Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Disclaimer: The Parliamentary Library does not warrant the accuracy of closed captions. These are derived automatically from the broadcaster's signal.
As it Happened -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) after the Holocaust, Of all who returned to Surany I am the only one left here. he was Robert Jorisch's nephew. And now I'll tell you Oh! And he came to Bury St Edmunds... in the 1930s. I said, but you should've stayed. Then went back. I should, I should. (Speaks German) my sister, my brother, my parents I look at my family now, my nephews, that any of us exists. and realise how unlikely it is there's Paol Lamm... There you are, were straws in the wind Their parents of history. of a very malevolent kind coming to rest seem so unlikely. The chance of them ever Look at that... sweet guy. There he is. We're so lucky simply to be alive. Captions (c) SBS Australia 2007 SBS World News Australia at 9:30 - Coming up in the World Health Organization first flu pandemic in 40 years, has declared the world's but the Australian Government says its alert levels. Australia will not lift at over 1,300 cases, The national toll currently stands with the vast majority in Victoria. in a crucial presidential election Iranians are voting Mahmoud Ahmadinejad which pits hardline president against a pro-reform candidate

improving relations with the West. who is more open to the Islamic revolution, Decades after are demanding reform. young, liberal Iranians are under way Multiple investigations after a North Queensland man died by a taser. minutes after being immobilised to resuscitate the man failed. Police say efforts will pay a record transfer fee And Spain's Real Madrid Christiano Ronaldo. for Manchester United star and the rest of the day's news Those stories at 9:30.

of the Soviet compound, At Tehran, behind the closed doors Stalin demonstrated to the Western Over dinner one night, the German leadership after the war. he talked of how he wanted to treat ..They must be shot. and public The British parliament mass executions. will never tolerate they allowed them to begin, Even if in the passion of war against those responsible they would turn violently on this point. You must be under no delusion for Churchill. Eventually it was all too much Churchill at the dinner. Roosevelt chose not to support thought it more important The American President on a whole range of different issues, He wanted Stalin's co-operation in the war against Japan. like gaining Soviet involvement As for Stalin, and sound the whistle SONG: # Pack your bags # I'll be heading straight for you but I've been thinking # Don't be shocked # Of some things that we might do # Ohhhh # You and me... # The Volkswagen Tiguan compact SUV. # You. # In January 1944, less than two months after the end of the Tehran conference,

with their attempt to con the world the Soviet authorities went public about the murders at Katyn. The falsified documents showing the had in fact murdered them, a year after the Soviets in the film propaganda. now took pride of place like the Russian forester Kiselev, And key witnesses, on threat of their own death, had now been persuaded they'd given to the Germans. to withdraw the testimony of the Soviet Commission of Inquiry Kiselev even lied for the benefit

didn't fool the British government. But the Soviet deception A British Foreign Office official had happened here at Katyn, who examined what the Soviets claimed in which he said wrote a secret report case was simply incredible. that an essential part of the Soviet was to remain confidential. But all this Even before he'd read the report, to the Foreign Secretary saying Churchill had written ever speak a word about it." "We should none of us best to ignore the problem of Katyn. At the White House, Roosevelt did his was focused on the bigger picture. The American President were preparing for D-Day The Western Allies a tough war in the Pacific. and were also fighting I get a copy at once. Can you make sure And send one to Hopkins. Roosevelt had never even replied Churchill had sent him to a previous report guilty of the killings at Katyn. suggesting that the Soviets were But in May 1944, to talk about the murders. Roosevelt was forced a friend of Roosevelt's George Earle, to the Balkans, and a special American emissary from his intelligence contacts had uncovered evidence the Soviets had committed the crime. that convinced him Here are these pictures. Here are these affidavits. could you have? What greater proof rigged things up. George, they could have things up, the Nazis are very smart. The Germans could have rigged and a German plot. This is entirely German propaganda the Russians did not do this. I am absolutely convinced George, about Russia since 1942. you've been worried Now, let me tell you. I've had a lot of experience. I'm an older man, they're 180 million people These Russians, speaking 120 different dialects. they're going to fly to pieces After this war cracked through and through. like a centrifugal machine I really do. I think he was horribly frustrated, about the fact He was all over me that the Russians had done it. that he was convinced from the start Ten months later, in March 1945, he was going to make public Earle told Roosevelt all his concerns about the Soviets. Roosevelt immediately wrote to him for Earle to publish this material, saying it would be a betrayal and ordered him not to. As if this was not enough, Earle's life was turned upside down. a few days later, with a guide in a lake in Maryland He was fishing from a rowing boat he had unexpected visitors. when suddenly They were FBI agents. They had come to tell Earle With immediate effect, 7000 miles away in Samoa. he was to leave for a new post It was clear that President Roosevelt wanted his old friend out of the way. A few weeks later, his son managed to visit his father in his Pacific exile. He was bitter, he was very disappointed, he was very upset that the President had done that to him. In a democracy, you don't do that sort of thing but the President thought, wartime, he could do it and he did it. And of course, he got away with it, naturally. Just a few weeks after Earle met Roosevelt, the Western Allies launched D-Day. A massive amphibious landing on the coast of France on the 6th of June, 1944. It was the start of the so-called second front, which Stalin had been asking the Western Allies to provide for several years. But in a less well-known piece of history, in an operation that dwarfed D-Day in scale, the Red Army launched its own offensive on June the 23rd. Nearly two and a half million Red Army soldiers would confront the mass of German Army Group Centre. And within a month, the Red Army had pushed forward around 200 miles. In late July in Lvov, in Eastern Poland, special troops of the NKVD entered the city in advance of the major assault. The Soviets had last occupied this area three years before.

The Soviets were particularly interested in the Gestapo HQ in Lvov, for a hurried exit, where the Germans were preparing taking their intelligence files with them. The Soviet secret police planned simply to convert the Gestapo HQ into their own new home. And from here, the secret police wanted to target more than just those people who had collaborated with the Germans. They intended to seize anyone who so much as uttered one bad word about the Soviet regime.

The city of Lvov was at the heart of the area in Eastern Poland the Soviets had first snatched in 1939. Regardless of the propaganda speeches, the Soviets would never again let this land be part of Poland. At the same time as the Soviet Union was suppressing resistance in Lvov, Polish soldiers were fighting and dying here in Italy, in the British Army. These Poles, fighting against the Germans, believed they were laying down their lives so that their homeland could be free. But no matter how bravely the soldiers from Eastern Poland fought, no matter how many of them died in battle, they, as far as Stalin was concerned, now came from the Soviet Union.

It was in May 1944 that the Poles fought their most famous battle as part of the British Army, here at the monastery of Monte Cassino which protected the road north to Rome. The terrain ideally suited the German defenders who occupied the area around the monastery, and the Allied advance had been held here for months. The Poles took part in what would prove to be the final attempt to take the mountain in May. The mountains were defended by some of the Germans' elite troops. And they soon formed their own opinion about the fighting quality of their Polish opponents. Around 4000 Poles were killed or wounded in this one battle. fighting for the British Army Eventually the monastery at Monte Cassino was occupied by the Poles on the 18th of May, 1944. NEWSREEL: After many days of bitter fighting and heavy losses incurred, the Polish flag flies from the ruins of the monastery.

On Monte Calvary, overlooking Monte Cassino, is a monument to the Polish sacrifice. One side of it reads, "For our freedom and yours, "we soldiers of Poland gave our soul to God, "our life to the soil of Italy, "our hearts to Poland." But despite the scale of the sacrifice, Monte Cassino was a great victory for the Poles. They thought they had proved their worth to the British Army in which they fought. NEWSREEL: Poland fights side by side with her great allies for freedom and democracy. (Speaks Polish) INTERPRETER: Your Majesty, General Sosnkowski. In July 1944, General Anders of the Polish 2nd Corps welcomed King George VI who had come to Italy to congratulate the Allied soldiers on their achievement. This is a song about the Polish city of Lvov, Your Majesty. The words are "If I were to be born again some day, only in Lvov." (Both sing in Polish) But back in Lvov, the very city they were singing about, the Red Army was beginning its occupation. POLISH SONG CONTINUES The Polish soldiers in the British Army didn't know it yet, but most of them would never see Lvov again. learnt how the Soviets were behaving as they came west. The Polish underground army rose up against the German occupiers of Warsaw on August the 1st, 1944. By taking on the Germans before the Soviets arrived, they hoped to show the world their independence. Soviet propaganda had encouraged the citizens of Warsaw to believe they were about to be liberated by the Red Army. Stalin before launching their att But the Poles had not consulted Stalin before launching their attack. The Red Army lay to the east of Warsaw, across the River Vistula. But Stalin had no intention of committing them to the struggle in the Polish capital. He even refused to assist Allied planes which were trying to supply the rising from the air. We realised that they were not going to allow either us or the Americans to land on Soviet territory. And this seemed to us a most terrible betrayal, not only of the Poles but of the Allies. 300 supply flights to Warsaw, The British made more than from bases in southern Italy. most flying a tortuous journey Churchill wanted to help the resistance fighters in Warsaw, regardless of what Stalin might think. Many of the missions were flown by Poles who were serving in the RAF. Mr Churchill's Polish squadron... "If you want to fly, it's your country, your capital city." And not one refused to go. The war was on, you had to help your friends. Tadeusz Ruman flew 18 missions to Warsaw. Every trip was more dangerous because it was a long trip and the Germans knew the route you were coming.

At the end of August, Tadeusz Ruman's plane was attacked on his way back from Warsaw and he only just managed to crash-land it back at base. He was awarded a distinguished flying medal for his bravery. Over 100 of his Polish colleagues While the battle for Warsaw continued, Winston Churchill arrived in Italy to meet with General Anders, Commander of the Polish 2nd Corps. General Anders... May I congratulate you, General, on the fine successes that...

Churchill was in a difficult position. One of his allies, the Soviets, with another, the Poles. seemed almost to be at war You must trust us. in defence of the principle of your independence, and I can assure you we will never desert you. I know that the Germans and Russians are killing all your best elements, particularly the intellectuals. I sympathise with you deeply. But be confident, we will not desert you and Poland will be happy. I, and my friend President Roosevelt, to whom I have promised my support and who will again be elected President, will never abandon Poland. Put your trust in us. But Churchill's support made little difference to the situation in Warsaw... which was grim.

German forces openly targeted Polish civilians as well as members of the Home Army. Within two weeks of the rising starting, in one district of the city alone, the Germans killed at least 40,000 civilians. occurred here, One of the worst atrocities occurred here, in the basement of a makeshift hospital in the centre of Warsaw. On September the 2nd, 1944, a group of German auxiliary troops arrived and found the underground rooms filled with Polish wounded - men and women. OMINOUS MUSIC Danuta Galkowa managed to hide during the assaults, but still witnessed the sight of mass rape. The mass rapes and murders that took place in this makeshift hospital were just a tiny proportion of the atrocities perpetrated by German forces in Warsaw. In total, over 200,000 Polish civilians died.

The Poles in Warsaw finally surrendered in early October 1944. A few weeks before, Stalin had relented and offered them some help, including allowing Soviet planes to drop supplies. But many believed he deliberately did too little too late. The fighting in Warsaw had lasted more than 60 days, and now it was over. When we heard the news, and this I remember, everyone cried. The Germans began to destroy Warsaw brick by brick. It seemed like Stalin had got his way. He'd watched as the Germans destroyed the Home Army in Warsaw. And the Western Allies had ultimately felt powerless to prevent the Soviets acting as they saw fit. Morning, Sam. Sam. Mum! Thank you, darling. Have a good game! # A moment of your time... # Go, Andrew! Pass! Pass! Ohhh! # I've got a sweet confession... # Is he alright? (WHISTLE BLOWS) Andrew! Good water, isn't it? We're gonna take the boys to Macca's. Macca's? Yes, Macca's. Hey, there. How was the game? We won! Did you? Whoo-hoo! Hi, Andrew. Come. Coming, Sam? # When I get # A moment with you... # Wait for me, Andrew! # With you. # As the last rites were about to be read over Warsaw, Churchill and Roosevelt met several thousand miles away in Quebec, in Canada. NEWSREEL: Now, into a Quebec station, comes an official train carrying England's Prime Minister Winston Churchill, to meet once more with America's President Franklin Roosevelt. Discussion of the Soviet action, or lack of it, during the rising in Warsaw, wasn't a priority at the Quebec talks. Overall, the war in Europe seemed to be going well for the Allies. Perhaps, some thought, the Nazis would be beaten by Christmas. So here, the focus was on how Germany should be treated at the end of the war. We have got to be tough on the Germans. And I mean... Roosevelt was keen on a radical plan proposed by his Treasury Secretary, Henry Morgenthau. A plan which would destroy post-war German industry. Henry, would you like to say a little more about the Treasury's proposals? Yes, Mr President. It is in the interests of peace and security that Germany's economic domination of Europe is eliminated. The Ruhr, the heart of Germany's industrial power - this area should be stripped of all industry within six months of the end of the war. And all German industrial equipment should be transported to Allied nations as reparation. The mines must be closed...

I will be honest with you, Mr President. I regard this proposal as unnatural, un-Christian and unnecessary. Un-Christian. What is more, it would be like chaining oneself to a dead German. of the harsh treatment of Germany. Stalin massively approved Perhaps coincidentally, one of the people who helped draw up the American plan, Harry Dexter White, was a Soviet spy who was relaying all the secrets he could back via his Soviet handler to Moscow. White was just one of a whole network of Soviet spies in Britain and America that kept Stalin informed during the war. The Western Allies had no such intelligence network in the Soviet Union. In Quebec, Eden and Churchill were both anxious that the Americans agree to a new package of financial assistance for the British, of over a billion dollars.

Two days after Churchill's protest about the Morgenthau Plan, Roosevelt signed the deal. Mr President, the British people are greatly in your debt. This is something that we are doing for the benefit of both our countries. I think... we should look at your proposals on Germany a little more. After the agreement had been signed, Churchill appeared to change his mind about the Morgenthau Plan. Though he re-worked the plan slightly,

he still agreed to destroy German industry after the war. The program for eliminating the war-making industries in the Ruhr and in the Saar should look forward to converting Germany into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character.

It would be like turning the Black Country into Devon. It is not in our national interest. The future of my people is at stake. And if I have to choose between my people and the German people, I am going to choose my people. While Churchill and Roosevelt were planning the future of Germany, Stalin's secret police seemed to be determining the future of Poland. The secret police even saw as a threat

those who had fought against the Nazis in Warsaw, like Halina Szopinska. The conflict within the alliance was now such that one ally, the Soviets, was in the process of torturing members of another ally, the Poles. When the Red Army eventually entered Warsaw in January 1945, they liberated a ghost city. Most of Poland was now under the control of a puppet government installed by Stalin.

It looked here as if one tyranny was indeed in the process of replacing another.

Captions (c) SBS Australia 2009 This program is captioned live. The world is now at the start of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Flu sparks the first global flu pandemic in 40 years. Iranians vote after a bitterly fought presidential race that pollsters say is too close to call. Taser death in Queensland -

the State Government defends the weapons. And Real Madrid will pay a staggering sum for the services of Manchester United star Ronaldo. Good evening. Ben Fajzullin with SBS World News Australia. There's no immediate change to Australia's alert level for swine flu, despite the world outbreak now reaching a pandemic. A surge in the number of cases in Australia was a factor in the World Health Organisation's decision to declare a flu pandemic, the first in 40 years. The disease has now spread to 74 countries with almost 30,000 cases and 144 recorded deaths. Hong Kong - the source of the last flu pandemic, in 1968 - is now the latest part of the world affected by swine flu. Authorities there have shut down all primary schools and childcare centres after 12 students contracted the virus. It shows the level of concern about the outbreak, which has now, perhaps inevitably, been declared a pandemic as swine flu spreads across the globe from the Americas to Australia and Asia. The world is now at the start of the 2009 influenza pandemic. We are in the earliest days of the pandemic. The virus is spreading under a close and careful watch. As I said, the influenza virus is full of surprises. A pandemic indicates the extent, not the severity, of the outbreak. Millions died in previous flu pandemics.