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Car Bomb -

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(generated from captions) Yeah, it certainly has. Simon, it's been a pleasure to... to endured the last 8 weeks. a pleasure. Endure? It's supposed to be

the last 8 weeks, I mean, first you have endured but with you, that's the pleasure. She looks upset, Cleo. of the pile now that Simon's gone. She knows she's at the bottom worse than you. It's nice when there's someone who's Cool, speak to you later. Yeah. Yeah.

You're leaving the office now?

going to the flat I'm basically tidying up, or whatever and chill out for lunch whenever, 4.30. and then I'll come back here at 4, if the plans change. Yeah, I think it's probably best to start tomorrow. I don't want their week No. to be honest with you. They're a little bit distracted and then head off, I guess. Well, I'll just close today's trades Yeah, close the trades and head off. I understand the distraction. Probably, probably best not to. I'll just come back at 4.30. Like in terms of drinks, a Goodbye Simon drinks. I just don't wanna make tonight that type of drinks, If it just turns into then their week starts tomorrow. you know. And it's, I want it to start now, OK, if that's what you'd prefer. I understand your motivation. That's probably best. I don't take it personally. All right. it's not like that. No don't, seriously, OK, all right, cool. I just wanna say, losing a member of the team. obviously it's terrible It's under no question, no doubt, we great personality and he's a top, top guy, in the office. and amazing to be around Thanks very much. with a big smile on his face. And he's walking away from this Trading just isn't for some people. of applause off the trading floor. And we should all give Simon a round Thanks very much. OK, right guys,

half a day so far today. you know we have kind of wasted get going, get motivated, get sharp. It's, as a team we need to We've got 15 days left and we need to make some money. be tough and can't take it. They know the next 2 weeks will We talk about it. I don't know what's going on. Yes, it's Emile because I deal with people. It's not how They're people. Who cares if he's not happy? the business works. This is how Captions (c) SBS Australia 2009 Australia at 9:30 - Coming up in SBS World News in western Sydney. following a stand-off last night staged an angry protest Hundreds of Indian students

after a young student was assaulted. has recovered the tail fin The Brazilian navy

into the Atlantic Ocean last week. from the Air France jet that crashed in recovering the flight recorders. The find is being seen as a key step new-look ministry has been sworn in, The Prime Minister's their priority is jobs, with Kevin Rudd declaring and not just their own. is having an impact And the spread of swine flu and the National Rugby League. on both swimming and all the day's news at 9:30. Those stories See you then. My name is Bob Baer. I used to be a CIA agent during the civil war. stationed in the Lebanon It was chaos. was always car bombs. But the real threat you can kill a president, And now we know defeat a superpower... with a car bomb. or just blow up your own government, All you need is roads, traffic. Every airport, any government building or a street, is a target. of how the century of the car This is the film of the car bomb, turned into the century turned nightmare. and how a dream of freedom nuclear weapons were the real threat. For 50 years we were all told that But that's a lie. has always been the car bomb... The real terrorist threat crude and unstoppable. to Ireland and Europe From America to the Middle East of 20th-century conflict. it has shaped the river secret history has never been told. But until now the car bomb's and who killed with it? Who invented it, who developed it I've come back to the one city forever shaped our history... where car bombs have Beirut. It was always the car bomb. by car bombs and we were the target People were dying every day was to change your route. and the only way not to be targeted same road at the same time daily. You were a fool if you went down the All it took was a stolen car, of explosives, and you were dead. a couple hundred dollars It was complete chaos, anarchy here. to protect against it. There was no way changed the colour of them. We changed our cars daily, I used taxis all the time. but we kept changing the colour. When we bought the taxi it was green I actually picked up passengers. When I drove a taxi, American driving in the civil war. They were astounded to meet an taken hostage by the car bomb. I mean, any city there is can be when I was assigned here, When I came to Beirut, a 60% casualty rate. the station had or wounded were from car bombs. Half of those people killed Yeah, we were terrified of them. you even got used to the mayhem. After a time MACHINE GUN FIRE I loved Beirut. The women... the rush. It was a great place to be a spy. And then the embassy got hit... by a suicide car bomber. dead Lebanese. 63 dead - dead Americans, friends in the CIA, were killed. Six of my close colleagues, Karsten Tveit saw the bomb go off. Suddenly I saw this big bang. covered the whole embassy. This white star And then of course the bang. flames, and I ran over death and destruction and chaos. and there I saw torsos - it was just grotesque. Dead people in the street, arms, It was a stunning assault. could wage war on the United States. One man with a car Ironically, with an American truck. stopped his pick-up truck, a GMC. Here is where the suicide bomber to come this way to signal him He waited for another car he took off. and as soon as the Mercedes came, He drove very slowly. I mean, here's a kid that is about ready to die, slowly, unnoticeable. You had American troops patrolling the Corniche. What could they tell in traffic like this? Nothing. By now he knew that the embassy entrance was open, and indeed it was, it was good intelligence. He came through here, and see this building, of course it wasn't there, and he headed directly the wrong way under the portico, bounced up through the lobby, and it exploded immediately. Everybody was killed, it was blood all over - it was a mess. I kept having the same dream. Sitting in the CIA office on the fourth floor, drinking coffee. The windows bursting in, doors, ceilings, everything falling around you. There is one man who knows a lot about Lebanese car bombs... Mahmoud Kashab, a top expert who'd defused dozens of bombs. Christian car bombs, Palestinian car bombs, Muslim car bombs... in the long, drawn-out civil war. Kashab became too good at stopping car bombs and then his adversaries decided to target him. And depending on your enemies Beirut is still a very dangerous city. On February 14, 2005, the former Lebanese prime minister Rafic Hariri's presidential cavalcade was destroyed by a two-tonne car bomb.

A CCTV camera captured the bomb vehicle, this white truck, loitering in the traffic. As Hariri's black Mercedes drew alongside, the bomb went off. Hariri was one of the world's richest men, a billionaire. His Mercedes was armoured to the hilt - B6. The best protection level there is. But his assassination was, as these things go, a perfect hit. If you can kill Hariri you can kill any man on earth - with a car bomb. Truly, Beirut is the home of the modern car bomb. The car bombs we're seeing today in Iraq were developed on these streets. A suicide car bomb failed to breach a police checkpoint in east Baghdad. The explosion killed around 20 civilians and six police officers. At the beginning of the war in Iraq we saw dozens of Lebanese crossing the border into Syria and Iraq, and it was only a matter of time before car bombs started going off. Car bombing might have become But the Lebanese never created the car bomb. Like a lot of other things in the 20th century, car bombs are an American invention. By the 1920s, New York had become the financial centre of world capitalism. But then in September 1920 Wall Street was rocked by a massive explosion. EXPLOSION It was the world's first car bomb. Where we're walking right now is exactly where, if you'd been standing here on September 16th 1920, you would've been hit by the bomb. Over here, what was then the US Sub-Treasury. And of course the Stock Exchange with the big flags on it there, same buildings that would've been here, most famously the Morgan Bank.

And that really was, and in some ways still is, the epicentre of American capitalism and government. Tell me what happened.

At about 12.01 a wagon, horse-drawn wagon, exploded into the lunchtime crowd. It killed about 40 people in the street and injured hundreds. So the wagon sat here. Was there anything peculiar about it? It blows up and then you begin to try to put the pieces back together. The thing that they saw was that nobody actually noticed it. Having an old wagon around, a pedlar's cart, just wasn't very unusual. So you had the wagon, the bomb inside, the dynamite packed with these metal window slugs -

a fairly heavy device there.

Inside the wagon the bomber packed the window weights around his dynamite to create shrapnel - naked killing power. The bomb would have blasted the metal slugs out like a machine gun, tearing through flesh and bone. This is the shrapnel left from the bomb. would've come This is where those window slugs would've come up, would've hit this building. So it's fairly sophisticated. Whoever built this thing knew what they were doing. They knew what they were doing and the question immediately became, who was that person or those people? The best theory is that it was a man named Mario Buda, who was an Italian anarchist. Buda was a lone operator. And he was... Even within this circle of militant anarchists, very committed revolutionaries, he was the committed of the committed. What did he want, though? Does anything give us an idea what these guys wanted? There was a flyer found in a mailbox nearby, a few blocks up that way. "Free the political prisoners or it will be death to all of you."

And it was signed, the American Anarchist Fighters. Sacco and Vanzetti, who had been arrested and later executed by the federal government after an abortive bank robbery.

It was a notorious case. Critics claimed it was a show trial. Buda was a close associate of both men. The idea was that this was somehow a blow against capitalism. The idea of Wall Street, the idea of banks, it's a big moment of labour warfare, of revolution, you've just had the Bolshevik revolution, so that whole system of capitalism, government, put together was what they were striking a blow at. This was the first car bomb, right? It was the first. Of course it's not a car in this sense, but it was a wagon bomb. This was the first time you had the wagon left there,

timed to go off in the middle of a big urban crowd. That was something almost wholly new and obviously has continued since. It was invented here on Wall Street. What happened to Buda? Buda actually fled the US. He went back to Italy. But he never came back to the States as far as anyone knows. Buda's wagon was the world's first VBIED - Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device - but also the start of the forensic counter-attack against car bombers. Using tiny letters found embossed on the horse's metal shoes, investigators - after visiting 5000 stables - traced the horseshoes to a local Italian blacksmith... and obtained a sketchy description of the cart's driver. The trail ran cold. But the same investigative technique, using vehicle identification numbers to catch bomb planters, would prove crucial in later terrorist attacks. The FBI file on the 1920 Wall Street bombing is still open. Buda's bomb was crude. 80 pounds of TNT, 500 pounds of scrap metal and a fuse. Car bombs are lethal because they are so easy to make. The CIA taught ME how to make car bombs. The Wall Street explosion was not just the first car bomb, it was a terrorist blueprint. Car bombs have their limitations. You can't drive a car bomb through trenches, front lines. You need open roads, traffic. And the car bomb would next appear in the Middle East, in Palestine, in the violent struggle over the founding of the State of Israel. Morning, Sam. Sam. Mum! Thank you, darling. Have a good game! # A moment of your time... # Go, Andrew! Pass! Pass! Ohhh! # I've got a sweet confession... # Is he alright? (WHISTLE BLOWS) Andrew! Good water, isn't it? We're gonna take the boys to Macca's. Macca's? Yes, Macca's. Hey, there. How was the game? We won! Did you? Whoo-hoo! Hi, Andrew. Come. Coming, Sam? # When I get # A moment with you... # Wait for me, Andrew! # With you. # In the 1940s Palestine was under British rule. The majority Arab population were opposed to a Jewish state. At the same time, extremist Jewish factions like the Stern Gang waged a terrorist campaign against those they saw as enemies of the future Jewish state... Arabs and British troops. Stern's organisation, Lehi, freedom fighters of Israel, were determined from what Lehi saw as their rightful Jewish homeland. I met up with two of Lehi's old fighters, and bomb makers. Who started the first car bombing here? In the Saraya, it was. Whose decision was that? The operations department, they decided what targets. It was the headquarters of the Arab fighting forces. Lehi were opposed to any deal with the Arabs by the mainstream Jewish leadership led by David Ben-Gurion. And planting car bombs was a shortcut to provoking all-out war. On January 4th 1948, Lehi struck. Their target was the Saraya building in the heart of Jaffa, a densely populated Arab district. Disguised as Arabs, a Lehi bomb team drove a truck packed with 200 pounds of explosives and parked close to the building. The electric timer was set for 80 seconds to let the bombers get away. The explosion killed 28, including innocent passersby, and injured hundreds. What are the advantages of a car bomb? Heavy loads, if you want to move a tonne you use a car,

if you want to move a hand grenade you move it in your pocket. You couldn't get a big amount of explosives near the Saraya building unless you had a transportation that can bring it and then to start... ignite it and all the delay fuses. How many people were killed in the Saraya? We killed only people who were directly involved in the fighting against the Jewish will to establish an independent country. We never wanted to kill children or innocent people, or civilian people. It happened by bad luck. You can't avoid it. Lehi did not have a monopoly on planting car bombs.

The Palestinians made plans to strike back using their own bomb maker, Fawzy el-Kutub, trained by the Nazis during World War II. Fawzy's sister Nadira el-Kuttub was close to him. She has never spoken about her brother before. Six weeks after Saraya, Fawzy targeted a Jewish stronghold, Ben Yehuda Street in the heart of Jerusalem. But Jerusalem in 1948 was an armed camp... Jewish areas protected by checkpoints and rifle-bearing guards. The only way through was to disguise the bomb vehicles as a British military convoy. And the men driving those trucks were six British army deserters. Parking the truck bombs close to two hotels being used as barracks by Jewish fighters, the deserters shot a security guard... and then fled. Tell me what happened that morning. I was on the fourth floor and all at once I heard two shots. I saw a small truck and it was foaming... it was... Smoking? Smoking. I knew that's a fuse for explosion. I rushed back and I told them, get up, because it's going to explode. We went into the staircase. We waited for the blast. All at once everything was covered with dust and I couldn't see my friend who was standing just opposite me. The three 1000-pound bombs tore through the surrounding buildings, killing 60. BRITISH NEWSREEL: Jerusalem's main Jewish business thoroughfare, Ben Yehuda Street, is a heap of smoking rubble,

and rescue work is carried out by all men of goodwill, British, Arab and Jew. DRAMATIC MUSIC Hanna was not just an eyewitness, she was also a Lehi member

and had taken part in bombing operations. Let me ask you this question. Did the truck bomb make you quit the resistance? No, why? Did it make you angrier? Sure, it made me angry, but why should I leave when English people put car bombs here and kill civilians? We carried out the war against those who were guilty, the top leaders. EXPLOSION Lehi were the first terrorist group in the world to use car bombs but they would not be the last. EXPLOSION The world's first car bomb war. Lehi planted four... and Fawzy planted four. 120 people died. The car bombing only stopped in May 1948 when war broke out and the checkpoints became frontlines. A new terror weapon, cheap and convenient, had been born. In war it's always easier to kill if every one of the enemy is guilty. You park the car on the target and walk away. You censor out your own atrocity, the casual innocent smashed to pieces. You're unrecognisable to yourself. In my time in the CIA I heard a lot of people talk that way. The same patterns of lies would reoccur wherever car bombs appeared on streets. But Palestine in 1948 did produce one further novelty... the car bomb as a key assassination weapon What happened in this building here? MAN: Here was the government of the Jews. And in the second floor here was the chamber of the founding father of the State of Israel, David Ben-Gurion. Arabs wanted to kill him and they believed that if they would kill him, Jews will not establish their state. The specialist of the Arabs, Fawzy el-Kutub, prepare all the explosion. And the car was exploded here. How many people were killed? Seven people were killed and 100 wounded. What would've happened if Ben-Gurion had been in his office? If Ben-Gurion would be killed

the Jews wouldn't establish their state because he was only a prime minister or a leader but he was as, you can say, a George Washington... George Washington of the Jews. the United States. Assassinating your enemies' supreme leader is nothing new. Think of President Abraham Lincoln. What was new was the car bomb. Parked in the right place, packed with enough explosives, you can target any man on earth. Kings and presidents have to drive the roads. Just like the rest of us. And the moment you do, you're vulnerable. You don't even need to be a freedom fighter to plant a car bomb. Car bombs are so easy you could use them purely for business..

if your business is controlling the world's heroin supply. In the early 60s, the Sicilian Mafia discovered a new way to make rival Mafiosi disappear by booby-trapping their cars... and blowing them to pieces. In Sicily the power of the Mafia is as old as the statues. Five million people live here. But hidden amongst them is an estimated 7000 Mafia members. Yet the power of the Cosa Nostra, "our thing", is felt everywhere from the highest political office right down to the smallest market stall. In this market, is there Mafia here? Yep, Mafia is everywhere. I ask him what Mafia is. Can I visit their office? It doesn't work in this way.

The Mafia is in the government, in the State. If I open up a business in Palermo as an American do I have to pay the Mafia? He says he cannot know, he cannot answer. But what if I want to join? It's very difficult, the question. Thank you. So they don't want to talk about it? They're scared. Actually, scared. How do you know the Mafia's here?

Because to work you need to ask the Mafia the permission. The person who works here has to pay to remain here. If I don't pay? What would they say in Italian if they came to you? What does that mean? It mean until this day you have to give me that money or I break your ******* leg, or something like that. Another traditional Mafia business technique is just the old-fashioned whack job... shooting your rival Mafioso in his favourite cafe. Things started to change in 1957 when the Sicilian and American Mafia met in this lavish Palermo hotel to organise the world heroin trade. But business did not run smooth. In 1963, the first Mafia war broke out between two clans - the Grecos and the Barberas. That's your mother? Giovanni Impastato is an anti-Mafia campaigner. But he is also the nephew of a key Mafia boss, Cesare Manzella. Manzella was an ally of the Greco Manzella was an ally of the Grecos and the first Mafioso to be assassinated with a car bomb. But he was a Mafioso, wasn't he? And didn't he have to kill people himself? How many people do you think he killed? Tell me what you saw when you saw your uncle, the car bombing. Tell me about the mechanism. Manzella's assassination was what we call in the trade a "come-on" job. Manzella, thinking he was just moving a car, opened the door, turned the ignition on... and blew himself up. Booby-trapping an enemy's car would soon become a favourite killing method for assassins everywhere. Why did they not, when they killed your uncle, use a pistol instead of a car bomb? But the Mafia's next car bombing went disastrously wrong. Giuseppe Montaperto, a crime reporter, was one of the first eyewitnesses. EXPLOSION Seven policemen were killed, provoking a massive Italian state crackdown. Within weeks, 1200 Mafia "soldiers" were arrested and the Mafia leaders detained. Why did the Italian Mafia use car bombs? I understand showing the power,

but doesn't that cause more problems than it's worth? So in other words, the car bomb is bad for business. After Ciaculli, the Mafia stopped using car bombs for 17 years until a new, more ruthless generation of Mafia leaders took over and used car bombs to assassinate judges and magistrates. But every judge they blew up turned the heat on... More arrests, trials, prison. The Mafia in Sicily had no political agenda. They are into making money. They don't need prosecutors sent from Rome, they don't need mass arrests, they don't need conspiracy trials. They want to keep everything quiet and of course a car bomb is the least quiet weapon there is. But unlike the Mafia, the next car bombers wanted the blast of their home-made bomb to reverberate all the way to the White House. It was do-it-yourself terrorism

and the eventual trail of destruction would span the globe from Ireland, Oklahoma and the Middle East. The car bomb was about to become the perfect lethal weapon. In the late 60s, students at the University of Wisconsin in the Midwest, were in revolt. There were daily demonstrations, protests. Alan Thompson was an FBI special agent assigned to the state capital, Madison. What was it like in 1970? What were the students like?

What was happening here? The students were ah... really involved with the Vietnam War. Ah, there was demonstrations going on. Some of them were very violent. There was a lot of tear gas, a lot of broken windows. What was the demand? The key demand was to get out of Vietnam. But a tiny splinter group of students saw themselves as already at war... with the Nixon Administration. And the nearest target was close at hand... the campus Army Math Research Center... a research lab funded by the Pentagon and housed in the Department of Physics. on the 24th of August 1970 At 3.42 a.m. an explosion destroyed the Army Math Center. So tell me, what did this place look like when you arrived? The day I showed up, all these buildings across the street here, these windows were all knocked out. The buildings across the street over there were all knocked out. These windows in here were shattered. In fact we found that there were 21 buildings damaged in some capacity. Hundreds of FBI agents from all over the United States were sent to Wisconsin. This was of extreme interest to the White House, this whole explosion? Absolutely. It went all the way to the director's desk. There was daily contact with the Oval Office as to what was happening out here and why it happened. We had to come up with answers real fast as to what was going on. Was anyone killed? Yes. Yes, a young physicist by the name of Robert Fassnacht was killed in the initial blast. The FBI team immediately focused their investigation

on a car spotted fleeing from the scene at high speed. The bombers were led by a 22-year-old college drop-out, Karl Armstrong.

Armstrong agreed, for the first time, and talk about the night he bombed Wisconsin. Where did the idea come from of a car bomb? My brother Dwight and I were, like, basically, you know, considering ways to bomb the Army Math Research Center. And we considered... There's steam tunnels that go through the campus and we could've brought explosives in through the steam tunnels.

And we thought, nah, well... Because we needed to bring, like, almost a tonne of explosives. And my brother Dwight says "Why don't we just fill up a truck full of explosives "and just set it off outside the building?" My immediate reaction was "That's crazy." Then I thought well, that's probably the best way to be, to do it. The Armstrong brothers stumbled upon the ultimate terrorist weapon of the 20th century. But there was another deadly twist. They bought the base materials for their explosives in the local hardware store. We bought the materials from a farmers' co-op. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil. Then we transported it to our prep site, which was a farmer's field. And basically we just put the ammonium nitrate in barrels... Did you mix by hand? We just poured it in the barrel. Then when it came time that night is when we added the fuel oil. The two basic components of the bomb were bags of ammonium nitrate agricultural fertiliser used by farmers all over the world, and diesel fuel. How'd you get the idea? You didn't have the Internet. Well, basically the formula was in the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Under what? "Explosives". Did it tell you how to mix? It gave the basic formula - ammonium nitrate, fuel oil

and then it needed a very strong cap or dynamite to detonate it. Caps are small explosive detonators used to set off the main charge. Normally their sale is tightly restricted to military or mining. Actually, I bought the caps. You bought 'em? Yeah. Did you have to have ID? No. You just had to look like a farmer. How much did the whole thing cost? $200 for the ammonium nitrate. Karl and his three fellow student bombers then stole a van and mixed the explosives together. They drove to the university. Inside the van was a tonne and a half of explosives. It was 3 o'clock in the morning, a Monday morning, and right where we were setting off the explosive the whole room was lit up. And I got out of the van... Couldn't spot anybody in the room. We found out later that Fassnacht went to the bathroom or something and had gotten killed in the hallway outside the room when the explosion went off. Can you remember the sound of the explosion? Yeah, I can remember it. You know, when we drove south after the bombing my brother pulled the car over and said "You gotta look at this." We could see this mushroom cloud 1500 feet from the ground with fiery things being thrown up into the cloud, just glowing red. And there was this, like, sound of glass all the way down university, falling into the street. You know what it almost sounds like - like a college prank. I wish that's all it was. You were committed. Oh, yeah... Yeah. It was not a college prank. Are you proud of what you did in 1970? Well, I'm ah, ashamed that Robert Fassnacht died and people were injured. But I have no regrets for my motivations for doing the bombing and doing the bombing. It was a message that we were trying to send to the government. After the bombing, Armstrong fled to Canada and was a fugitive for two years... but was then extradited back to Wisconsin. His trial was a cause celebre for many in the anti-war movement. He served 10 years in prison.

The sad part about it is that the research that they claim the Army Maths Research Center was doing, was not research for the army at all. Bob Fassnacht, his area was superconductivity in metals and it had no bearing on the Vietnam War at all. So this is an act of protest that turned into an act of murder. Absolutely, absolutely. It was counter-productive. Here in Madison and probably throughout the United States. I believe it scared everybody so bad because it was such a huge explosion and people realised if you persisted in that type of damage, a lot more people could get killed. After Fassnacht's death student numbers at Vietnam War protests fell. There were no more bombings. You know, the significance of this is you can take a group of amateurs with almost no money, about $100, a stolen car, fertiliser. So it was, in a sense it was a turning point.

Absolutely. You could go to any gas station that now sells diesel fuel, purchase that, go to any farm outlet store, get your fertiliser, just mix the formula correctly and have an initiator to set it off. And that's it. Done. For $100 you can shake a country. Exactly. In the same year as Armstrong's bomb, Northern Ireland slid into civil war. The IRA would plant hundreds of car bombs. And like Armstrong, the explosives came from farmer's fertiliser, ammonium nitrate. Their supply was inexhaustible. MAN ON PHONE: It's a massive bomb. Ring the police. I repeat, massive. You have the message. Goodbye. EXPLOSION In the next episode we see how car bombs changed the face of human conflict across the world. And I will find out if there is any way to stop the deadliest weapon of the 21st century... the car bomb. Captions (c) SBS Australia 2009 This program is captioned live.

Tensions rise in Sydney's west, after an assault on an Indian student sparks a mass protest. Airbus tail-section recovered, raising hopes Air France flight recorders may be found. The Prime Minister's new-look front bench, ready for business, after being sworn in. And swine flu cases spread from schools to the sports field. Good evening. Ben Fajzullin with SBS World News Australia. Indian community leaders and police have held a crisis meeting to try to defuse anger among Indian students,

following a reprisal attack in western Sydney last night. About 200 Indian students staged an angry protest, following an attack on a student. Later, three men of Middle Eastern appearance were assaulted.

Tense scenes on the streets of western Sydney. Police say an Indian man in his early 20s was assaulted earlier in suburban Harris Park by a group of men of Middle Eastern appearance. That sparked a protest by about 200 Indians demanding better police protection. It's every day a problem. It's like that one problem,

you know there's Melbourne as well, like, going that. Later there were attacks against three men of Middle Eastern appearance, who suffered minor cuts and bruises. I do not encourage reprisal attacks in any way. Leave the detection of offenders, and their arrest, to us.