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Nicholas Crane's Britannia -

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through Elizabethan Britain, I'm on the next leg of my journey masterpiece Britannia as my guide. with William Camden's lost the far north of England, I've reached Hadrian's Wall. What you see there between England and Scotland. are the ancient borderlands The badlands, if you like. This was some of the most troubled, in Elizabethan Britain. dangerous country But our southern schoolmaster, was undaunted. the man who wrote Britannia, piece of work. Britannia was an astounding British Isles was described For the first time, the entire the landscape and the people. in detail - the history, four countries in a single book. It's an encyclopaedic tour through North Britain. Camden called Scotland Britain was jaw-dropping. in a picture of Elizabethan But including Scotland with her own monarch, laws, money, Scotland was a separate country and Spain, England's enemies. and alliances with France as though it already did. that didn't belong to England Somewhat dicey, describing a country was paving the way for union. But the year was 1586, and Camden would soon be on the English throne. A Scottish king, James VI, as a dark place. But Scotland was seen wild clans ruled the Highlands. wolves still roamed and Here, witches burned, such different countries, together? Scotland and England, What could bring Scotland should belong to Britain. Camden passionately believed that that it would work? But what evidence did he have

of a civilised Elizabethan Britain Could his idea as wild and remote as Scotland? be applied to somewhere of Camden's Britain in the North. I'm going to rediscover what I can vast mountainous wastes of Scotland The far north of England and the to most Elizabethans. were terrifying shared this view, Although Camden might have what lay beyond the myths to illuminate Britain, to show he thought the time had come and to bring Scotland and misconceptions, into the fold. and breadth of Scotland. covers the entire length I'm making a journey which borders, I'm going to follow From down here on the lawless some wild country, Crawford Moor, a lost Elizabethan road into Elizabethan gold. where I want to investigate Crossing the Cairngorms. Athol and its wicked women. Castles. the most north easterly point All that before I reach in mainland Britain. And it's not John O'Groats. and this lost masterpiece, I have a lost country to discover for the next 800 miles. Britannia, will be my guide a forgotten cross-border route. Scotland, I'm going in search of Before exploring Camden's through England's dodgy borderlands, From Hadrian's Wall meant running the gauntlet. getting into Scotland have hardened the inhabitants, part rough and hard, seemeth to "The ground itself, for the most also made more fierce and hardy. "whom the Scots, their neighbours, in wars and other wiles, intermingle "Sometimes, they keep them exercised are a most warlike nation." so that, by these means, they "their manors among them, brutal and battle-hardened. Those were the English borders - of invasion by Scots armies. and there was constant fear The locals were unruly wonder of Hadrian's Wall, he didn't When Camden travelled to see the for fear of being robbed. dare stop to record the antiquities his fears were not unfounded. When Camden came here, the bounds of civilised England. Hadrian's Wall was well beyond legendary proportions. Local banditry had reached laws couldn't be enforced. hostile terrain, Elizabeth's In such a remote, or the Scottish crown. allegiance to either the English The borderers felt no particular outlaws. They were a law unto themselves - reivers - cattle rustlers who stole, The borders were ruled by cut-throat rackets for a living. murdered and ran protection daring cross-border raids. Camden had heard about their the night by troops, "They go forth in byways and many winding cracks, "out of their own borders, through "lurking places appointed beforehand. "When they have laid hold of a booty, likewise by night, "back again they return home, "through blindways only." raiding and speedy escapes. secret routes for cross-border The reivers had their own could use in the dead of night. hidden way - places cattle thieves Every dale had its own hideout and One such route was the Gamel's Path, over the hills into Scotland. Roman road Deer Street straight which followed a section of the old is where I'm headed now. That lost border crossing Hadrian's Wall, Having travelled along I'm now taking the high road north. Gamel's Path in the 16th century. border would have thundered along Reivers from both sides of the

They carried on as if there was no border at all. Cattle from both England and Scotland were all for the taking. But their crimes weren't entirely without consequence. Where Gamel's Path reached the border, that was where the border men were tried and punished harshly. On the modern OS map, sections of the old Roman road are marked running right up to today's border. But I wonder how anyone in Camden's time knew exactly where the border lay? The likelihood is that the border would have been attached to prominent features on the landscape. And I've spotted something on the map that might have appealed to the Elizabethan mind. Up here are marked Roman camps, a fort and what appears to be a medieval village plonked on top, right beside the Scottish border. Definitely worth a look. In Elizabethan times, the men who attempted to uphold border law for both the Scottish and the English side, the wardens of the middle marches, came to a point on the border roughly three times a year to exact justice. Fines, flogging and execution were the order of the day. So, as a border reiver, the last thing you wanted was to get caught. There they are - earthworks galore. Roman, medieval, there's even meant to have been a chapel there somewhere. According to the map, the medieval village was called Kemylpethe, so it must have given its name to the road, Gamel's Path. These Roman earthworks are absolutely immense. Set on these empty hillsides, you can see why they've been used as a border marker. The Scottish border comes up the valley, hits these ramparts and then shoots straight up to the skyline. It's astounding to think that this wind-blasted spot was an Elizabethan high court. If you were brought here to be tried, you probably wouldn't leave with your life. Persistently stealing cattle, committing murder on a raid or even assisting a Scotsman to go raiding for cattle in England - all these crimes carried the death penalty. Into Scotland. As for setting foot north of the border, Camden is full of advice to tread lightly and to not pass judgement on people or places with which you aren't familiar. "Now I am come to Scotland. "And willingly, I assure you, will I enter into it. "But with all lightly pass over it, for I remember well that's said: "'In places not well known, less while we must stay.' "As also the admonition that is: 'Art thou a stranger? "'Be no meddler.'" Well, Camden WAS meddling. In the 16th century, Scotland was a different country. It wasn't ruled by Elizabeth and in some places was hardly ruled at all. By even mentioning Scotland in Britannia, Camden was playing with the affairs of nations. But it was meddling for the greater good, to show that Britain could be one country and more than the sum of its parts. Camden tells us there were many peel towers and forts of military men in the Scottish borders, built to safeguard stock and to repel the armed bands of cattle thieves from England. I'm on my way to Smailholm Tower. One of its 16th century lairds, John Pringle, grew so tired of being raided that he became an assured Scot. Promising not to take part in any raids on the English and giving his word that he would not stop English raiders in Scotland, his lands would be left alone. It's probably the only reason why the tower still stands today. The Scottish nobles who lived here were much poorer than their English cousins. Visitors from the south wrote of hospitality which wouldn't encourage a second visit. Porridge with bits of boiled meat on top was set down as the banquet, while blue-bonneted servants actually joined their lord and his guests to eat. Probably without taking their hats off. It was a world apart from refined English manners. If border castles were the Fawlty Towers of their day, it could be where the tales of Scottish meanness originate from. But most English visitors knew they were being given the best their hosts had to offer. The land here was not rich, people had to live from theft not farming. And if anything was consumed in excess, it was drink. In Elizabethan times, the Scots were renowned for their love of neat alcohol. In England, wine was mixed with sugar and diluted. But up here in Scotland, they drank it straight. Beer and whiskey were brewed here, too. Reports tell of borderers drinking most of the night most nights. I'm all for a dram now and again, but a drinking match with the inhabitants of a peel tower would probably have been a very bad idea. I'm travelling west now. Scotland may have been poorer than England in many things - their land, food and climate - but this country did have a source of wealth that Elizabeth I was very interested in.

"In Crawford Moor, among the wild wastes, certain husbandmen after great store of violent rain "happened to find small pieces of gold which have this long time given great hope of much riches. "But most of all in our days, since that Sir Bevis Bulmer "undertook with great endeavour to find out here a mine of gold."

And if there is any gold left in them there hills, I'll need expert help to find it. Gold prospector Leon Kirk is going to show me how it's done. So, where exactly is Crawford Moor, Leon? It's not marked on the map at all. No, actually, Crawford Moor covers this whole area here. It's very large, about 200 square miles. What would it have looked like when Bevis Bulmer was working here? Very bleak, very cold, but a very, very busy place. He mined here for three years, had 300 men working for him and managed to extract ?100,000 of gold. What's that in modern money? That's ?15 million. That's unbelievable! Unbelievable. But I can imagine it being a very, very hard environment to work in. There's not much around. There's no trees. And working in these freezing cold rivers, they would have set up sluices, and redirect the river and run the material through the sluices. Then, emptying the sluices and getting the gold out the bottom of the riffles. That's how they mined, and they must have mined to a point where it wasn't commercially viable any more. Can we go and find some gold ourselves? Absolutely. Let's go.

500 years ago, Crawford Moor was famous for its goldmines, rubies and diamonds. The biggest nugget of gold ever found in Britain, weighing a staggering 2 lb 3 oz, was found on Crawford Moor in the 16th century. And the entire Scottish Crown Jewels were remodelled with gold from Crawford Moor in 1541. This was the Scottish El Dorado. OK, it looks like a nice spot here. The flow's coming down, we can see bedrock, which is always a good sign. We'll see if there's any gold there. Can I do anything useful? Yes, follow me in. That's us. We're going to pump some gravel from down in this locality straight into the pan. Do you have to fill it with water first? No, just... That's it. So, this is literally vacuuming the bed of the river. Yep. I can feel the bedrock below your pump. I'll try this bit here. Right, now what? We're going to classify it out. Basically, give that a quick check so there isn't a nugget in here that would pay off your mortgage. Nothing there, throwing it to the side. And then we're going to just... Just use a little bit of science. If you can imagine putting your hand in there just now, try that... Then, when I do that, now put your hand in. It goes right through. Yeah! Imagine the gold dropping through that. Yeah, it's separating out. It's becoming a solution rather than solid rock. We're taking the lighter material off the top. And you should always have water in the pan. You're using the stream to do the work for you, really. That's right. The current is washing it for you. We're just taking it down to more of the heavier materials. Nearer the end, we should see pieces of haematite and magnetite, or even lead shot. The heavy minerals, the haematite and magnetite, stay in the pan if there's gold? Yeah. Then, we tip the pan back to see if there's anything at all showing. Oh, there we go. A nice flake of gold. That's gold? I think that's gold. Yep, that's a piece of gold. You're kidding. Is this a decent-sized flake or a tiddler? It's actually not a bad-sized flake. Probably weighs about 0.1 of a gram. First attempt, fantastic. What's incredible is that something so valuable is just lying around in the Scottish hills, waiting to be discovered. That's right. This is why the Elizabethans got so excited. Mountains of gold. Incredible. I've got a couple of little ones of mine I brought along. Can I have a look? Very gently roll them out. There we go. My goodness! Some nice... That is incredible! The bigger stuff I've found in the last couple of years. What about this big one? That's 16.5. Isn't it heavy? I've got to ask you, how much is your nugget worth? Erm... More than your rucksack. Go on, put a price on it. Roughly? I think, no problem, ?5,000 for that one. Really? I think it's time to find more. Can we save this flake and do a bit more panning? Yep. When Bevis Bulmer finally left Crawford Moor, he presented Elizabeth I with a gold drinking bowl inscribed with the words, "My mind and heart will still invent to seek out treasures yet unknown." Bulmer may have left gold fever behind, but I'll be happy to stay out all night. On from the moors, I'm heading to one of Scotland's royal palaces, where much of the gold was destined. When Camden wrote Britannia, Scotland still had her own monarch, and the palace of Linlithgow was the Scottish Hampton Court of its day. Built and rebuilt over centuries, it was the birthplace of kings and queens, a magnificent pleasure palace. But strangely, it was hardly mentioned in Britannia. Back in the 16th century, the palace was decked out in the style of the finest French chateaux. Flemish tapestries hung on the walls, there were painted ceilings, velvet chairs, stone and woodwork carved with thistles and crowns. Logs blazed in every sumptuous royal apartment and the windows were glazed. When Mary Queen of Scots was born here in December 1542, this place would have reflected the full grandeur of Scottish court life. So, why didn't Camden say more about the palace? All he mentions is that there is, "A fair house there, a goodly church and a fish full lake", which doesn't really do it justice. There may have been a political reason for leaving Linlithgow out of the picture in Britannia. And that reason was probably the mother of James VI, Mary Queen of Scots. Mary, Elizabeth's cousin, became Queen of Scotland within days of her birth here at Linlithgow. From that moment on, she was a source of constant stress to the English throne. Despite Mary being a Catholic, when she was just six months old, King Henry VIII drew up a treaty betrothing her to his son Edward to unite the thrones of England and Scotland. But the Scots were having none of it. They didn't trust Henry's motives. The treaty was broken and on several occasions, the little queen was kept from English kidnap. For safety, when she was five, she was sent to France. Scotland and France were old allies, but it was not entirely charity that led the French king to give refuge to Mary. By brokering a marriage between his son and the young Queen of Scots, France stood to gain Scotland, and potentially England and Ireland too, if Mary succeeded to the English throne. It's no wonder the young Scot was such a favourite at the French court. But when Mary returned from France aged 16, her troubles began all over again. I'm crossing the water too now, to move onto Perthshire and the Central Highlands. Mary found herself the Catholic queen of a Protestant country, raged against by the reformers of the time. Through a succession of marriages and her adherence to her own Catholic faith, she fell from favour in Scotland. Her own nobles imprisoned her and she was forced to abdicate. Eventually, she escaped and fled to England, but once again found herself in prison. While Camden was having Britannia published, Mary Queen of Scots was still a very hot topic. Implicated in the Catholic plot against Elizabeth, Mary was awaiting trial and execution south of the border. Camden later referred to Mary with sympathy, writing of "that most unfortunate lady, Mary Queen of Scots." But when Britannia went to press, making more than a mention of her name or birthplace or talking favourably of her supporters would've been viewed with deep suspicion. Given the Elizabethan fondness for execution, Camden was very wise to keep his head down. Camden busied himself identifying all that was good about Scotland. Edinburgh was a city with wholesome air. Lothian had fruitful cornfields and was renowned for its good manners. The Firth of Forth had coal and pretty coastal towns replenished with stout and lusty mariners. This was a country that England would be very happy to share. On from the riches of the central belt, the next obstacle to my progress lies in Perthshire - the mighty River Tay. Dividing the highlands from the lowlands, Camden described it in Britannia as the greatest river of all Scotland. I think he may have had a point. Wow, this is a really big river, and one of the ancient crossing points on the Tay where cattle were driven from their northern grazing grounds in the hills, over there, towards the southern markets in that direction. The one problem is, there isn't a bridge. How do I get across the river? The cattle and their drovers on horseback used to wade into the river, or even swim if the water was too high, to get to this side. I'm heading north, so I'm going in that direction. There's nothing for it. It looks like I'm in for a swim. If it rains, I'll just have to get wet. Not sure how deep this water is. But... I'm about to find out. This is... not very warm water. And very slippery on the bottom. What's absolutely amazing... is to think of... thousands of cattle crossing this river every year. And the people riding horses over it. The water level now is incredibly low. It hasn't been this low for years. So, if you imagine this river several feet higher - you can't actually get any grip on the bottom here, the current's a bit too strong... But when this river's flowing in spate, the cattle wouldn't have been able to get across. The great herds that would have been driven across this river were part of Scotland's bounty. These valuable cattle were well thought of south of the border, and were taken all the way to Smithfield Market in London to be sold. In a united Britain, they would not be left to marauding clansmen and border reivers. Well... This river looks pretty big before you go into it, but it's much bigger by the time you try to swim across it. It's enormous. An incredibly powerful current as well. Not to be recommended. Across the Tay, I've entered the ancient earldom of Athol, the start of the Highlands for real. A picture of tranquillity today. But somehow, William Camden seemed to find it terrifying. "This Athol is infamous for witches and wicked women. "The country, otherwise fertile enough, "hath valleys bespread with forests, dreadful to see too, "for the sundry turnings and windings in and out therein, "for the hideous horror of dark shade, "for the burrows and dens of wild bulls with thick manes, "extended far and wide in these parts." Witches, wicked women, lethal forests and wild bulls - the highlands were like nothing Camden had ever encountered. Even the Scottish king, James VI, had deep anxieties about these unknown lands, and wrote of "the fearful abounding "at this time in this country of these detestable slaves of the Devil, the witches or enchanters." But were the witches as bad as James VI made out? I met up with Barbara Meiklejohn-Free, the Highland seer at an ancient site, the Jury Stone, to find out how frightening Camden's witches really were. Who were the witches and wicked women Camden writes about? These were wise women who worked with the land, who knew about the weather, knew about nature. One of the stories that came forward was about the Countess of Athol. It was reported that she actually took the birthing pains away from Mary Queen of Scots and placed it on somebody else. So, these aren't witches with pointy hats and broomsticks casting evil spells on people? Absolutely not. What they used to do... The area that we're in here, there's an awful lot of cattle around. The wise women, and the wise men as well, were ones who went around helping with the cattle, helping with the milk in particular. So, somebody who nowadays we'd call a vet might have been regarded as a 16th century witch? Exactly. Or a doctor. In those days, they hardly had any medical people around, so where did they go? They went to the wise man and the wise woman for herbs and medicines. But in particular, this area was a place with a lot of witches. A lot of gatherings going on. Why? What brought them all here? You just have to look at the lie of the land and the ancient ways. There's about 60 stone circles here, 90 standing stones. Where we are today was a meeting place, a gathering place where people came. If you look at the Jury Stone, it will tell you an awful lot of stories about what actually happened here. Just imagine yourself going back all those years. Imagine lots of people, the leader on top... The ancient tradition, you used to take a clod of earth and stand there, and they made decisions. One of the reasons it's called the Jury Stone is because this was a place where people were judged. Would witches have been tried here? Oh, of course, yes. Absolutely. I know there's not documented evidence of that, but a lot of times there wasn't. So, altogether, there was probably about 8,000 witches burnt in Scotland around that time. But why were Elizabethans intimidated by them? They couldn't comprehend how people could predict things. How did people know about the weather and the crops? So, it was ignorance? It was. It was absolute ignorance. They looked at it and what they saw... "I can't understand that, "therefore, it can't be right." Although the Scottish Highlands may have seemed alien to Camden, the people who lived here understood this rugged terrain. They could read their landscape. But I wonder how an Elizabethan visitor might have found their way through the mountains to get into real clan territory. Time to draw breath and to plan a route before I head for the hills. To do a bit of Elizabethan time-travelling, I'm going to use a 16th century map along with my OS edition. By comparing the two, I hope to find my way across at least part of the Cairngorms. This map was drawn by the intrepid Scotsman Timothy Pont in the 1580s. It shows streams and rivers flowing through the hills, a couple of lochs and several very distinctive mountains. Up here, Karniler, Cairn of the Fiddler. And here, Ben Vreck. At first glance, it looks a fairly tricky map to use. But even if I can pick up some of these landmarks, reaching the far side of the Cairngorms will be quite a challenge, because the Pont map only goes so far. Most of the Cairngorms are a blank. Back in Elizabethan times, mountains were something to be feared rather than enjoyed. Few southerners would ever have contemplated setting foot in such wild country, never mind mapping it. My 16th century map is based on two rivers over in the west - the Tilt and the Tarf. But over in the east, things are a lot less clear. I can just about make out the River Dee, a place called Inverary and an unnamed tributary running down from the north. The one feature which really catches the eye is this devilish crag in the centre marked Keurn Badenach. It's right at the northern limit of the map. It looks like the kind of pointer I need - a signpost to the other side. Well, if I can find Keurn Badenach, I'll find my Elizabethan route through the Cairngorms. Even today, the only way through these mountains is on foot. It's about 30 miles from here, near Braemar, to Glen Feshie on the other side - a hike beyond the worst nightmares of the average Elizabethan. And how to find my mystery mountain? I can see from my OS map that there are no peaks in the Cairngorms called anything like Keurn Badenach. So, I can't rely on place name evidence to get me there. I'm beside the River Dee. But to find the mystery mountain from the map, first, I'm going to have to find and follow the unnamed tributary. On the OS map, it looks as if Pont's unnamed tributary could be Lui Water. Like Pont's river, it runs down from the north-west and meets the Dee in the same place. I'm going to use it as a shortcut into the mountains. Here in the wilds of Scotland, Camden's idea of a controlled, civilised Britain was really tested. Messengers and quaking tax collectors ventured into these hills in fear of their lives. At the same time, women from the northern side of the Cairngorms would walk through the mountains to sell eggs in Braemar. And Highland men thought nothing of crossing this wilderness to take their cattle to market. This was where two very different civilisations collided. On the path ahead, I should see some of the mountains to the west fairly soon. It's still some way off, but there's a whacking great big rock face over there. I'm wondering if it's Keurn Badenach. I'm going to take a closer look. The mystery mountain on my 16th century map is drawn as a pointed peak, whereas all the hills around here look much more rounded. Another mountain's just popped into view. As I've been walking up the glen, it's been hidden by the rounded flank of this hill. It looks very like the pointed fang on my 16th century map. I reckon I've found Keurn Badenach. What still puzzles me is the name, though. Today, this massive mountain is known as the Devil's Point. It's smack in the middle of the Cairngorms and is a major landmark for hill walkers. In Gaelic, the mountain is called Bod An Deamhain - the Devil's Penis. Why wasn't it called that on the map? Maybe they couldn't think of a suitable translation. I've had a closer look at the Devil's Point on my OS map. A very interesting feature just west of the summit called Bhuidheanach of Cairn Toul sounds suspiciously like Keurn Badenach. Bhuidheanach in Gaelic means Yellow Place, so I need to look for a splash of colour somewhere behind that peak. The only way to reach my Elizabethan goal is to climb all 3,294 feet of the Devil's Point. The Yellow Place had better be worth it. When Camden wrote about the mountains of Wales as "the greatest of the whole island, "steep with cragged and rent rocks on every side", he had not seen the mountains of Scotland. "In Scotland, riseth up high mountains that are most trusty preservers of snow. "As touching their height, some have reported unto me strange wonders. "And yet, the ancient geometers have written that neither the depth of sea "nor height of hills exceed by the plumb line ten stardia, that is one mile and a quarter." So little was known of Britain's geography in Elizabethan times, Camden was capable of fantasising about mountains of enormous height in the Scottish highlands - mountains a mile-and-a-quarter high. Five of the highest mountains in Britain are found in the Cairngorms. But even then, a mile and a quarter - 6,600 feet - is more than 2,000 feet higher than any mountain in Britain. Onto the western side of the Devil's Point and I should be getting near Bhuidheanach of Cairn Toul - the Yellow Place. This is where the Yellow Place should be, where a little stream runs down a shallow dip. You can see up there a whole area of golden sphagnum moss and yellow mountain grass. This is the spot which gave its name to our Elizabethan mountain. Now onto the summit of the Devil's Point. Above the clouds and golden eagles. This land might have been totally alien to Camden, but to the highlanders, it was familiar territory. Amazing to think that... none of these peaks around me appeared on 16th century maps, apart from one - the Devil's Point. It was right on the edge of the Elizabethan known world. What an amazing view. Now I'm up here, I can see why this, among all these mountains, was shown on 16th century maps. This gigantic rock beacon marking the way through this maze of valleys. Nothing has changed here for 500 years. I've been walking all day and feel as if... ..I've reached the heart of a very special sanctuary. It's incredibly peaceful. There are no overhead aircrafts, no pylons in sight. The only sounds are the... sighing of an evening wind and waterfall beside. A little fingernail moon hanging above the Devil's Point. The ridge is just touched with the last rays of the evening sun. It's all incredibly beautiful.

Yellow Place found, the Devil's Point conquered and definitely time to bed down for the night in a room with a view at 3,000 feet on the Cairngorm plateau. 6am and quite a dawn to wake up to. The wind has got up, however, and I'm keen to head down from the hills to meet the highlanders that Camden so eloquently described. "There inhabit these regions a kind of people, rude, warlike, "ready to fight, querulous and mischievous. "They be commonly termed Highland men, "speak Irish and call themselves Albannach. "Their bodies be firmly made and well compact, able and strong, "nimble of foot, high minded, inbred and practiced in warlike exercises. "Upon a deadly feud and hatred, "most forward and desperate to take revenge." No monarch had control over the wild highlanders. Your safety could not be guaranteed in these parts. It was seen as being so dangerous that any traveller setting out from Edinburgh into the highlands would make their will before they went. From the reports Camden heard, the natives would have seemed completely alien and utterly terrifying. Out of the Cairngorms now, I heading deep into clan territory. To learn more about the Highland men, I arranged to meet Ray Owens of the Clan McKenzie. Armed with Highland weapons from the 16th century,

he's not a man to cross. Were the highlanders really as fierce as Camden said? Their reputation goes back as far as the Romans. Tacitus, the Roman historian, said they were the most savage and drunken warriors the Romans had ever faced. Was it true? Well, in part it was. It was a very warrior-based society. Land was held and land was gained by the power of the sword. Certainly, the clan chiefs measured their wealth by the number of armed men they could raise for battle. But there was no battle tactics. It was one army charging against the other. These great weapons... This is the claymore, of course - the great sword. If I was defending myself against you, I would stand with it at full height, ready to rain down on you, aiming for your left shoulder, cutting through the collarbone, split right to your heart in a single blow. These were quite vicious weapons. If I came at you with my umbrella, what would you do? You wouldn't stand a chance, Nick. You really wouldn't. Let me show you some other weapons I have with me. This is my axe. These were used mostly against men on horseback. This could be used to hook the man from the horse and the axe used to dispatch them. Also, if you're fighting men on foot, you would put it through the legs up and pull. I won't do it. Thank you. But it was a vicious weapon. You bet. What was life like within the clans? Well, clan means children, or family. It was a very sympathetic system. The clan chief had absolute power, but in most cases, he used it very sympathetically. He took a rent from the people, but it was a surplus rent. So, if you had a bad year, you didn't produce very much, then he wouldn't take rent from you. In good years, he would take the rent and maybe give it to some other part of the clan who had done less well. There was a redistribution of any surplus. Like a welfare system, there'd always be somebody to help you out? Absolutely, because it was a family. The people lived together, they were family, they looked after each other. And that began to break up about this time. James VI, who was King of Scots at the time that Elizabeth was on the throne in England, was determined to undermine this, what he considered, barbaric and uncultured society. He put so many acts through to try to suppress the clan system. The worst of all were the Statutes of Iona in 1609, which forced the clan chiefs and chieftains to send their sons to be educated in Edinburgh and London, effectively breeding the highlander out of them. How do you feel about the dispersal of the clans? Because in Elizabethan Britain, they were all intact. Well, I think they were having a very good life living in the highlands of Scotland. They had their own culture, their own civilisation. Gaelic poems, Gaelic music, Gaelic songs. It was a very vibrant culture at that time. And it was so easy to dismiss that, and to think you could implant your civilisation on top of it. Sure, things need to change, we need to bring into the modern world, but it could have been done in a much more sympathetic way. HAUNTING MUSIC PLAYS In the centuries following the publication of Britannia, the situation only got worse for the clans. Landlords evicted every man, woman and child from hundreds of glens to make way for sheep. Here in Glen Banneker, records from Camden's time show that there were no less then eight townships in the glen. Today, there is nothing but ruins. You can see here one of the houses. Very narrow doorway... just here. Would have been a very low doorway, as well. Inside here, the footings of the walls. They're very low now, they've all fallen down, but on top of these stones there would have been peat, cut rather like bricks, piled up to make the wall higher. On top of that, a timber structure holding the thatched roof of heather. No windows. And a fire, probably centrally. Very cosy and dark and smoky... Animals at one end, particularly in the winter when they were all brought indoors. Very warm inside. The heat from the animals, and a lot of people living in these houses. Some had 15, 20 people living inside them, three generations all crammed into one space. But they've all gone. It's a very soulful place now. 'With eight townships in the glen, 'there would've been hundreds of people living here in the 16th century. 'And they were part of a flourishing Highland civilisation. 'But the clans were not part of James VI vision of Britain. 'For the country to be united, one culture would have to give way to the other. 'Elizabethan civilisation conquered all.' WHISTLE BLOWS

On from Glen Banneker, I'm taking the train north. No such thing as steam trains in the Elizabethan era, of course. But a positively regal form of travel nonetheless.

Camden may not have understood the Highland men, but his descriptions of the Highland landscape are full of admiration. Murray is celebrated for its fertility, pleasant site and fruitful trees. Easter Ross for its cornfields and pastures. When it came to Wester Ross and beyond, this was the land of "huge, swelling mountains advancing their heads aloft, "many woods among them full of stags, roebucks, fallow deer and wild fowl". And that is where I'm headed next. Elizabeth longed to have this wild land under her control. But there was something that lurked beyond these mountains that might have worried her. Man-eating wolves. "The country is sore haunted and annoyed by most cruel wolves, "which in such violent rage not only set upon cattle but also assail men. "But in Scotland, by virtue of an act of Parliament, "inhabitants are commanded to go forth thrice a year a-hunting "for to destroy the wolves and their whelps." Wolves had been eradicated from England and Wales by 1509, but they still roamed free over much of Scotland. The Elizabethans who knew Hampton Court would have been appalled at the thought that a mere 600 miles to the north, you still had to go wolf hunting three times a year. Wolves belonged to the dark side of nature, to an old and frightening world. They epitomised a lack of civilisation. 'There are no wolves today, but the old hunting skills are undiminished. 'To get some idea of what was involved in an Elizabethan wolf hunt, 'and to hunt for the perfect deer photograph, 'I'm meeting expert stalker Mark Lazzeri on the Glencanisp Estate in Sutherland. 'Time to leave my umbrella in the gunroom and swap my red jacket for something more discreet.' Were there really wolves roaming these hills in the 16th century? I certainly think so. You've only got to look at the Gaelic place names on the estate. We've got a Wolf Glen, a Wolf Quarry. The estate is large enough and has the right topography to have supported two, three, perhaps even four families of wolves. How would you have gone about tracking them? Wolves are pretty much creatures of habit a lot of the time. There would have been tracks. The ideal way of doing it would have been to look for tracks in the snow. We quite frequently get snow, and they follow traditional animal paths. Once our Elizabethan wolf hunters had tracked down their prey, how would they have dispatched them? They would have identified a den where the wolves were lying up, where the cubs were. They would have either blockaded them in there to starve them to death or used smoke or fires to drive them out. Then they'd have been waiting with firebrands or clubs or spears. That sounds incredibly dangerous. It certainly would have been a high-risk activity. A wolf is a large, powerful animal, very capable of defending itself. When they were frightened and cornered, yes, I expect there would have been human injuries, if not casualties. Is there somewhere around here where we can do a bit of stalking and you can show me how to creep up on...? Yeah, I certainly hope so. This time of year, because we have all the midges, the deer have tended to move up onto the higher ground. So, it might be a bit of a walk. But I think we stand a good chance of getting into some stags. Can we have a look? Yeah. Walking through the glen, Mark has his eyes on the hills above. I think I've seen something on the skyline up here, Nick. I'd like us to go onto this rocky knoll and have a good spy over the ridge, because I'd like to get you into a stag if possible. Up there? If we just get some cover, walk very gently up to it to start with. We just need to try and follow the contours of the ground so that we don't stand sort of up on the skyline. If I stop, try and stop straight away. If I give you a hand signal to get down on the ground... Most people, when they go down, they get their head down, but they leave their backside sticking up. You do need to really get right down onto your belly. I'll just move around to the right here, have a quick spy and call you forward if I can see something. Come on up, Nick. If you just come in beside me here. Now, you've got the largish outcrop of rock on the skyline. Then just to the right, just where it starts to level out, there's a stag lying tight up in against the rocks on the left. Wow. Those are the deer I want to get you in to see. We don't want to stand up and disturb them. We'll slide back on our bellies until we can use this ridge as a bit of cover. There are lots of eager eyes on us, so... if we just slide back gently and crouch our way off the hill. Wet, isn't it? Yeah. If getting a picture of a stag is this difficult, I can't imagine how tough it would have been hunting wolves in this terrain.

We need to get to that ridge... OK. ..to see if we can see into the valley beyond. But we're going to be exposing ourselves a bit to the deer. To the right? Yeah. Come on up, Nick. After over a hour of creeping forward, Mark has brought us as close as we dare to three magnificent stags. Why's the one at the top darker? He's already shed. He's into his summer coat. Deer do... They are different colours. They're not all uniform. Older deer tend to be paler. So, he's quite young. He's looking straight at us. Yeah. Magnificent antlers. I'd love to see that top one, the big, dark one just come strolling down the ledges. I think this could be the moment I take my shot.

Getting the camera out. Yeah. You'd be as well to get something now, we may not get any closer. They're at a good vantage point, so... Look, the other one's getting up. Getting up as well, yep. You're lucky. I wouldn't be letting you shoot him with a rifle. I got my stag. He's far too good for a rifle, but I'm pleased that you have bagged him in a satisfying sense. "Thus have I briefly run over Scotland "and verily more briefly than the worth of so great a kingdom requireth. "Neither doubt I, but that some one or other will set it forth more at large, "and depict it with a more flourishing pencil, in greater certainty and upon better knowledge." 'Camden may have worried about doing Scotland justice, 'but his description of this wolfish nation, its history and culture, 'brought Scotland into the fold of a united Britain. 'Here was a country with gold and fertile land, and a people who had chosen their Protestant king 'and were eradicating the last wolves to trouble them. 'Camden called Scotland "North Britain" 'and that was the name James VI would insist on when he succeeded to the English throne. 'Britannia was the first step in forging his United Kingdom. 'And here on Scotland's furthest shore, Camden finally identifies the true end point of mainland Britain. 'The most north-easterly point of our island is not John O'Groats, but Duncansby Head.' This is it, the very end of Scotland. These great pillars of rock mark the furthest point in mainland Britain. Hills and rivers, gold, wolves, a tragic monarch - William Camden included the lot. Beyond Scotland, our Elizabethan scholar had a new land to discover and to claim for Britannia.

From here, he headed west across the sea to Ireland. Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd

E-mail subtitling@bbc.co.uk for the Australian Greens for the 2010 Federal Election.' G'day, I'm Bob Brown. I'm the leader of the Australian Greens and couldn't be happier because we are the fastest-growing party in Australia. We're the progressive party, we're the environmental party and we've got economic responsibility written in to our record. The Australian economy is very important to the Greens and I can point to our record. In 2009, when this nation faced recession, the Coalition said no to the Rudd Government's $42 billion stimulus plan. We Greens said yes, we made it a better plan, we created tens of thousands of extra jobs, we ensured local government had more money to put back into job creation and rural and regional Australia. One great nation-building idea for Australia that we're promoting is high-speed rail.