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As it Happened -

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(generated from captions) Coming up in World News Australia - on an Australian Customs ship the asylum-seeker stand-off continues in Indonesia, as the Government's problems worsen a protest on Christmas Island. with some detainees staging US Secretary of State Hillary

the Pakistani Government has slammed Hillary Clinton US Secretary of State

to capture al-Qaeda leaders. for its failure after pledging American support Her comments come a day in Pakistan's battle with militants. the repatriation Barack Obama has witnessed killed in Afghanistan. of the bodies of 18 US soldiers

is weighing heavily on his mind The President says the toll whether to send more troops. as he decides has urged Canberra and Beijing And China's Executive Vice Premier as soon as possible. to sign a free trade agreement The visit could be a sign that relations between Those stories and more at 9:30.

the course of history. Spies have quickened

was codenamed Farewell. One such spy, a Russian, In the 80s the dismantling of the Iron Curtain he helped to hasten in two... that had split Germany and Europe the fall of the Berlin Wall... and finally, the collapse of Soviet Communism. This is the story of that mole, a remarkable spy indeed,

of the ultra-secret documents if only for the amazing quantity he handed over to the West, which led President Ronald Reagan

"the spy of the century". to call him of this intelligence officer Here, we discover the bleak destiny the combination of frustration, His little-known story shows cowardice and violence pettiness, courage, that lies behind treason. WIND HOWLS These were the days of the Cold War. An icy breath blew from the Kremlin. to the fall of the Berlin Wall, For 40 years, from the Korean War under daily threat of destruction, the world lived sometimes immediate. sometimes distant, Berlin, Budapest, Crisis followed crisis - Prague, Afghanistan. The arms race careered wildly on. hung over humanity. A "balance of terror" These men inspired fear. These men inspired fear.

HAUNTING VOCALS was the last head of the KGB This final survivor of the period against Gorbachev in 1991. and a key figure in the failed coup until his death in 2007. His beliefs remained unshakable

This is the story of those traitors. to death for high treason. Vladimir Vetrov has been sentenced in a few days' time. He will be executed is based on true, confirmed facts. The story of this film by those close to him, Vetrov's words have been reported in this affair. the key figures and witnesses Vladimir Vetrov was born in 1932, deserving villagers the son of poor, in a smart Moscow apartment, who were given a room lived on each floor where several families with a shared kitchen and bathroom. he was pampered by Stalin's regime. A true son of the people, that symbolized New Soviet Man - He achieved success in three areas sport, technology and intelligence. STARTER'S GUN FIRES of the USSR. He was junior sprint champion

named Svetlana Then he met a young athlete who would become his wife. Vladimir won a place school in Moscow, at the most prominent engineering five years of brilliant achievement. majoring in electronics after the glorious new dawn as the welder, The student - as much a symbol of

the mechanic, the steelworker or the harvester - in a calculating machine factory. began to work

studying in KGB schools. He spent a long time He learnt English and French... related to espionage. and all the techniques He became the perfect novice spy.

the Ministry of Foreign Trade. In 1965, he joined he was sent to France to spy. With this as a cover, WHIMSICAL MUSIC Delegation headquarters, The Vetrovs lived at the Soviet Trade President Giscard d'Estaing, just next to the home of future then Minister of Finance. Vetrov proved an active agent Behind these walls, with a gift for intelligence. to factories and laboratories He was a regular visitor and had a gift for making contacts. in the back-rooms of bars. He recruited agents and met them from the Thomson Group One was an engineer and nuclear missiles who was working on French rockets the secrets of Ariane to the KGB. and who would later pass on counter-intelligence agency, the DST. and put on file by the French Directorate, The DST, or Territorial Surveillance on the Russian easier found the job of keeping tabs

play a crucial role in this story - when he got to know a man who would

Jacques Prevost, Thomson-CSF in the Soviet Union. head of sales for electronics group involved in trade with the USSR, Like many businessmen for the DST. Prevost was also a regular informant of Soviet trade in France, As a representative was to befriend people like Prevost. Vetrov's job his relationship with the Frenchman. He carefully cultivated the high life with Prevost. And so the Vetrovs enjoyed JAUNTY MUSIC would shape Vetrov's future. That mistake - freely indulged that night - It was less due to his love of liquor that he was driving a car than to the fact from his embassy. unofficially borrowed It had diplomatic plates. by arranging for emergency repairs Only one man could save him, and having his company out of bed at 5 in the morning. Vetrov called him and got him

Vetrov was ordered back to Moscow. After five years, Party meetings regularly enough. He was accused of not attending

His carping suggested to Prevost in the West and ripe for defection. that he was desperate to remain Every day, it seems, the environment. talk of oil and gas, energy, Where are the answers? Chevron is the largest producer Right now, geothermal energy in the world, of clean, renewable, to power 7 million homes. generating enough energy Imagine that. as part of the solution. An oil company This is the power of human energy. Chevron. Vetrov returned to the Lubyanka. It was not so much fun as Paris... but the KGB gave him a fine apartment close to Brezhnev's residence.

Vetrov was now a member of the 'nomenklatura'. and Svetlana felt free to show off those they had acquired in Paris. GRACEFUL STRING MUSIC

Now, though Vladimir was sent to work at a technology-related ministry, he did not get the promotion or the responsibilities he had been hoping for.

Because of internal negligence, the DST refused him a visa. Now Vetrov tried to get back in touch with Prevost. Through his office, he found out when the man was coming to Moscow.

The Vetrovs and Prevosts saw each other again regularly, frequented the best establishments in Moscow and became genuine friends. DRAMATIC MUSIC Vetrov felt he was at a dead end, unable to rise to a position that would entitle him to a chauffeur-driven limousine. Then good news came - the KGB had a job for him in Canada. Vetrov finally returned to the West, to action in the field and lucrative deals. But, unfortunately for him, his supervisor was a tough cookie.

Which is a very serious blunder. OMINOUS MUSIC Yet the KGB doesn't seem to bear a grudge against its officer. Vetrov is appointed deputy chief of the Information and Analysis Department of T Directorate, responsible for scientific and technological espionage abroad. This means he's directly involve This means he's directly involved with requests and supply of intelligence on sensitive weapons... ..from nuclear warheads to lasers, submarines and ICBMs. He handles and summarises reports from KGB "residences" all over the world. It is a key job, but still he feels he's been sidelined. The fact that he is well-paid, as is his wife, who worked for the national museums, doesn't make him any happier. Now he begins to take an interest in a woman working in the translation section. He had often cheated on Svetlana before but when he finds out that his darling wife is having an affair, his whole world collapses. It's as if he were on the run or losing his way. He feels a need for the country.

He buys an abandoned 'dacha' and escapes there at the slightest opportunity. Vetrov was two-faced. As the son of a 'mujik', he soft-soaped them but when their back was turned, he was disparaging.

OMINOUS MUSIC OMINOUS MUSIC DOG BARKS Back at T Directorate after the summer holidays, he plunged himself into his work. Hoping to impress his superiors, he wrote a report on the dysfunctional aspects of the department. Promotion was endlessly postponed. He remained a lieutenant-colonel. He felt he was not properly recognised, that everyone thought he was washed up, starting with his wife. That led him to drink all the more. Now he began seriously to pursue Ludmilla,

the translator working on top secret documents. He'd known her for a long time and had never taken an interest before but that evening an idea formed in his mind... A two-fold idea - romance... and treason. That night, he went rogue. Vetrov wrote to his friend Jacques Prevost, knowing him to be a DST agent. He entrusted the letter to a relative going to Hungary, asking him to post it from there.

He also sent the message via a French exhibitor at a Moscow industrial fair. "Call this Paris number. It's a matter of life or death." Prevost answered his friend's call and met him in Moscow. Back in Paris, Jacques Prevost handed over the documents to counter-intelligence. A codename was allocated to the case - "Farewell" - to give the false impression that the case was British or American, or already closed. Vetrov arranged to see him that same day. OMINOUS MUSIC LOCKER SLAMS SHUT A week later, Vetrov organised a meeting with Xavier Ameil near the Borodino Museum, where Svetlana worked, just a short distance from his home. Mrs Ameil did not yet know what her husband was up to. In fact, neither did he. Since he did not speak Russian, he could just as easily have been xeroxing clock radio instructions. He had no idea that the material he was duplicating was worth its weight in gold.

The photocopies reached the DST in Paris by the diplomatic bag. Raymond Nart and his assistant made copies themselves before handing them over to the translator. The agents locked themselves up at night, outside office hours. Only three or four knew about this material.

That day, Vetrov handed him 200 pages to be returned two days later. Xavier Ameil was forced to let his wife in on the secret so she would help him.

For the first time the "Farewell" documents revealed the complete operation of the system used to loot Western science and technology. The head of the octopus was the VPK, a commission that reported directly to the Kremlin. It structured the technological needs of the industrial and military apparatus into five- and one-year plans, and supplied it with information collected abroad. The VKP ran the GRU, military intelligence, working in embassies everywhere. It gave orders to the KGB, the Committee for State Security, the supreme intelligence-leaching organisation with its hundreds of officer-spies and thousands of agents worldwide. The KGB ran a subsidiary that mirrored the hierarchy of the State Committee for Science, responsible for foreign cooperation. The KGB also controlled an entire parallel organisation at the Ministry of Foreign Trade. The KGB infiltrated with fake scientists the Academy of Sciences and international scientific conferences. The KGB placed its spies in Soviet organisations working abroad - press agencies, airlines, shipping lines,

banks, sports organisations and ballet companies. The whole network was linked to the different intelligence agencies of the six Eastern European satellite countries. The cherry on the cake was that the bank loans granted to the USSR by the West subsidised the development of its stolen technology. As Lenin said "The capitalists will sell us the rope with which we'll hang them". Now it was time for Raymond Nart to bring his boss, Marcel Chalet, into the loop. At the DST, work carries on in the greatest secrecy. They wonder if they should continue to entrust such a goldmine to an amateur.

So Ameil was replaced by a professional, Patrick Ferrant, a military attache at the French Embassy in Moscow. There was a problem. Ferrant was six feet six inches tall and so very noticeable. However, the Soviet services did not shadow him. They probably thought

that no one would send such an unmistakable giant on a secret mission.

The Frenchman arranged a first meeting on the hill overlooking Moscow, a very popular spot. He suggested handing over the documents there. As he went running in the woods, Vetrov would slip the documents into his car

through a slightly opened window.

Vetrov suggests to hand the document personally to the Frenchman's wife at a market where she usually goes shopping. The Paris office greenlights this rather unconventional procedure. He had begun his affair with Ludmilla, the translator. Claiming personal and professional curiosity, he persuaded her to lend him secret documents he should not normally have seen. SOMBRE MUSIC A rather easygoing, casual attitude reigned at the KGB. There was plenty of criticism of superiors and the agency but it generally dissolved in vodka. Many KGB officers defected abroad but in Moscow Vetrov was the only one. During a weekend spent on duty he copied the names of 422 KGB spies and agents - with resumes, ranks, addresses and telephone numbers - into a school copybook. Among them were 250 officers responsible for technological intelligence worldwide, 57 moles working for the KGB in the West and a good 100 agents - scientists, engineers, executives, archivists - supplying information to the KGB.

Some of the documents handed over by Vetrov showed the West which of its navigation and launch systems were known to the Soviets.

This meant these systems could be modified.

The sheer volume of documents delivered by Vetrov to Mrs Ferrant soon became a problem, as the diplomat had to rush home and photograph them in his bathroom before returning them. Ferrant then entrusted his Minox camera to Vetrov so that he would only collect microfilms. The Minox made the job easier. He casually photographed documents day and night, careless of the risks he ran.

Yeah, I don't know what I'd do if I won nine mil. Nah. Well, not for a while, anyway. So many documents flooded into the DST

that they couldn't help wondering if this was not a vast disinformation operation, such as others the KGB had put together in the past. It was on that day that the counterespionage chief to Francois Mitterrand. The new French president immediately grasped the political value of this issue, both militarily and domestically.

At the DST, they quickly translated the most significant parts of the Farewell file into English. At a summit meeting in Canada Mitterrand put Reagan in the picture, redeeming himself in the eyes of a partner outraged by his alliance with the communists. "The Russians are copying your missiles" he privately told him. "They're familiar with your entire radar protection network. "They even have the details of the electronic security system "at the White House." At the time, Reagan just laughed, not really understanding but senior officials at CIA headquarters and the Pentagon fell off their chairs. I was in my office in the Pentagon. An intelligence officer came to see me, showed me a document... and I was stunned by what I saw. I'd never seen this document or anything quite like it before. It indicated... the extent to which the Soviet Union was using Western technology. We knew, of course, that the Soviets were using Western technology but until then I had no idea that it was so completely organised and systematic. There were hundred of programs. And for every program there was an indication of the budget to acquire the Western technology, which part of the Soviet intelligence apparatus

had responsibility for obtaining it,

the sources in the United States, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, wherever it was going to come from... It was like a Redoute catalogue. The CIA gave the French a tiny James-Bond-style camera. It worked with a precise focus determined by a needle hung from a thread 28 centimetres long. Vetrov was in a bad mood that day, complaining he had been abandoned for the two summer months. Then Ferrant told him that Mitterrand had talked about him to the Americans. Vetrov began to supply documents at an astounding rate. Soon, the West had information on the entire pattern

of allocation of stolen information to different ministries, whose old-fashioned names - Ministry of Mechanics, of Electromagnetic Phenomena, of Chemical Production, of Ballistics -

covered the manufacture of tanks, bombs, explosives, submarines, planes, missiles. The importance of the documents contrasted with a casual approach to the operation that paid off. For example, when Patrick Ferrant went to a reception, he asked a guard - they were all KGB informers - to keep a close eye on his car, because there was a crate of cognac in there. In fact, it actually held documents handed over by Vetrov. When Ferrant left, he offered a bottle to the guard and coolly left with the documents.

What made things easier is that there wasn't any haggling over necessities and Vetrov never asked for money.

Some time later, Mrs Ferrant, a mother of five, will be scared out of her wits when Vetrov will slip a 50mm shell into her basket. In Paris, they were drowning in the flow of deliveries. They also felt that the frequency of contact increased the risk and they decided to put things on hold for two months.

Since he'd begun wondering if she suspected what he was doing in secret,

tempers were frayed between Vetrov and Ludmilla. That evening, he had to talk her into allowing him to take her home. DRAMATIC STRING MUSIC SUSPENSEFUL MUSIC


This program is captioned live. Detainees protest on Christmas Island, as the stand-off continues on an Australian customs boat

off Indonesia. Hillary Clinton takes the big stick to Pakistan over its failure to capture al-Qaeda leaders. A setback for hopes of halving the gap with Indigenous Australians by 2020. And a warning that an upbeat US economy doesn't mean the country's out of the woods just yet.

Good evening - Ben Fajzullin with SBS World News Australia. The Federal Government has a new problem with asylum seekers tonight. Half a dozen detainees are staging a protest on Christmas Island. It comes at the same time as a stand-off with Sri Lankans on a Customs boat anchored in Indonesian waters. The Indonesian Government has said the vessel can stay put