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The War -

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CRICKETS CHIRP

GUNFIRE

MEN YELL IN DISTANCE LOUD EXPLOSION MACHINE GUNFIRE EXPLOSION

Here lie three Americans.

What shall we say of them? this is a fine thing? Shall we say that for their country? That they should give their lives

Why print this picture anyway, dead on an alien shore? of three American boys are never enough. The reason is that words The eye sees... ..the mind knows... ..the heart feels. But the words do not exist what it is like, to make us see or know or feel

what actually happens. of 'Life' magazine, In the September 20th 1943 issue a photograph the editors had published the South Pacific 10 months earlier. taken on a New Guinea beach in of dead American servicemen It was the first image had been allowed to see that American civilians in the 21 months since Pearl Harbor. And so here it is. that lies behind the names "This is the reality "that come to rest at last of busy American towns. "on monuments in the leafy squares "The camera doesn't show America, is America. "and yet here on the beach

"3 parts of 130 million parts. we call American life. "Three fragments of that life "Three units of freedom. who have fallen here - "So that it is not just these boys "it is freedom that has fallen. to rise again." "It is our task to cause it 'Life' magazine. WAVES CRASH SLOW PIANO MUSIC

The war was always around us. We had an air raid warden,

a block warden on the street, who wore a white hat and a gas mask. None of the rest of us had any. on 46th Street, Across the street from my house so we built a victory garden there. there was an empty lot, vegetables that came up the fastest. And of course, we all relished the citizen in every town in America. The war was now being felt by every

California, In fast-growing Sacramento, Minnesota, and quiet Laverne, caught up even children found themselves in the effort to win victory. and Mobile, Alabama, Waterbury, Connecticut, almost overnight. had been transformed into war towns would lead to confrontation And in Mobile, that transformation

and ugly violence. a very long way off. Overseas, victory seemed PLANE FLIES OVERHEAD EXPLOSION

Americans had landed in Italy, by terrain and weather and then found themselves stopped and an implacable enemy.

for the cross-channel invasion, There was still no firm date

on Western Europe without which the Nazi grip could never be broken. In the Pacific theatre, were on the offensive more than a million Japanese troops in central and southern China of Chiang Kai-Shek against the nationalist forces and his sometime ally Mao Tse-Tung. on Bougainville The Americans were fighting the Gilbert Islands. and preparing to attack 4,000 miles away But Tokyo was almost and the Japanese seemed ready in between. to defend every island chain Over the coming months, Robert Kashiwagi - the Sacramento Valley, a Japanese American from

by their country whose family had been interned simply because of their ancestry - his devotion to that country would nonetheless demonstrate

as few Americans ever have.

in an earlier war Family memories of heroism from Connecticut would help propel a Princeton man named Ward Chamberlin to find a way to serve, kept him safe at home. despite handicaps that could have a factory worker from Waterbury, And Babe Ciarlo,

should ever have to see would see things no-one in his optimistic letters home. and say nothing about them tearing Americans apart Everywhere, the war was and bringing them together

daily life with a new intensity. and infusing every detail of SLOW MUSIC in the war, Every family had somebody or missing. had somebody wounded or killed and almost every household

they didn't want to talk about, Everybody had some bad news the subject amongst strangers. and it was very bad to bring up You say, "How you doing?" at Anzio last Thursday." They say, "My son was killed was different from what it is now. And so your relations to strangers things that were intolerable. People were likely to tell you

MUSIC FADES TRUMPETS PLAY NEWSREEL: By January 1st, over $2 billion Congress had appropriated

in America's war boom towns. for emergency housing was spent in Mobile. Here's how some of it

These are the slums we have seen. the local private enterprise Slum clearance projects had been far-sighted individuals, of a few high-minded, such projects as these but in Mobile, of good government. have become one of the obligations

certified coloured war workers They are rented only to playgrounds and day nurseries and are equipped with auditoriums, to take care of the children in the war plants. while their parents are working overcrowding in Mobile, To relieve the desperate provided 14,000 units the national housing agency

for white workers. But fewer than 1,000 for blacks. in the city now There were 30,000 African Americans that would take them. and just 55 hospital beds and a black water fountain You have a white water fountain and the black would get into trouble

at the white water fountain. if he went and drank had his head bust wide open My friend at Brooklyn Field

at the white fountain. because he drank of 407 Royal Street 16-year-old John Gray at Alabama dry dock was working as a carpenter's helper before the war began. for a black employee There had been then no way

of skilled workers. to be upgraded to the ranks Similar discrimination was found throughout the Jim Crow South in defence industries

and in other parts of the country as well. But black leaders had insisted on more jobs for black workers, and President Roosevelt had established a Fair Employment Practices Commission to combat discrimination in defence plants.

Things were beginning to change, even for the African American citizens of Mobile. A lot of black people who used to work in private homes as cooks and chauffeurs and maids got jobs in Brooklyn Field, and it created some tension. One white person asked a black person, "Do you know where I can find me a good girl?

I'll give her $25 a week and car fare," and the black woman told her, "Look, if you can find one, I'd give her $35." (Laughs) With change came trouble. In August of 1942, a city bus driver named Grover Chandler shot and killed Henry Williams, a black private in uniform, after he refused to move to the back of the bus. And they put the bus driver in jail,

but they boasted that he never stayed in a cell. They'd let him sleep on a cot that the sheriff used

and then they let him out. Eventually it died down, but nothing was done to the man actually.

Tensions continued to rise. On Tuesday morning, May 25, 1943, they exploded at the Alabama dry dock shipyard after management gave in to a federal directive and agreed to let 12 black workers become welders. We were trainin' 'em to be burners and welders and become mechanics and the white people was resenting it. Shortly after the new welders had finished their first shift, white shipyard employees set upon the first blacks they could find, shouting, "No nigger is gonna join iron in this yard."

I'm standing up there, watchin'. And I never saw people so mad and agitated in my life. And they'd have sticks, like, 3-foot long. They would knock 'em down to their knees. I saw men and women bleeding, blood running down their face

and they didn't stand a chance coming down that gauntlet - men and women on each side beatin' them with sticks. And a good many of the blacks went out and jumped off the piers, tried to swim the river. Coastguard was out there pickin' 'em up. CLARINET PLAYS The riot upset the whole community.

Most people who worked were afraid to go back, 'cause there would be a bunch standin' outside and they would have their cars parked and in their cars they had monkey wrenches and tyre irons and stuff like that. More than 1,000 black workers formally requested transfers to other defence jobs.

The requests were denied. Some left Mobile altogether, but most were persuaded to stay on the job. We had to send out and get 'em and haul 'em back because we needed 'em to do the work. And they came back because we begged 'em to come back. And they would not go back until they had some protection.

When they went back, this was when you had to separate them. Normally, one ferry boat would take whoever came. But after the riots, they had a ferry boat to take blacks over and a ferry boat to take whites over. In the end, the shipyard itself was segregated.

Four separate shipways were created where blacks were free to hold every kind of position except foreman.

Blacks working in the rest of the shipyard remained largely confined to the kind of unskilled tasks they had always performed. The African American newspaper 'The Pittsburgh Courier' denounced the compromise as a victory for Nazi racial theory

and another defeat for the principle embodied in the Declaration of Independence. EXPLOSION In the following months, there were racial confrontations in industrial areas all across the country - Springfield, Massachusetts, and Port Arthur, Texas,

Hubbard, Ohio, and Newark, New Jersey. And in Detroit, where 34 people were killed and more than 200 wounded. Despite the violence, the war was profoundly altering life for African Americans. increased 9-fold. Membership in the NAACP The Committee of Racial Equality restaurants, theatres, bus lines. demanded the desegregation of campaigned for double victory And 'The Pittsburgh Courier'

as well as overseas. over the enemies of freedom at home,

MUSIC FADES MULTIPLE EXPLOSIONS GUNFIRE AND YELLING

written to me during the war, Going back through these letters will mention, I find almost every letter

"We had a V-mail from Sid." of the entire family. He was the main concern he thought Sid would be sent next, Daddy would try to anticipate where occurred, and when the Battle of Tarawa we lived in horror for five days.

We thought Sidney was in the Battle of Tarawa. Katharine Phillips' brother, Sid, who had endured four harrowing months on Guadalcanal, was actually in New Guinea in November of 1943 - not Tarawa - preparing for an assault on Cape Gloucester on the western tip of New Britain. EXPLOSIONS AND GUNFIRE It rained the entire time we were at Cape Gloucester.

Everything rotted. your shoestrings rotted. Clothes rotted, right by our position All the wounded were brought I would like to do something in life and that was when I decided

that would amount to something, to study medicine that day. and I decided that I wanted Because here were all these wounded, that I could help 'em. and there was no way a rugged, bloody jungle campaign Cape Gloucester would be not to be among the Marines but Phillips was fortunate ordered to take Tarawa.

and Guadalcanal The hard-won victories at Midway in the Pacific. had ended Japan's expansion their 2-pronged offensive. The Americans were free to begin While General Douglas Macarthur's forces moved north from Australia toward the Philippines, the Navy, under Admiral Chester W Nimitz, began its advance across the central Pacific. Tarawa was part of the Gilbert chain, a coral atoll, a ring of 38 tiny islands around a blue lagoon that marked the eastern-most edge of the perimeter Japan had built to shield its new empire. The main target was a heavily fortified island with an air strip.

than New York's Central Park, It was only a little larger Imperial Marines but defended by 4,500 Japanese

and trenches hidden within a maze of rifle pits block houses and concrete pillboxes. and hundreds of interconnected EXPLOSIONS a new theory of amphibious warfare. Tarawa was to be the test case for

no matter how fiercely defended, Any island, frontal assault. could be taken by an all-out for the people back home The official version was going smoothly. was that everything TRIUMPHANT MUSIC of war ships and transport NEWSREEL: The invasion force

of the Gilbert Islands, steams for the conquest crowded with troops, and aboard vessels religious services are held. The worshippers are fighting men, into desperate peril who know they're going where many are destined to give their lives.

And now official navy motion pictures of the bombardment of the Japs on Tarawa with giant Salvos. EXPLOSIONS

But the bombing and shelling yielded so much smoke and coral dust the landing craft was obscured. that the fleet's view of to clear the air. Firing was stopped for half an hour to ready themselves for the assault. Plenty of time for the Japanese

the marines of the 2nd Division The landing craft meant to ferry close to the beach, hung up on the coral reef, easy targets for enemy guns.

shoulder-deep for hundreds of yards Men were forced to wade

under enemy fire.

some casualties. The first wave suffered The second was badly hit. The third, nearly destroyed. YELLING AND GUNFIRE By nightfall, to the beaches, 5,000 Marines had made it had been killed or wounded. but some 1,500 of them

Maurice Bell, a neighbour of Sid Phillips from Mobile, had watched the landings with his binoculars from the deck of the USS Indianapolis. I could see the fighting going on on the island just like if it was just across the street here. It looked like it was that close.

And soldiers and marines fallin' all over the place and you could see bodies in the water never happens again and it's something that I hope that happened at that time because it's just things I'll never forget. GUNFIRE

in 100 years," "A million men cannot take Tarawa before the battle. the Japanese commander had said just four days. It took 10,000 Marines MASSIVE EXPLOSION

had been killed or wounded. But more than one-third of them The Marine commander told the press

had been willing to die. so many young Americans Tarawa had fallen only because for callousness. Outraged parents denounced him WAILING MUSIC reversed policy Eventually, the War Department and produced a film called 'With the Marines At Tarawa',

containing combat footage more brutal than anything ordinary Americans had ever seen. Some in Washington argued that its release would damage morale, but President Roosevelt himself ordered that it be shown. FILM REEL WHIRRS BAND MUSIC He wanted to give Americans a clearer sense of what their men were facing.

of the 2nd Marine Division. FILM REEL: These are the men

a full operation... We're now embarking on of Tarawa, When we saw those first pictures we were overcome, just overcome. For three days before we moved in, had been dropped on the island. over 4 million pounds of explosives It was just devastating to us.

floating in the sea... Those American boys' bodies ..we just sat around and cried, kept it from the American public and I know that's why they had for so long. These are Marine dead. for a war we didn't want. This is the price we have to pay

was very violent. Our dislike for the Japanese and would kill our boys like that. That they would do this to us,

was, "Kill the Japs!" And of course the idea

but that the way it was. (Laughs) I'm ashamed to say it,

over with. We just had to get that war SOFT PIANO

Mrs Martina Ciarlo, a widow in Waterbury Connecticut, had two daughters and three sons. were exempt from the draft The oldest boy and the youngest and safely at home, but the middle son, Corrado - known as 'Babe' -

somewhere in Italy. was with the 5th Allied Army in his mother's life. the most important thing His letters home were

on the porch She'd wait every single morning

to bring her a letter. for the mailman to come, would say, "Mrs Ciarlo, not today." And he would go by sometimes and he again for that letter, So the following day she'd wait she'd be so happy. and finally she would get a letter,

and she'd let us read the letter, She'd run upstairs couldn't read English. 'cause my mother

And we would read the letter to her that she heard from him. and she'd be happy just knowing how you getting along? MAN'S VOICE: "Mom, "Fine, I hope, and keeping happy always. "I know I haven't written to you for a long time, "and I hope you understand the army has been keeping me pretty busy. "I'm doin' good, and always happy, because I know you're OK. "Love, Babe." TRIUMPHANT MUSIC IN DISTANCE MAN'S VOICE: What is there we can all do on the home front to help the men coming back and the men still over there? Make your home an arsenal for victory from now until the war is over. by fighting waste every day

One, don't waste anything. Two, buy only what is necessary. Three, salvage what you don't need. Four, share what you have. TRIUMPHANT MUSIC ENDS JAZZ MUSIC called upon each American family The Office of Civilian Defense

on the home front. to become a fighting unit scrap metal, Everyone was asked to collect from which armaments could be made. amassed 22 million pounds. In one year alone, Mobile's citizens In Sacramento, on downtown street corners 22 big victory bins were set up for the duration, even though some people thought they were "unsightly". Laverne, Minnesota, had been founded by civil war veterans but now the town council volunteered to melt down the canon balls that formed part of the memorial to the union dead to make munitions for the new conflict. And in Waterbury, Connecticut, 281,135 pounds of tin were collected,

along with 65,000 pounds of rubber, 225,458 pounds of rags and 372,733 pounds of fat. MARCHING MUSIC and glycerin makes explosives. ANNOUNCER: Fats make glycerin, waste kitchen fats are thrown away - Every year, 2 billion pounds of

rapid-fire canon shells, enough glycerin for 10 billion six times around the earth. a belt 150,000 miles long, A skillet of bacon grease is a little munitions factory. BACON CRACKLES AND CANONS FIRE

LOUD EXPLOSION FADES TO SILENCE MARCHING ORDERS IN DISTANCE Consider the fact that I'm 18, so your emotions are that of a young person. I was angered to realise that my Government felt that I was disloyal

and part of the enemy. And I wanted to be able to demonstrate not only to my Government, but to my neighbours, that I was a good American. CLASSICAL MUSIC BEGINS After Pearl Harbor,

Washington had ordered some 110,000 Japanese aliens and American citizens of Japanese descent living along the West Coast

out of their homes and into 10 internment camps. All Japanese American men of draft age, except those already in the armed forces, had been classified as enemy aliens, forbidden to serve their country. Then, in early 1943, Washington announced a new policy - Japanese-American men were now going to be permitted to form a special segregated outfit - the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. When the army called for 1,500 volunteers from Hawaii, where Japanese-Americans had never been locked up, 10,000 turned up at recruiting offices, including a freshman in premedical studies at the University of Hawaii, Daniel Inouye. And my father took time off, and we got on the street car.

And he was very silent until we got close to the point of departure.

He cleared his throat, and I knew something was coming. He's not a scholarly person, but I know he struggled, and he said, "This country has been good to us.

"It has given me two jobs. "It has given you and your brothers and your sister education. "We owe a lot to this country. "Do not dishonour this country.

"Above all, do not dishonour the family. "And if you must die, die in honour."

You know, I'm 18 years old, and here he is, telling me these heavy words

and I've always thought to myself, "Would I be able to say the same thing to my son?" WOMAN: I think that they may not really have known it themselves, but I think this feeling was instilled in them

through all of our parents. It's called (SPEAKS JAPANESE),

and it's like a proving of yourself and that your loyalty goes beyond just saying it or talking it - you know, it's proving it, giving it your all, even if you die in the process of going to war. And I think that's so strongly instilled from when you're very young, then I think that that was one of the things that pushed them on. Now, army recruiters went to work inside the internment camps. Robert Kashiwagi from Sacramento was bed-ridden from a lung ailment when recruiters turned up at Camp Amache in Colorado.

When the recruiting team came around, they announced that this is going to be a segregated combat infantry unit slated for front-line duty. And I protested very vigorously. I don't mind volunteering, but it's really unfair for me to volunteer only to an infantry unit

that's slated for front-line duty. But we were only to have one choice - volunteer to a segregated infantry unit, or don't, and call yourself disloyal. My feeling was that United States is our country, and if we disown United States, we were men without a country.

We had no other place we could go to, so I more or less volunteered from bed. Those Japanese Americans already in the armed forces when the war started were reassigned to the 442nd Regimental Combat Team

and sent for training to Camp Shelby in Mississippi, where the governor assured them they would be treated as white people.

There were drinking fountains marked 'coloured' and 'white',

and you had to adhere to the instruction. "Can I go into that restaurant, or will I not be served?", you know,

these are the difficult questions that re-entered my mind.

And then when I got on the bus, why, all the black people had to go to the rear of the bus and whites stayed in the front. That's confusing to me, because I didn't know where I was belonging to as far as a situation like that, so I just - without thinking, I would always go towards the black section, but they would turn me around and put me in the white. Early in 1944, the 442nd received its orders to head overseas. Tim Tokuno from the Sacramento Valley was granted leave to go and say good-bye to his parents.

They gave us a 15-day furlough, so I went back to visit my folks at Topaz, Utah. As I entered the compound, the NP captain stopped me and said, "Sergeant, have you got any liquor in your bag?" I said, "Yes, I have a fifth of whiskey to take to my folks." The captain shook his head and says, "Sorry, Sergeant. No liquor allowed in camp. "It's a hell of a war, isn't it?" That's what he told me. "Hell of a war, isn't it?" I said, "It sure is, Captain. "Look, you got machine guns on all four corners with live ammunition, "and you've got the guards patrolling the perimeter. "And here I'm going into combat, "with my folks behind barbed wire." I said, "Yeah, it is a hell of a war."

EXPLOSIONS AND GUNFIRE January 1, 1944. "Dearest Vic and the babies, "I am feeling fine and I hope to hear the same from you, always.

"I didn't write sooner because I was very busy, "and there was no mail service where I was. "I had a big turkey dinner for New Year's, and it was very good. "Don't worry about me. Love, Babe."

TRIUMPHANT MUSIC FILM REEL: General Eisenhower, named to command the gathering allied invasion forces, surveys the Italian front with General Clarke, 5th Army Commander. In the mountains of central Italy, he observes artillery fire blasting away toward Cassino.

EXPLOSIONS As 1944 began, the allies continue to slowly battle their way northward in Italy, pushing the Germans out of one defensive position after another. With them now was Ward Chamberlin from Newark, Connecticut.

My father was in World War I. He was at Belleau Wood and he was wounded twice, got the Distinguished Service Cross, second-highest medal you can get. After he died, I was walking by Saint Patrick's Cathedral.

And I saw Father Duffy there, the famous chaplain from World War I. And I'd met him with my dad a couple of times.

So I went up to him on the steps of the cathedral. I said, "Father Duffy, my name is Ward Chamberlin." He said, "That's a wonderful name." He said, "Your father's one of the bravest men I ever knew." (Laughs) That will break your heart. Yeah. Chamberlin had been captain of the Princeton soccer team when the war broke out, and he was eager to do his part. But there was a problem. I couldn't serve in the army or the air force because I'd lost my eye, my right eye with meningitis when I was about 10 and so I was 4F, as far as the military services were concerned.

Then I heard about this organisation called the American Field Service, which at that point were with the British in the North African desert. The American Field Service was a relief organisation that had been formed during the First World War, and now Chamberlin signed on as a volunteer ambulance driver. He had originally shipped out for North Africa, only to find himself hospitalised there for six weeks with a mild case of polio.

And after I did that for six weeks, I was in pretty good shape and I got some orders to report back to my Cairo headquarters and, um, I read them and they said, "You're supposed to have desk duty for a year," so I just tore those up and never gave them to anybody! (Laughs) So...

And 10 days later, I was Italy. Exactly where I wanted to be, exactly. I wasn't so sure, once I got there.

In early January, 1944, Chamberlin had his first taste of war.

We were in a forward position, probably, you know, half a mile from the actual front line, if you could call it that. SLOW PIANO MUSIC

And the first guy that they brought in who was so badly shot up... ..we got him into the ambulance on a stretcher, and I don't think I've ever said this to anybody, but I went around the side of the ambulance and just...let everything out. I was just sick, sick as I could be for about 30 seconds.

And it's just - I had never seen a body cut up as badly as that guy was. The allies now came up against new and still more formidable German defences - the Gustav Line. It combined three rivers - the Sangro, the Garigliano, and the Rapido - and the chain of mountains honeycombed with mines, pillboxes, and sheltered gun emplacements. Its keystone was a 1,715-foot Monte Cassino, looming above the village that gave the hill its name stood the most important monastery in Europe -

a Benedictine abbey whose origins went back to the sixth century. Behind it lay the broad Liri Valley and the road to Rome. EXPLOSIONS AND GUNFIRE Time and again, allied forces tried to fight their way around its edges

and were stopped cold. Prime Minister Winston Churchill proposed a daring solution to the impasse - a surprise landing behind the German lines at Anzio, 35 miles south of Rome. It was a risky idea that would take time to plan and execute. Meanwhile, the allies - including American, British, Canadian, New Zealand, French, North African, Indian and free Polish troops -

would mount a series of all-out assaults on Casino, aimed at somehow breaking through. EXPLOSIONS AND GUNFIRE

It was a horrible battle,

because we kept throwing divisions, new tactics. We couldn't get through there,

and we'd lost an awful lot of casualties. The guys that I admired most were the guys that were really scared to death and did what they had to do. Some of us were too stupid to feel so scared, or you just had some protective armour psychologically

that you put on.

But the guys I admired were the guys that really were frightened and went on and did what they had to do - whether they were soldiers, or ambulance drivers, or whatever. In the early morning hours of January 21st,

Chamberlin watched as the 36th Texas Division tried to cross the fast-moving Rapido in the centre of the line. "We might succeed," its commander had written in his diary, "But I do not see how we can." He was right. There was no cover.

EXPLOSION, GUNFIRE AND YELLING The men stumbled into minefields, drawing torrents of machine gun and mortar fire. Every man who managed to make it across the Rapido was killed, wounded or captured.

Some, who tried to swim back to safety, drowned. How anybody could have sent people through that, I just can't imagine. They were shot to pieces. I saw them come out of the line. They were walking - when I first came up, they were coming out of the line, walking down the side of the road, just eyes shut,

just plodding ahead, one foot after the other. They looked like they'd been through the worst stuff, and they had been. They had been. Germans just sat across the river and sprayed 'em off.

On January 22nd, 1944 - the same day Ward Chamberlin watched the men of the 36th Division stagger back from the Rapido - 36,000 allied troops were scheduled to land far behind the German lines

at Anzio. Their fate, and that of the whole allied effort in Italy, hung in the balance. SLOW MUSIC FADES SLOW PIANO MUSIC Closed Captions by CSI

AMBIENT ELECTRONIC MUSIC SONG: # Moments in time... # DOG BARKS

The Sydney suburb of Darlinghurst went under a different name in the Depression years. In local slang, it was 'Razorhurst', a place where razor gangs ruled with glistening blades, and one of the great girl-fights of Australian history played itself out in violent blows. The feud of crime queens Kate Leigh and Tilly Devine was a marriage of hatred. "Till death do us part," was one of its vows. Kate was always very jealou of being known a the 'Queen of the Underworld'

Tilly was always the 'Queen of the Bordellos' There had always been gangs on the streets, but in 1927, we had the pistol licensing laws came in,

er, which called for very heavy jail terms for anyone caught with a concealed weapon. So, the crooks, instead of carrying pistols, armed themselves with razors.

Kate Leigh and Tilly Devine are both really interestin because they're bot really strong women, and both very successful at what they did Er, Kate, not just in prostitution, but more particularly in sly grog, and in the '20s, in cocaine as well She was a real underworld entrepreneur Tilly was primarily successful as an exploiter of sex-workers Both Kate and Tilly exploited the laws of the day to create huge, illegal empires - one based on sex, the other on alcohol.

Kate's grog shops came about as a direct result of the 1916, er, 6:00pm closing law Um, she - to take advantage of all the people who, quite naturally, wanted a drink after 6:00 at night opened up various, um, backroom grog shops. And there would be alcohol in...in buckets, and on...in refrigerators,

and on benches, where people would come and pay the money and drink, and there would be card tables and probably some cocaine around. For a while, Kate and Tilly coexisted, but as their empires grew, so did their desire to rule the roost. Here in Kellett Street in Kings Cross, it's the middle of a very busy restaurant precinct. In the 1920s, it was the home of the razor gangs, and on August 9, 1929, the rival mobs of Tilly Devine and Kate Leigh met here and had one of the most violent riots that Sydney had ever seen. The gangs went at each other for over an hour with razors and guns, and by the time it had finished, many of them were hospitalised with bullet wounds and slashes that required multiple stitches. Sydney's streets were bathed in bloo by the two gangs for the next two years. The tabloid press held on like a dog with a bone. People began to talk of Darlinghurst as the 'Chicago of the South'.

In 1930, the clampdown came. The NSW Police struck back, with Premier Jack Lang pushing through tough new laws that rang the death knell for the razor gangs. When the consorting laws came in in 1930,

life changed for Tilly and Kate. They were both getting older too. Kate, by that stage, was 50. Um, Tilly was only 30, but she was a very, um, worn 30. She'd had a very tough life. But her brothels and Kate's sly grog shops continued to operate throughout the '30s very, very profitably, and by the end of the '30s, both women were among the wealthiest in Sydney. Despite surviving the Depression and two world wars, both empires began to crumble in the '50s. New, hungrier crims emerged.

But even hungrier than the crims was the next man to come knocking, the tax man. Kate was reduced to living in an upstairs room in, um, Devonshire Street in Surry Hills, um, until she died in 1964. She had a stroke, fell down the stairs. And over 700 people who attended her funeral there were criminals, there were police, there were identitie of other years

all arrive to pay her the last tribute, even...even Tilly Devine Tilly, um, contracted cancer, um, in her later years. She was 70 in 1970, looking a lot older than 72, um, it has to be said. Um, she went to Concord Repatriation Hospital, where she died in 1970.

Supertext Captions by the Australian Caption Centre www.auscap.com.au

This program is not subtitled

Photographer Joel Meyerowitz is on the prowl. He's looking for someone who interests him to make a portrait. To capture some truth about a person in a single frame. If I saw someone whose character radiated out infront of them, I would say, "Stop. I need to take a photograph of you."

What you were doing the first time was really beautiful. VOICE: I'll have to call my agent. GROUP OF PEOPLE: LAUGHTER I'll get him on the phone, (On pretend phone) Listen, could you get him to do what he's told to do. Yeah, well, you know what, I'm going to show you. I'm going to take a portrait of you. Really? Yeah, right infront. Just stand like you stood right there.

Right? Yeah. Don't move. Let me just take a quick reading.

Ow! Ow, that hurts! Ow, stop it! Ow! You big sissy, you. So, forget about me, you give yourself to the camera. Really give it the look that is you. I'm going to watch you and see when I think you might actually give me some mystery or secret that you are. I have a secret. Don't look at me, you give that crazy look right in there. Yeah, oh, that was it! That was great! Photographers have always pointed their cameras at us, but what are they looking for. From the liberated '60s to the me, me, me decade that was the '90s, photography like the times went in search of the self. It was a quest that was to take photographers out of the studio and into the unknown. It was a walk on the wild side. THEME MUSIC