all honesty, I'm happy. I'm happy that they cannot understand that. Because it means that they live in a world without this pressure, without this constraint of thinking about one thing and talking about another one.

This program is captioned live. Right to die - a landmark ruling for a Perth quadriplegic man. Unbearable grief in PNG as bodies from the Kokoda plane crash are brought out. Taiwan's tragedy - a desperate rescue attempt amid a mounting landslide toll. And the burkini bombshell - the French say 'non' to the Muslim swimsuit. Good evening. Neena Mairata with SBS World News Australia.

The Supreme Court in Western Australia

has come up with a landmark ruling likely to stir emotions and legal minds right across the country. It's decided that a quadriplegic man from Perth, Christian Rossiter, effectively has the right to die. Chief Justice Wayne Martin has ruled that he can direct his own treatment and that food and water should not be administered against his wishes. It's not legalising euthanasia, but it does set an Australian legal precedent. Christian Rossiter says he's pleased he's won the right to die, but now he has to consider the grim prospect of starvation. I want to end my life, but after I speak to a medical professional, he could dissuade me.

Mr Rossiter says he feels like a prisoner in his own body. The 49-year-old man developed spastic quadriplegia after two separate accidents. Now he's fed through a tube in his stomach. Mr Rossiter is very, very happy with this decision. It's been an ordeal for him. It's quite clear to see the physical discomfort he's been through throughout these proceedings. He's been incredibly brave throughout the whole process.

And he has now set some parameters through which doctors and patients can now deal. In a statement read to the court by his lawyer,

Mr Rossiter said he's in constant pain: The judge found Mr Rossiter was not terminally ill or dying, and had the mental capacity to make an informed decision about stopping his treatment. He ruled that his nursing home would not be criminally responsible by stopping his nutrition and hydration. This has not happened before and we did need to seek clarity. This has not happened before

The organisation has been worried

about its legal standing and this

has qualified things greatly. The Australian Medical Association has also welcomed the clarification. The Western Australian president says a patient does have the right to refuse treatment, but refusing food confuses the situation. I think in this case it all hinged on whether feeding someone sustenance constituted treatment. I think the ruling has shown