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Message Stick -

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THEME MUSIC Welcome to Message Stick. Hello, I'm Miriam Corowa. When four young indigenous activists of Parliament House in Canberra arrived on the lawns they had little idea on Australia Day in 1972,

that their small protest would fast in the country's modern history. become a defining moment Referendum for Aboriginal rights It was five years after the 1967 was losing patience and the new protest movement to address Aboriginal injustice. over the Government's failure became a focal point The Aboriginal Tent Embassy

indigenous voice for an emerging national

and played a major role first land rights legislation. in the creation of Australia's and archival images, Featuring rarely seen interviews Embassy Days captures the essence of in Australian politics. these heady days PEOPLE CHANT: Land rights!

rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land

PEOPLE SCREAM MAN: Get down! Get down! Get down!

NEWSREADER: 'Good evening. a busload of university students This afternoon, north-west of New South Wales. leave Sydney for Walgett in the the segregation laws They plan on protesting there Walgett and in other rural towns.' that affect Aborigines both in

I don't know if you'll see it, MAN: 'Leaving in the bus,

thumping of the side of the bus. but there were hostile boos and much see the headlights of the cars The next scene is at night and I can coming after the bus. when we were run off the road. This was the time, in Walgett, There was a picture theatre with a physical partition.'

and good luck to you. Anyhow, thank you

'This is the Wave Hill mob. NEWSREADER: biggest cattle station. Wave Hill is the Territory's 600 miles south of Darwin, Here in the vast outback, of deprivation and inhumanity. I listen to allegations that on some stations, Of Aborigine claims they have to crawl into.' they live like dogs in huts some of their own land 'Now the Gurindjis had fenced off Lord Vesty, the British beef baron and they were willing to fight even

of the Northern Territory. who owned 20,000 square miles on the banks of Wattie Creek, This is the land they fenced off Wave Hill station.' centre of the 5,000 square mile a tiny oasis almost at the and he said, And Mr Morris come along... another man's country." "Hey, you're stealing Oh, yeah. We sure had.

the Vesty born and I born?" And I said, "Well, what was before "It was a blackfella country." I said,

be called Day of the Aborigine, Next Saturday may fittingly on which we, the Australian people, for it is the first occasion to think so seriously have for many years been called upon about our Aboriginal minority. a part of our country. We want to become if we get 'yes'. this should give us some power With the coming referendum, to our people in the past Land meant so much should fight, and I feel that we today

as people, with a little knowledge, to speak on things or sufficient to enable us

to Aborigines. that we feel are important My people are keen about land and I myself feel strongly about it. that it was too difficult And our founding fathers thought they were a nomadic people. to find the Aborigines, that they should not be counted. And it was for that reason also believed to be a dying race. A matter of difficulty, they were

the situation has changed. Well, nowadays, of course, the provision is objectionable On its face, got out of the Constitution. and discriminatory and ought to be The referendum is on Saturday. should have the maximum vote And it's important that we are on Australia. because the eyes of the world to see whether or not They are waiting will take with him as one people the White Australian the Dark Australian. We are going (ALL SING) # ..going # We are going to freedom... #

(SPEAKS INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE) it wasn't all entirely clear. NEWSREADER: 'To some, to their tribal and sacred lands the question of what would happen There was, for instance, within the reserve.' to be done about these lands. And he wants to know what is for gardens. You spoke about the lands

these lands, their own tribal lands? What is to be done about

Mr Gough Whitlam QC, present to you leader of the Federal Opposition. CHEERS AND APPLAUSE under the 20 years Liberal rule, The Commonwealth, state matters, municipal matters. has said, "Oh, these are a national government." "They don't concern Now, Canberra shows what can be done is involved. where the National Government

'Malcolm Fraser tells the house NEWSREADER: to be Prime Minister. John Gorton is unfit The Liberal Party is to meet... ' How are you?

'Behind the bicentenary facade, NEWSREADER:

at the birth of a nation. not everyone was rejoicing be called un-Australian. And they could hardly The dissenters were Aborigines. to re-enact the roles While some were willing of their bewildered ancestors, the whole idea preposterous. there were others who thought to do the Cook bit all over again, And while this group was preparing simply to do it over.' another group was preparing Australian man, (READS) "Peace was yours, "with tribal laws you made. stole your peace "'Til white colonials "with rape and murder raid."

rather than celebration. anniversary is a time for mourning 'According to the group, the it decided to mark the day Consequently, in the city, with a midnight to dawn vigil at La Perouse.' followed by a wreath-laying ceremony rejecting modern white Australia. Oh, no, I don't think we're up out of their apathetic attitudes. What we're trying to do is wake them is the health Because we know how serious Aboriginal and Islander people of the race of the people, of the unless the Australian public that could be wiped out and we are a race responsibility of doing something charges the Government with the for the Aboriginal people. We don't consider it an insult. We consider that we have the right to mourn in our own way, the same as the whites have a right to mourn in their own way. MAN: The Aborigines of Australia... ..hurling people into Botany Bay. A declaration for equality for the Australian Aboriginal people. APPLAUSE NEWSREADER: ' a coat of geranium red wool gabardine. It's semi-fitted, with welted seaming forming the front panel. And a hat, too, of white openwork straw

bound with matching geranium red. DRAMATIC MUSIC PLAYS

ANNOUNCER: 'And so it was, the first cautious moments of our history, the beginning of the heritage we now all share.' I take possession of the whole eastern coast of this country by the name of New South Wales,

together with all the bays, harbours,

rivers and islands situated upon the said coast in the name of His Majesty King George III and his heirs and successors forever.

NEWSREADER: 'There are several other examples

of an emerging initiative and independence, self-help and self-knowledge.'

NEWSREADER: 'The Aborigines lost the case. The Northern Territory Supreme Court ruled this year that the doctrine of communal native land did not form and never had formed any part of the law of Australia.'

I'm not gonna take up too much time.

I just want to remind you that we are here to stay and we are here to fight. Irrespective of what we may do - I don't care whether we would lay down our lives. We are here and that is to go on to victory. There should be economic sanctions biased against Australia. There should be... sporting ties should be severed, cultural ties should be severed. We have got to work towards the ultimate objective, that we are economically, culturally and socially independent. Land rights is a means to this. Smashing the Queensland Act is a means to this. Land rights isn't a word, it's a living. It's people. To black people, it's a living. To white people, it's money. And they're gonna kill black people, one way or another, to get that money. That's what land rights means. That means a lot of money and a lot of people... ..that are getting rich off your blood and guts. How much is that building worth? Millions! Anything I've said here, is it untrue? ALL: No! No! PEOPLE SHOUT You pink bastards! Black power!

NEWSREADERS: 'Public demonstrations in Australia's southern capitals are almost commonplace, but when 200 people marched through the streets of Darwin recently demanding Aboriginal rights, it made some of the more complacent members of the community sit up and take notice.' We are hoping to achieve spiritual recognition of the valuable culture the Aborigines may lose if they accept the European values of materialism. We feel that they too will become selfish,

greedy and start robbing each other without realising why. And we believe the importance of the Aborigine people hanging onto the values they have built up through thousands of years of living in this land and through practice, through experience and through truths have gained

the spiritual value, which is so high today in the Aboriginal society. You see the situation here being the same as the situation for blacks in America. Yes, because they're both being oppressed by a fascist system, of which we believe that America is the centre and, you know, Australia is more or less a puppet to the American fascist regime. Some of the things you've said give the idea you want to frighten the white community. Is that part of it? No. I think, you know, people mistake the fact that when black people stand up and say, "Get off. "I'm a human being and you're not gonna keep on oppressing me," they mistake... they get really uptight, because they're not used to seeing black people say, "We are asserting our human rights." I say and the Black Panther Party says that everyone has the right to defend themselves against an aggressive enemy. And it is inhuman. It's denying a person's human rights if you give a gun to one man and don't give it to another.

I'm very angry. And I think we've got to smash this system

by whatever means necessary.

MAN: All I'm trying... all I'm trying to basically... All I'm trying to say is that the time of white domination of the black movement is over. It's time for black people to do things for themselves and get things for themselves, 'cause it's the only way you'll get anything. Go away, will you? We're doing something. We're talking about you. Oh, that's very nice, thank you. I just came to say to you, don't do anything... Look, I don't need your... I don't need your... (LAUGHS) OK. ..any advice from you. We've done alright. We've done alright. Listen, let me tell you something. We've done alright in the past two years in Sydney without people like you. We're gonna do alright for a long time.

MAN: Sign the visitors book.


All we want to do now is to take control of both the economical, political and cultural resources

of the people and of the land - Aboriginal people - so that they themselves have got the power to determine their own future. PEOPLE CHANT: Land rights now! Land rights now! PEOPLE CHANT: Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! MAN: Land rights! PEOPLE SHOUT PEOPLE YELL: Land rights!

Land rights! The man who is going to be the first Labor Prime Minister of Australia for 23 years, Gough Whitlam! CHEERS AND APPLAUSE PEOPLE CHANT: Labor! Labor! MAN: 'We will legislate to give Aborigines land rights.' CHEERS AND APPLAUSE

Closed Captions by CSI

Mum, where are you? Why are you disconnecting our TV? I'm not disconnecting our TV. I'm connecting this digital set top box to the VCR. So as requested, you can watch digital ABC2. You got us a set top box? Now we need a new antenna, a digital TV... We don't need a new antenna to watch digital ABC2 nor a new TV. But the picture and sound would be much better. Maybe your mysterious new friend has a digital TV you could watch together. Now, after yet another interruption, where was I? So I've got power turned off. Now I'm ready to go. Unplug the antenna cable from the VCR and plug it into the RF or antenna-in socket on the set top box.

Then connect the coloured cords

from the video-out socket on the set top box to the AV or video-in sockets at the back of the VCR.

And we don't have to change any connection between the VCR and TV.

I'll turn the TV on and switch to the channel of the VCR. Select AV on the VCR so we see the set top box search for channels. That's ABC1. You need to go up one to see ABC2. I know. Channel 22. I'm not completely ignorant. Voila! ABC2. Sweet. Now I can waste valuable

I don't think so.

This program is not subtitled

WAVES CRASH 200 years ago, two men embarked on one of the greatest ocean races the world has ever seen. A race into the unknown.

NICOLAS BAUDIN: "Throughout the whole voyage, "no-one has ever known where I was going "or what I wanted to do." MATTHEW FLINDERS: "My leading object has been "to make so accurate an investigation "of the shores of Terra Australis "that no future voyage to this country "should be necessary." Nicolas Baudin. Of this Frenchman, Napoleon Bonaparte said, "Baudin did well to die. "On his return, I would have had him hanged."

Matthew Flinders, the English rival, who would afterwards be heralded as one of the greatest navigators of all time. The truth of the story was hostage to a wider contest. The Napoleonic Wars were spreading across the continent, as Baudin and Flinders raced for the far side of the world.

At stake was the prize of a new continent.

SOLEMN ORCHESTRAL MUSIC 18 months after leaving France... ..after the loss of more than 50 of his men to death and desertion... ..Nicolas Baudin has pushed the French expedition into the heart of the unknown. DRIVING, DRAMATIC ORCHESTRAL MUSIC

The tantalising prospect that draws him onwards is that New Holland is not one continent but two, divided down the middle by a vast strait. Baudin has no idea that approaching from the opposite direction

is another navigator, driven by an equal obsession... discover the secrets of these coasts. Matthew Flinders had left England, trailing the French by nine months. Despite a badly leaking ship, he has almost caught his rival. In the uncharted seas to the south of New Holland, the two expeditions are now sailing directly towards one another. In late January 1802, for day after day,

Flinders finds himself sailing beneath a wall of impenetrable cliffs. Flinders speculates as to what may lie beyond. FLINDERS: "Nothing of the interior could be seen above it. "The bank may even be "a narrow barrier between an interior and the exterior sea." After nine days sailing, the cliffs finally come to an end, and Flinders' excitement grows as he suddenly discovers the coast veering sharply to the north. FLINDERS: "'Deep inlets', 'inland seas' "and 'passages into the Gulf of Carpentaria' "were terms frequently used in our conversations of this evening,