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Paradise Drowned: Tuvalu The Disappearing Nation -

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(generated from captions) time, what proportion of

earnings will come from the UK? We've given guidance we

want this business to

contribute around about 10% of

our earnings after a few years

and I'm confident that we will

achieve that. Halladale gives

us about 5% within couple of

years and there is a real

opportunity to grow and take it

from there and use this as the

platform. We are talking about

deals and this week we saw the

announcement of a potential

private equity bid for

Multiplex in consequence with

the Edwards family S this the

start of private equity

business if property? It is

interesting. I think people

have been waiting for this to

happen. The fact it is coming through at this point in the

cycle is not unsurprising when

you look at what is happening

in other sectors. Private

equity is well advanced in the

American scene. There are a a

couple of large takeovers going

on at the moment. Equity office

that's been a bid on by

Blackstone. We are talking huge

numbers in terms of taking a

public/private. What appeals to

equity groups in Australia is

the transparency and the

robustness of the market which

gives them confidence to move

forward. They've lots of viable

opportunities and viable exit

strategies and it comes down to

value and being able to show

that they can achieve their

returns. Just the start ? Who

knows? Never say never. Every

year we have a new trend coming

into the market. Something twin

this year. Could be the private

equity trend. If it does there

could be a new pricing paradigm

we are about to see and that

would be quite an interesting

phenomenon. Matthew Quinn, many thanks for talking to 'Lateline

Business'. My pleasure, Ali.

As the debate over

Australia's water crisis

gathers pace, one solution

that's rarely been mentioned is

the most obvious to economists

- price. Experts say unless

water is properly priced, there

is little incentive for

business and consumers toious

it sufficiently. Now some

analysts are calling for a

water trading scheme between

rural and urban users. Neal

Woolrich reports. It's a site

that's - sight that's becoming

increasingly familiar - parched

crack land and dam levels at

record lows and the plight of

farmers and water restrictions

in the city have been exacerbated by mismanagement.

The Business Council of

Australia says poor plan ing

has turned a sufficient supply

scarcity at end users and that of water at the source for a

sentiment is gaining support

from a number of quarters. You

have to remember that in Sydney

more stormwater and sewerage

flows out into the ocean and

outfalls every day than the

entire city of Sydney uses in

that day. So it is hard to say

we've got a shortage of water.

People are saying this the

long term all of our cities

should be able to operate

without water restrictions. If

that is to happen there needs

to be more investment, a lot

more rural/urban trading,

development of recycling,

desalination plants and all the

other options. Mike Young has

been studying the shadow price

of water. The amount that would

be paid under normal market

conditions. His model assumes

the population agrees by 5

million people in 25 years and

finds that the shadow price

could increase 10 fold if

nothing was done to improve

supply. The price goes very,

very high if you say no to

recycling, no to desalination,

no to urban water trading and

that was really the

highlighting point that if

Australia says no to

everything, then the price of

water would become very, very

high. Mike Young has proposed a

2-step pricing regime where

consumers would buy their first

100 megalitres a year

relatively cheaply and anything

above that would be priced

higher so consumers could sell

their allotment to other users. If

you started to do that and

added the dimension in there

then people would start looking

for ways to sell water and

generate it and they would

think seriously about investing

in rain water tanks and all the

other efficiencies. The

irrigation association Jolyon

Burnett says it is crucial to

send clear price signals to the

market and a trading scheme

between urban and rural users

is worth examining. If history

shows us anything it is that

individuals and businesses are

much better at managing demand

than Government. Every time

Government gets involved in

trying to manage the demand for

any commodity, they stuff it

up. And he is worried that some

companies like miners and

manufacturers are getting

millions of dollars worth of

water a year at no cost. Under

a deal with the South

Australian Government, BHP

Billiton gets $52,000 of water

free each week. At a time when

the mining industry is

announcing record profits and

clearly doing extremely well,

to have them paying nothing for

such a valuable imput to their

businesses is a bit hard for

the rest of Australia to

swallow. Critics argue that the

proposal to manage the

Murray-Darling water system is silent on pricing, but the

Government says it's addressed

price something the national water initiative and will continue to press for more

efficient policies. And now

for tomorrow's business diary.

The on going drought is

expected to impact on the

earnings of Futuris. Singapore

Optus is set to release its

figures to the market. First

half profits are due from

Fairfax Holdings merger target

Rural Press and Lion Nathan

investors are hoping for

comment on a rumoured share

buyback scheme at tomorrow's

AGM. Before we go, a look at

what is making news in the business sections of tomorrow's

papers. The 'Age' leads on

tales of trouble in Woolworths

troubled meat division. The

'Sydney Morning Herald' is

impressed with the size of the

BHP share buyback and the

'Australian Financial Review'

looks at Chip Goodyear's

goodbye present to BHP investors. That's all for

tonight. If you'd like to see

any part of the program again

log on to our website: www.abc.net.au/latelinebusiness

or watch the program on ABC 2

just after 7 o'clock tomorrow

morning. You can write to us at

the address on your screen. I'm

Ali Moore. Goodnight. Closed

Captions by CSI.

domain in the world is '.tv'. WOMAN: The fastest-growing Internet nation seized with open arms. It was a brainwave that my a dot on the world... Tuvalu itself is just disappearing off the face of it. ..but right now it is in danger of In Tuvalu the reality of global warming is being acted out in front of the eyes of the whole world. My name is Melita Falavi. I was born in this land 22 years ago. Tuvalu is a tiny Polynesian nation

in the middle of the South Pacific ocean. We call ourselves 'the people on the reef'. But right now we face the biggest crisis we have ever faced. It is a global crisis. Tragically, we Tuvaluans have contributed nothing to the cause of our predicted tragedy. Yet it appears that I, my father and my mother, and all my family - like all Tuvaluan families - will have to leave our hidden paradise forever. It seems we may be the first nation in all the world to be driven from our land by the effects of global warming. Can we stay, or will we be forced to leave our land? That is the big question for all Tuvaluans. (Man speaks foreign language) TRANSLATION: Some say that Polynesian people have lived in the islands of Tuvalu for 2,000 years. We are a group of nine atolls. Until recently, we had only ever lived on eight. 'Tu' means 'to stand'. 'Valu' means 'eight'. Tuvalu - our stand of eight atolls. Kamuta the storyteller was once prime minister of Tuvalu. Today he is one of our most respected elders. He knows that now, more than ever, it is important to pass on the history of our land to our children. TRANSLATION: This is Funafuti, the main island where we are now. Most of us live here today, as did most of our ancestors. We have had to fight to defend our land from invaders. We've had to combat storm and drought, but we have endured and survived. We are strong. After the Europeans discovered our islands in the 16th century, slowly our lives began to change. They brought new diseases. During the mid-19th century, traders exploited our coconut resources. Slave ships arrived at our shores. Hundreds of our young men and women

were taken to Peru to work in mines and become domestic servants.

None ever returned. Still we endured. Still we survived.

We became Christians during this time. We were annexed by Great Britain in 1892 and became a part of the British Empire. We were then called the Ellice Islands, a member of the Gilbert & Ellice group. We adapted to European ways. We survived. During World War II, we were occupied by the Americans and bombed by the Japanese. Battles were fought on our doorstep. But we survived. We became a member of the United Nations in the year 2000. Today we are an independent nation of 10,000. But it appears we may now face the greatest enemy that we have ever faced... ..the effects of climate change. THUNDER CRASHES This is not the first time Tuvalu has faced the rising ocean. The coral is the foundation of our land. As the coral has grown so have our tiny atolls.

WOMAN: Many, many thousands of years ago, there was a big sea level rise, much bigger than is being predicted now in the climate change story. And in about the centre of Funafuti Lagoon, there would have been a mountain, some kind of volcano, and growing all around it were corals, just fringing coral reef. And as that sea level rose, it started to drown the mountain. OK? Rise up around the mountain. And the coral reefs around the edges of the mountain, kept up with the sea level rise. And then the whole time that's happening, cyclones would come from time to time and smash up all the corals on different parts of the island and push them in on themselves and in back towards the sinking mountain. OK? And then later on algae and bacteria and some chemical processes happened in those spaces, and you get this rocky rim formed. And so eventually the sea level rose high enough that we can't see the mountain anymore. But the rocky rim, which is all around Funafuti, is that old rim that was being filled in and built on each time. About 6,000 years ago, the sea level, from that big sea level rise, stopped, and it's been about steady ever since then. Goes up and down a little bit. And that was the time when this atoll shape that you see now pretty well was finished. So for thousands of years the islands of Tuvalu have been sitting here, a paradise in the Pacific Ocean. Does this ocean that created us really want to swallow us up again? By 2100 the sea level could rise by as much as 0.88 of a metre. So almost 1m. So for many of these small island states, they only have about 1m or 2m freeboard, so that's going to be quite critical. There are great difficulties in getting a global average sea level rise. First of all the measurements tend to be concentrated in very few places, particularly in the northern hemisphere. They tend to be in coastal cities where the land goes down and where the water is pumped from under the ground, so there's a tendency for the measurement to indicate a rise. There is a possibility that equipment, the measurement devices, might slowly sink. There are the problems of geology, where the land goes up in some places and down in others. There have been, recently, satellite measurements of sea level. These have now been going on for only seven years, but they are truly global. It has not shown very much evidence of a rise. I have some doubts about whether the sea level rises that have been claimed really have happened or whether they're really going to continue. The sea is rising, the sea is not rising. What do we do? Who are we to believe? We believe our eyes. Already there are signs. Tuvalu's only airport is on Funafuti. It takes up a huge part of the land.

Not so long ago it was regarded as being high ground, but is no more. The water comes through here, bubbles through here, underground, 'cause the sea level is pushing up there. Water sort of bubbles through the ground, overflows, and the water just goes right up here. Everywhere, all this part is covered. 10 years ago it wasn't like this. And I know it, because I live here, and we used to play soccer before the airfield was tarsealed. We used to play soccer here every afternoon. It wasn't like this. Now, just about three or four years ago, it started. All this water started to come through, and this area is all covered - under water. The king tides that Paani was talking about are higher now than I have ever seen.

They threaten to sweep us from our homes. Our poor livestock sometimes spend hours in water up over their bellies. Houses are often marooned, and it's only the children who enjoy a temporary backyard swimming hole. On average, the height above sea level in Tuvalu is 2m. If the water should rise one whole metre, there will not be a lot of Tuvalu above the sea. How can we survive such an invasion? Our government is now wisely investing in its young people. They have sponsored many to study in other countries. Some of us are at Otago University in Dunedin, New Zealand - a small city by global standards, but 10 times larger than our nation. And as different to our tropical land as it is possible to be. I'm in my second year of a pharmacology degree. When completed, I will have to spend seven years at the hospital in Tuvalu to repay my contract to the government. At the end of this time, my future is as uncertain as Tuvalu's. Cities like Dunedin have a lot to offer me and my Tuvaluan friends. Perhaps this city, and other cities like it, will become our future home. But Tuvalu is where my heart is. I always get butterflies in my tummy every time I return. I'm coming home now for Christmas. It truly is just a dot in the ocean. How can the pilot ever find it? US soldiers built our airstrip during the Second World War. Funafuti was the only island big enough for it. I know that amongst all the people waiting for their friends and relatives, will be my father. He'll be just as excited as I am. Oh, yes. I'm home. Even my father, who owns a construction business and travels this road every day, isn't able to find a way around the potholes. The sticky tropical heat, the gentle rhythm of the sea, the fluttering palms, the quietness of our Polynesian village after the bustle of Dunedin - all say, "Welcome, Melita. You are home. "This is where God meant you to be."

How many times more, I wonder, will my father greet me at the airport? How many times more will I be able to walk into my house and get such a warm greeting from my mother... ..and my relations and my friends? How many times more will a feast be lavished upon me to celebrate my homecoming? All these thoughts ran through my mind

as I feel all the happiness and love that is in this home. Deep in our hearts, each of us knows that the time may soon come when celebrations like this will end. My mother has just returned from Brisbane in Australia, where she is establishing a new home for all of our family. I have two brothers and two sisters. They are already in other lands and will not come home for this Christmas. That is sad, because we may never share a Christmas together again in Tuvalu. Under the threat of global warming, my mother has made up her mind that our family's future is not here in Tuvalu. My father is not so sure. His heart is here. He is reluctant to go.

It gives me great pleasure to serve a meal to them. I love them so much. They don't show it, but this is a time of great stress for them. At last, when the house is quiet, I can have time with my own thoughts. As I gaze out over our beautiful Pacific Ocean, I ask it over and over again - "Is it true that you are going to drive us from our land?" Ever since I was a little girl my mother has always come into my room in the evenings to lie on my bed with me, and we talk. Tonight she tells me about Brisbane and our new home. I tell her about my university year, and speak of my anxiety about my next year - my final year. The humid nights take a bit of getting used to again, and I seem to have so much on my mind that sleep seems impossible. In Tuvalu, even water cannot be taken for granted. Most of it has to be boiled, though some of it is undrinkable because of saltwater contamination in the subsoil. We drink imported water or rainwater collected from the roof. Last year we had unusually long periods of drought. Some islands ran out of water completely. These are difficult times. (Kamuta speaks foreign language) TRANSLATION: Over the centuries we have constantly lived with the threat of hurricanes trying to blow us off our reef. It's been an uneasy and tenuous alliance. Today, things are looking even bleaker. A very intense tropical cyclone occurred in 1972, and...later on in the 1980s there were one or two cyclones. But in the 1990s there were so many cyclones. There were seven altogether. As we all know that temperature is a vital factor to the formation of tropical cyclones, so this increase in temperature has actually... ..has been reflected in the increase of tropical cyclone activity in the 1990s. There's not a great deal of evidence that frequency of cyclones have changed over the years. They come up and down, and therefore there's no particular evidence that they're going to change or alter in their frequency in the future. Tuvalu is on the edge of the tropical cyclone belt, so they traditionally might get affected by one or two in a season. With global warming we're unsure of how the number of tropical cyclones will change, but the evidence is clearly out that the strong winds in them will get stronger. So Tuvalu will really get battered if one of these comes over. PAANI: In the last 10 years this island was vegetated, with good vegetation cover, and then it was hit by a cyclone. So, yeah, I would agree that this is a sign of the future, in terms of cyclone frequency and intensity and ferociousness.

It is not a very happy future, is it? Christmas is a very special time for us. It's a time of worship and great joy. Every year I am part of a youth choir that brings Christmas fellowship to those less fortunate than us. Tuvalu has only one jail.

It must be a lonely time for the handful of inmates who are there. I don't think that I would like to be in a hospital away from my family at this time. CHOIR SINGS 'O COME, ALL YE FAITHFUL' This poor lady is in her own house. She is too ill to be cared for at the hospital. She is slowly going blind. I hope this is a very special moment for her. BELL TOLLS When the Christian missionaries arrived in the 19th century, we welcomed them with open arms. We had always believed that a creator had looked over us. We are told that in the late 19th century a missionary came to Funafuti. He asked for help to build a church on a neighbouring island. Without hesitation, and as one, all the people of Funafuti left to help him. While they were there a terrible hurricane struck Funafuti. God had saved those willing helpers on the island untouched by the storm. So it is easy to understand why many of the old people of Tuvalu will not leave - God will protect them. But their lifetime will be over before the predicted sea level rise will reach its peak. It is the young of Tuvalu - me, my friends, the children.

The dilemma to go or stay is ours. I wonder if my father will be able to cook the family Christmas dinner in our traditional way in Brisbane. Although he doesn't want to go, I think that deep down he realises that he probably must. And the sooner the better while he is still young enough to find work and start a new life in a new country. The distant thunder pealing its way across the lagoon towards us is a disturbing sound. I used to welcome a storm's approach. It brought a clean sharpness to the air. It left everything fresh and bright. It seems more frightening now. THUNDER CRASHES Our family Christmas dinner this year is at my uncle's house. He gives the food his blessing and our thanks to the Lord for providing it. It is the tradition at such a gathering

that we women and the children wait until the men take their food. Then it's the children's turn. Then it's our turn. There are many empty places around my uncle's house this year. There are many missing, like my sisters and brothers.

They have already left our shores for good. The shadow hanging over us is time. If global warming is going to affect us in the many ways predicted... ..how much time do we have? It's actually accelerating. In fact, it's much faster now than previously predicted. So for us in Tuvalu it means two things. One is the sea temperature.

The IPCC report said the sea temperature around this part of the world where Tuvalu is has increased by 1.67 Centigrade over the last 30 years, which is the highest in the world. And in view of the fact that Tuvaluans are dependent on the sea - we fish in the sea, we eat from the sea, we earn money from the sea. The government earns about $10 million to $12 million every year from fishing licence access fees. Individuals, they go and fish. They catch the fish. They sell it. They earn money. They send their kids to school with that money. You know? Any slight increase, something like a 2% increase in the water temperature, will disrupt the whole marine ecosystem. It will kill the planktons the small fish feed on. The small fish will die and then the bigger fish won't eat. So this whole system...ecosystem - the food chain will be disrupted. And if the fish die, then Tuvaluans have nothing to live on. We have no money. We have no food. So it's gonna bring with it some sets of problems. In 1998, there was an unprecedented El Nino event. Now, El Nino events are changes in ocean circulation, and when you get the El Nino event the temperature goes up almost everywhere. And then you get after that what's called a La Nina event where they go down. And these influence the weather in most places in the world and influence temperature measurements. And the 1998 event influenced temperatures everywhere, including in the atmosphere. The atmospheric measurements went up then. And the surface measurements went up. The sea surface temperature measurements, as measured by satellites, went up. Well, now, some of the papers that have been published claiming a rise in sea surface temperature stopped in 1998. You see, they haven't waited a couple of years. Now, admittedly, it takes a while to publish papers in the scientific journals, you see? So you publish a paper that ends in 1998 which says the sea surface temperature is going up. And, you know, you wait until somebody publishes something from the year 2000 or 2001, and finds out it actually went down again. So I'm wondering whether this claim that sea surface temperatures have gone up is really still true. The other thing that came out from that report is the sea level rise. The IPCC has predicted that the sea level rise will increase at a much faster rate now. It is no longer an issue of whether the sea level will rise or not. The issue now is by how many centimetres

will the sea level rise over the next 50, 60 years. So for us in Tuvalu, you know, with a country that is just 2m above sea level on average, obviously there's not much choice. We don't have any place - no mountains to run to. No mountains to climb. So the effects of sea level rise will effectively destroy our crops. It's already destroying some of our taro and pulaka pits. Taro and pulaka are a staple part of our diet. The saltwater invasion is slowly killing our plants.

Some people are trying to grow it in pots. It'll take a lot of pots to feed 10,000 people. Funafuti has one main supermarket.

There is very little fresh produce. It is shipped in from other South Pacific countries. My friends Lillian, Ulemea and Sanson are also home from their New Zealand university year. We find that we really miss the choices that cities have to offer. It seems in Tuvalu we are having to rely more and more on imported food these days. (Kamuta speaks foreign language) TRANSLATION: We are the people on the reef. The reef is our life. It has always been this way. This is the island of Nanumanga. There is an age-old legend on this island of a large house under the sea. In 1986, at 40m deep, two American scuba divers discovered a cave. They found the roof blackened by smoke from fires. People had been in that cave. The last time the sea was low enough to allow occupation of this cave was 8,000 years ago. That's at least 2,000 years earlier than some think people were migrating to the South Pacific. My friends and I decided that we would go to the site of those caves and see for ourselves.

To think that 8,000 years ago this was dry land. Even though the sea is 40m higher now, it is very significant for us. Who were these people? I bet they lived the same way we do. They too would have gathered food from the reef, supported their families, raised their children and educated them in the ways of their world. How sad that it is the way of our world that the ocean is rising again to drive us off our land. We may have to flee, just as they had to flee those rising waters so long ago. Without scuba gear, we can't descend down past those cliffs today. And as I gaze downwards I wonder,

"After the rising sea drove those people out, "did they ever return? "Will we ever be able to return in 100 years, "500 years, or 1,000 years?" Sea level rise will continue even past 2100. It just doesn't stop there because that's the end of the century. And in fact part of the problem is... ..is that climate change will set in place processes which will have a lifetime perhaps of many centuries. Sea level is one of those, particularly from the melt of the Greenland icesheet, and the possible long-term collapse of the West Antarctic icesheet. Now, both of these have the potential to raise sea level by 3m over the next 1,000 years. That's a total of 6m in 1,000 years. So for small island states in the Pacific in particular, they are going to be doomed by these numbers. People will not be able to go back to them in the future. To go. To stay. The sea is coming up. The sea is not coming up. The sea is getting warmer. It is not getting warmer. We have listened to the scientists, yet we are still uncertain. I'm concerned about the... Global warming. Yeah. I can see it happening nowadays, 'cause before, over here, it used to be, like, all sand around. Yeah, and some of the islands which we had before is no longer being seen. Do you think it's, like, it's getting quick? Like, it's happening very quick? It is. All those scientists saying that, um...those icebergs that melt, and that's why sea level is rising, and, um, it's gotta... it's happening. Is it only the global warming that contributes to the rising of the sea level? It is a difficult question for all Tuvaluans.

I have never learned to make the 'fou', a traditional garland. I used to think it wasn't important, a silly thing to know.

How wrong I was. I will be teaching it to my children, just as my mother is teaching it to me. It is now more important than ever to retain our Tuvaluan culture. All of our history is told in song. Each song is called a 'fatele'. There is a new fatele written and performed

for every thing or event that happens. LIVELY CHANTING Tuvaluan music is unlike any other in the South Pacific. It is a tradition that we are fiercely proud of. How will we hang on to centuries of tradition and culture

if we are scattered to the four corners of the globe? I am so embarrassed when I dance. I always wish that I was better. The spraying of a perfumed water onto the performers is our way of showing appreciation for the performance. I think all these men are just being polite. Ulemea is my boyfriend. He also goes to a university in New Zealand. We don't meet very often, for we are not supposed to meet at all. Our parents do not approve.

Here in Tuvalu, though, we can never truly be alone. Young women are chaperoned until they become engaged. Often a marriage is arranged by parents. We have had a British traditional style of government ever since we became a part of the old British Empire. Since getting our independence back in 1978, we have had six prime ministers. A new one, Faimalaga Luka, is being sworn in. (Speaks foreign language) He has a huge task ahead of him - to lead our country through this global warming crisis. ..at all times, when required to do so, freely give my counsel and advice for the good management of the affairs of Tuvalu. See, the government's role is to disseminate full information to the people. And it is our duty in the ministry responsible for environment matters to advise, er, the people what is happening - what is happening now, or what is most likely to happen in the future, and the implications. And for government - government has a role to play in the sense that it has to prepare for eventual resettlement. We will be pragmatic about the whole thing. The reality is we have to move somewhere. And it is, in my view, the government's role to prepare for that eventuality. But on the migration itself, that has to be an individual decision. I think the government's role is to prepare everything,

tell people what's happening, what will happen in the future, and prepare a...an alternative for people to go to. The government cannot force you to move. You have to make your own decision. Our leaders have had great strength and wisdom to help our nation survive for thousands of years. Today, in the face of this global warming threat,

they have again shown that we are fighters. We are survivors. The letters 'tv' are the top-level Internet domain symbol for Tuvalu. The government has sold the rights to use this symbol. .tv is the fastest growing Internet domain in the world. It will earn Tuvalu a minimum of US$50 million over the next decade. It's a lot of money. Can it pay for our future? Can we buy land in other countries for resettlement? Can we use it to help fight global warming? The answer from our government is yes. They are already discussing these issues. But to us, there seems to be more questions than answers. TRANSLATION: We are told that industrial pollution is largely responsible for hastening global warming - that ever since man invented the fossil fuel machine, the air around us is being poisoned continually. And there are wise men in large countries meeting continuously and debating and arguing trying to agree how to stop these gases from doing any more damage. The Kyoto Protocol is the main mechanism that the global community has for trying to limit greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, and perhaps limit this future climate change and sea level rise. But many countries are not keen to sign the Kyoto Protocol, or are dragging the chain, so to speak, and that's probably, again, not unexpected. We have to expect a long period of debate, maybe for a decade or more,

before, as a global community, we can come to terms with this. Now, the Kyoto Protocol is something of a fraud. If all the nations of the world were to ratify this protocol - and that is most unlikely - if they were to do so, it would not be possible to determine whether it has had any effect on carbon dioxide,

because the amounts are so small that nobody could measure it.

In other words, it would have a negligible effect on...on greenhouse gases. What we're doing is talking about our use of energy. The use of automobiles, agriculture - these are fundamental for feeding the world, for carrying out commerce, and we can't easily give these things up. But we have to find some alternative technology, and that's going to take time. But on the other hand, on the other end of the scale, you have vulnerable countries, like... ..people like Tuvaluans, Kiribatis, Marshallese, Caribbeans, you know? On the other end of the scale, you have these people who are just living a couple of metres above sea level. It is not a matter of economic necessity or economic development or economic restructuring, it is a matter of survival for us. Tuvalu has only one hospital. I work here every time I come home. It is where I will be working full-time soon as Tuvalu's first pharmacologist. It's here that I mostly see young mothers and their children. What can we tell these young children about global warming? (All sing in foreign language) How prepared are they for the end of their nation? What is the highest common factor of 6 and 12? CHILD: 6! Uh, 12? A global warming poster competition at the school gave these children an opportunity to express their view of our future. They seem to have got it fairly right. But do they truly know its consequences? Will they be the citizens of New Zealand, Australia, of other lands? They are the future of our nation. Is our nation, though, their future? Most of us go to high school on the island of Vaitupu. Those from other islands board at the school. In March 2000, 18 girls and a woman were burned to death in a terrible fire. They were locked in for the night in their girls' dormitory that once stood here. They were trapped when the fire struck. The woman was trying to rescue them. There is no family in Tuvalu untouched by the tragedy. My friends and I are no exception. When we visited their mass grave to pay our respects, we found ourselves part of a memorial service for them. How can we leave behind their bodies and their spirits? Who will look after them? (Strums guitar) (Sings in foreign language) Who will look after the spirits of all our ancestors?

Already the king tides are invading their resting places. HORN SOUNDS As we sail away from Vaitupu our hearts are heavy, and we begin to think about what we will miss about this land. Our land. What I'll miss most is, like, the friendly people of Tuvalu, or the...the greenish atmosphere. I mean, like, it's so peaceful, and it's so natural. That I'll be missing. Say we're going to be going to New Zealand, and the Tuvaluans will be settling there, I hope that all the Tuvaluans going there will be able to maintain the culture and, yeah, be able to communicate to each other in our language, yeah. The name 'Tuvalu', but...I can't forget it. I can't forget Tuvalu. It's still in me, and I'll be teaching it to...my children. In the year 2000, Tuvalu became the 189th member of the United Nations. It would be one of the major roles of the ambassador there - to...to ensure that the interests of Tuvalu are properly addressed. I will be using that as the main basis of my work there,

to promote Tuvalu's concerns and interests regarding the issues of climate change and the impact on Tuvalu. TRANSLATION: When I was prime minister of this land, I tried through my best endeavours to make the world aware of our plight, to see the reality of climate change. But I fear it's already too late. Too late for us Tuvaluans who have contributed absolutely nothing to this global warming. There is the tragedy. The sad fact about this is that we are suffering from the consequences of the actions of people living in industrialised nations like people in the US and other industrialised countries. And they are not realising that their actions, their lifestyles, their patterns of economic development, are causing problems in other parts of the world. And that is why we are very concerned, because we believe that, according to the user-pay principle, you use, you pay, you know? You pollute - the polluter-pay principle - you pollute, you pay. So we believe that if industrialised countries are polluting the atmosphere, if the industrialised countries are causing all this global warming, we believe that they should be paying for the clean-up costs, the adaptations and the medications. And also it's their obligation. They are obliged to ratify the Kyoto Protocol as early as possible. Right - a worst-case scenario for Tuvalu is we see tropical cyclones, stronger winds, we see a hotter, wetter climate, we see a sea level rise of half a metre. A place that's going to become virtually uninhabitable. INSECTS CHIRP I have to return soon to university in Dunedin, and tonight my mother and father have just told me that my father has now made up his mind to leave Tuvalu forever and move to our new home in Brisbane. He will try to lease our house, for who will buy a house in Tuvalu? The mood around our table is light. It's a celebration, of sorts. Even though we will be in a new land, all of our family will be together. (All sing in foreign language)

The stress and anguish that my family suffered in finally deciding to leave Tuvalu is the same for all Tuvaluans. But what of me? I have to return for seven years to fulfil my government contract. I will have no family to live with. I will be on my own. Then what do I do? Do I stay, or do I go? Maybe by then I will We ALL will truly know the answer. Oh, my Tuvalu, are you really going to be the first nation on earth to disappear off the face of it?

Supertext Captions Australian Caption Centre www.auscap.com.au

This program is not subtitled

CC

Hello and welcome to

Parliament House in Canberra.

Tonight's question time

recording comes from the

Senate. Questions without

notice. Senator O'Brien. Thank

you Mr President. My question

is to Senator Minchin,

representing the Minister for

industry, tourism and resource.

Is Minister aware of comments by the Minister for industry

reported today that it is worth looking at implementing a

national carbon emission

trading scheme? Hasn't Mr Macfarlane indicated that such

a scheme could function as an interim before any global

scheme is implemented? Does the

Minister have an open mind on

the implementation of a

national carbon trading scheme

like his Cabinet colleague or

does the Minister maintain, as

he said yesterday, that it is a

fallacy that any national

scheme will not significantly

damage our international

competitiveness? The Government position remains as

I indicated to the Senate

yesterday, that we do not agree

with the Labor Party that the Government should or Australia

should unilaterally introduce a domestic emissions trading

scheme in the absence of

movement in the international

community involving the major

emitters to bring in carbon

emissions trading. Any such

scheme introduced unilaterally,

as proposed by the Labor Party,

will do enormous damage to the Australian economy around to

the workers of the Labor Party

- that the Labor Party

professes to represent. So it

remains the position of the

Government, as enunciated over

several year, contrary to that

adochtsed by the Labor Party,

so while there are a whole

range of things we should be

doing about global warming and

greenhouse gas emissions, the introduce unilaterally of a

domestic emissions raiding is

not one of them. I draw to the

Senate' attention evidence of

the damage that such a scheme as proposed by the Labor Party

could do to this country. I

refer to a letter from the

federal chamber of automotive

industries to the Labor States

trading task force secretariat

dated 15 December 2006 which

notes that the task force

discussion paper estimates that

with proposed emissions

trading, that is domestic

emissions trading, over 2000 10

to 2030, whole sale electricity

prices across the electricity

market in each year expected to

be on average 27 to 22% higher

than they otherwise would be.

And to quote the FCAI, the car industry group in Australia,

this is a significant increase

and if not matched by similar

arrangements in other key

automotive producing markets

would have a material impact on

the competitive on Australian

automotive manufacturers

employing lots of Australians.

It goes on to say that the FCAI believes it essential that any

proposal for a framework in

Australia must be considered as

part of a broader global

approach to climate change

policy. Uni lateral measures by

Australia in isolation will

inevitably have little or no

impact while potentially imposing costs on the

Australian economy. There is

the FCAI, the employers of

thousand of Australians in

manufacturing that you say

instead of the cars going

around saying he wants to stand up for tbhoe, Australian manufacturing, they're saying

your proposal would do enormous

damage to that industry and do

nothing for the environment. It

will do nothing for the

environment but put at risk

thousands of Australians' jobs.

So that's our position, very

clear. We're in favour of jobs,

you're not. Order. Order!

Order!Senator O'Brien,

supplementry question. I take

it from the Minister's answer

that he is critical of Mr

Macfarlane's statements because

Mr Macfarlane says he has an

open mind on just such a

scheme. Does the Minister agree

with Mr Macfarlane, who has