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Seven Wonders Of The Industrial World -

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(generated from captions) This program is not subtitled This program is captioned live. Good evening in Sydney tonight, Police are out in force to three days of racial unrest. hoping to put an end

new powers by the NSW Government They're about to be given sweeping to stop the riots. areas, confiscate cars These include the right to lock down

and ban alcohol. And reports tonight advocating violence that text messages on the Gold Coast. have now begun circulating has called for calm. The Queensland Premier Stanley "Tookie" Williams Former US gang leader by lethal injection. has been executed in California He died at San Quentin prison a stay of execution. after the US Supreme Court rejected for 24 years for four murders, Williams had been in jail but insisted he was innocent. Protestors gathered outside, when his death was announced. raised their voices in anger have been updated And travel warnings for Indonesia planning attacks after reports that terrorists are period. over the Christmas - New Year to reconsider their need Australians are being advised to travel to Indonesia. are considered potential targets Churches in Bali and Jakarta as they were five years ago... over Christmas. Now, tomorrow's national weather - a few showers for Hobart, a shower or two in Brisbane, from Sydney, and early showers clearing in Darwin, late thunderstorms mainly fine in Perth capital cities. aAnd fine in the other More news in an hour.

This program is not subtitled Ladies and gentlemen... step inside...and see the marvel! Such enormity! Such immensity! immeasurable monstrosity! anything like it There has never been in the whole of human history! Behold... London! The world's first megalopolis! city on the face of the Earth. the most densely populated The biggest, the richest, gentlemen. The throngs innumerable! The teeming streets, ladies and more than doubled in 50 years. The population of London London has more Irish than Dublin! into this last vortex! All are drawn More Catholics than Rome! threatened to engulf the capital. of humanity brought a crisis that But this huge wave foul air was not fit to breathe. clogged London's arteries. The A torrent of human excrement disease, and thousands were dying. In its wake was a terrifying new drowned in its own sewage. of an abyss, as the city London stood on the brink he had the answer. But one man believed of a subterranean world, An unknown engineer with a vision largest construction in England. he would undertake the for the first modern metropolis. Victorian world blind to his vision It was a life's struggle against a engineer - Joseph Bazalgette. The name of that unknown the greatest city in the world. In 1848, fear stalked was moving through the metropolis. An unknown, unseen killer This was the time of cholera. since the Great Plague. of disease in the capital It was the worst outbreak The disease was also a mystery. no one understood the cause. No one knew of a cure, But there was a clue. sanitation system was collapsing, Cholera had struck as London's when the city stank of human waste. there had to be a link. People were starting to suspect is a fermenting sewer, The whole of the Thames foulness can scarcely be borne. full of opaque brown fluid. The At the bridges, feculence rolls up It brings dysentery, typhoid, of excrement pervades the city. in clouds so thick, the stench and, most deadly of all, cholera. industry, empire, and civilisation, We pride ourselves for our we are little more than beasts. but, without sanitation, CARNIVAL MUSIC to London's crisis Trying to find an answer Commissioner of Sewers. were the men at the Metropolitan and regroup, but agree on nothing. they argue, bicker, resign Well-meaning but ineffectual, And nothing was done. an unusually inspired decision. Then, in August 1849, they made surveyor - Joseph Bazalgette. The appointed a new assistant ..Where would you suggest? was to assess London's old sewers. His first task only to carry off surface water. These had been designed or carted away at night The sewage was dumped in a cesspit the old system could not cope. but, with London doubling in size, the water closet, And a new invention, was making matters even worse. into the old drains. The contents poured and utterly repulsive new problem. This created an unforeseen around London's rivers and streams. The old drainage system grew the water courses were covered. As the city grew, of our present problem. This lies at the root intended to carry away rainwater, These culverts and conduits were deluge of detritus and sewage. not an unremitting store the high volume of sewage, In heavy rain, the sewers can't drains and floods the basements. which rises back up the house it seeped through the floorboards, The sewage backed up, and the poor took the brunt of it. wrote a letter to the Times. In desperation, 54 people besiege your protection and power. PEOPLE READ: "Sir, may we beg and of London knows anything of us... in a wilderness, so far as the rest "We are, sir, as it may be, living We live in muck and filth... "But the rich and great people... no drains, no dustbins... "We ain't got no privies, is disgusting... "The stench of a gully-hole we should be so ill-treated. like pigs, and it ain't fair "And numbers are real. We are living of our complaints..." takes no notice whatsoever "This sewer company in Soho Square they simply had no idea what to do. Square DID take notice, but The Sewer Commissioners in Soho for ideas. and appealed to their readers So they also turned to the Times, 137 madcap replies. task of sorting through Bazalgette had the unenviable prominent newsagent, Mr WH Smith. Here is a proposal from the out of London on railway trains. of carrying the sewage He has the novel idea lengthways! of a tunnel beneath the Thames - This one proposes the construction Some, I fear, have proven to be the work of cranks and crackpots, but I am not downhearted. Bazalgette had cut his teeth as an engineer in the heyday of railway expansion. But his obsession had almost cost him his life. It's only two years since his terrible illness. His efforts made him so poorly, we retired to the country for a year while he recovered. Since the age of 17, he has been occupied with his engineering. But he has little time for anything else. He loves his children dearly. But he sees them so rarely. Some friends think that it's not a very glamorous position, in the sewers, but he's very dedicated. Of all 137 plan, not one offers an affordable, practical means of getting sewage out of London. Londoners are dying in their thousands, yet still there is no agreement on a plan. All the while, the cholera was spreading. Many suspected the smell of sewage alone could strike a man dead. They were convinced that the thick fog hanging over the city spread the disease. They called it the Miasma. This was believed by Florence Nightingale and other leading health authorities, amongst them Edwin Chadwick and William Farr. The Miasma is all about us. It arises from the breath of two millions of people. From sewers and cesspools, graves and slaughterhouses. In one season, it carries cholera. In another, scarlatina, influenza, measles, smallpox. For centuries, it has hovered over London like an angel of death. It is simple! All smell is disease! Edwin Chadwick was so certain that the disease was caused by smell that he committed a terrible error. We're going to make sure we remove the smell from London by it flushing the sewers into the river. If we can control the smell, we will control the cholera. What does that mean for the ordinary people, Mr Chadwick? So, Chadwick flushed out the old sewers. Overnight, years of accumulated waste were washed and scoured straight into the Thames. But it didn't help. The death toll continued to rise. The disease struck its victims with devastating speed. The first symptom of cholera was acute diarrhoea. Severe dehydration followed, causing the liver to weaken. The skin turned a greyish-blue colour. Death often occurred within 48 hours of onset. The graveyards started to overflow. In the East End, there were riots, because the poor could not even bury their dead. Corpses often had to be kept for weeks. Families ate and slept next to their dead, the bodies surrounded by onions to hide the smell. We're living in an age where child mortality is commonplace, but why should it be so? My mother lost four children, two of my sisters and two bigger brothers. The grief at times was almost too much to bear. Now, I fear for my own children. Cholera is ruthless and random. There are children dying needlessly throughout this great city. Cleansing London is the most pressing concern of the day, yet still, Parliament will grant us neither the money nor the power to accomplish the job. Before the epidemic ended in the winter of 1849, more than 14,000 Londoners had died. And still, no-one understood the disease. No one knew what caused it, or how to stop it spreading, should it return. "What is cholera? "Is it a fungus? An insect? A miasma? An electrical disturbance? "A deficiency of ozone? "A morbid off-scouring of the intestinal canal? "We know nothing. "We are at sea in a whirlpool of conjecture." Cholera had defeated the finest minds of Victorian medicine, but, in Soho, one doctor was gathering evidence for a new theory on the cause of the disease. John Snow, a pioneer in the fields of anaesthetics and epidemiology, a man ahead of his time. A drunkard! Snow was the first to doubt the Miasma theory. The proliferation of disease is ascribed to noxious exhalations. How can that be when its distribution is so uneven? During the recent epidemic, the dwellings on this side of the street suffered fearful devastation, but in the dwellings on the other side, there was one fatal case. Yet the occupants breathe the same air. Surely, if cholera WAS caused by miasma, both sides would be equally affected. Is that not curious? Working one street apart, Snow and Bazalgette would spend years grappling with the same problem from two different points of view. Yet, ironically... they never met. Then, in 1853, the disease returned. The mortality in this limited area probably equals any in the country. More people have died here in the past few weeks than during the Plague. From the start of the new outbreak, Snow had been meticulously plotting the spread of the disease. The distribution is remarkable. Houses marked in black have suffered cholera deaths. The outbreak is concentrated here in Broad St, in the vicinity of a pump which enjoys a high reputation for the taste and purity of its water. There are 11 other pumps in the district yet, around those, there is virtually no cholera. An army officer from St John's Wood dined in Soho, drank water from the pump and was dead within hours. A coffee-shop owner supplied customers with the same water at dinner-time. Nine died the next day. The factory in Broad Street supplies its workers with the pump water. So far, 18 of them are dead, yet the brewery, almost next door, where the workers drink only beer, has suffered no deaths at all! Most convincing of all is the case of a widow and her niece from Hampstead, a healthy part of London. When both ladies succumbed to cholera I couldn't explain why, until I interviewed the widow's son, who said that his mother once lived in Soho, where she developed such a taste for the Broad Street water that she had a bottle sent daily by cart. Both ladies drank a bottle on Thursday, and were dead by Saturday. Ergo, cholera cannot be caused by miasma, atmospheric effluvia, or bad air. This proves without a doubt that it is spread in the water supply. Cholera is a water-borne disease! But Snow's theory that cholera was spread by drinking water was too radical for some. So, when he presented it to health officials, they dismissed it out of hand. Among the doubters was William Farr, serving on the Committee for Scientific Inquiry into Cholera. We are all familiar with Dr Snow's revelations, but we are reluctant to accept his suggestion that the outbreak in Soho was due to the contamination of a particular well. If the Broad Street pump was the source of the disease, then it was not due to its contamination with noxious excrement, but simply to the fact of its impure waters participating with the atmospheric infection of the district. As we all know...cholera is caused by...noxious exhalations. Despite these official objections, Snow still succeeded in getting the Broad St pump handle removed. Within days, the disease began to disappear from the area. Even so, the authorities still insisted that the cause of cholera was miasma. Then, at last, things began to change. In 1856, Bazalgette became Chief Engineer of a powerful new body - the Metropolitan Board of Works. Devising a new sewer system was now down to him. He had spent years assimilating and analysing the problem, studying other people's ideas. The scheme he was developing was based on a beautifully simple principle. Gravity! London is built on the slope of a valley. If we can intercept the existing sewers before they debouch their contents into the river, we'd follow the line of the Thames Valley and use gravity to carry the sewage away from the metropolis. In Bazalgette's plan, the old drains would no longer feed their filth into the river and London. Instead, he would build new sewers to carry the effluent into the Thames estuary to be discharged and washed safely out to sea. First, he had to calculate the gradient of the fall, and the speed of the flow. Too fast, and the sewers would wear away. Too slow, and the sewage would stop moving. My calculations show that an average velocity of 1.5 miles an hour would be sufficient. This will require a minimum fall of 2ft in every mile. To maintain the gradient so that sewage could be taken far outside London meant dropping the drains well below the level of the river. But that would create a new problem. Thousands of tons of sewage would have to be pumped to ground level to be discharged into the river. No one had invented an engine capable of pumping such huge volumes. The engines would pump the sewage up into giant reservoirs. This would permit his masterstroke - a controlled release of sewage into the river. Just after high water on the outgoing tide, we shall be able to release exactly the right quantity of sewage at exactly the right time! Crucial to the whole venture was the siting of the outfalls into the Thames estuary. Each yard more meant longer sewers, extra pumping, and more cost, so Bazalgette had to choose locations just outside London. From there, the tide would wash the sewage out to sea. Everything depended on his calculations of the exact ebb and flow. Mr Bazalgette is investigating the tidal flow of the Thames, in order to discover the best position for the outflow pipe. If our calculations are correct, the sewage can be let out far enough downstream for the tide to take it out to sea. If the tide comes in as well as out, so if our calculations are wrong anything as little as 100 yards, the flow of the river will take the sewage back into London. Bazalgette faced a tricky dilemma. The government insisted the outfall should be further downriver, so the sewage couldn't flow back to London, but this would take longer to build and cost far more. With the sewers funded by public money, Bazalgette was under pressure to keep costs down. If we can discharge as the tide starts to ebb, the sewage will be carried between 12 and 16 miles towards the sea, diluting all the time. That's why we're observing these floats. If I get my timing correct, we can discharge 12 miles upstream and let the tide do the rest. 12 miles less sewer will save many thousands of pounds. On February 18th, 1856, convinced that he had satisfied all the Government's requirements, Bazalgette began drawing the plans. I propose to construct three great main sewers running north of the river. A high-level sewer beginning in Hampstead and following the waters of the Fleet, a mid-level sewer that runs from Notting Hill and passes under Oxford St, and a low-level sewer following the line of the river from Chelsea. Three sewers will run south of the river. These will be interceptory sewers, to carry away the unceasing flow of water... The total length of the new sewers will be almost 100 miles. They will require 318 million bricks, and the excavation of 3.5 million tons of earth. Interceptory sewers will be like great boulevards 11ft high, running beneath the city. For the tunnels to be robust enough to withstand the weight of London bearing down upon them, I have chosen the oval, the strongest possible shape. Also, even when the water level falls, the stream will still flow, so the sewers will self-clean. When the system is in place, half a million gallons of water will pass beneath the city every day! If it's all working as it should, no-one will even think about it. Now, all we have to do is build them! MEN: Bravo! Bravo! Three cheers for Mr Bazalgette! Hip-hip... Bazalgette believed his scheme would save time, money and lives. His plan even surpassed the Government specification. But the politicians were not convinced. "Mr Bazalgette's scheme does have many merits, "but we do not believe his plans will guarantee to carry the sewage beyond the metropolis. "Therefore, as Chief Commissioner, "I regret that I must reject them." Joseph has done practically nothing else for the last seven years. Even he's lost count of the number of times he has had to redraft the plans, months of surveying and... estimating and tendering... and now, he has to begin again! Work on the long awaited new sewer system was postponed... and postponed and postponed. Bazalgette and his team went from he rose to laughing stocks. The Builder says you were "considerably snubbed by the Chief Commissioner". The London Illustrated News? HE CLEARS HIS THROAT "In sullen, pistol-like compliance with the Government's desire, "Mr Bazalgette has, a fraction at a time, amended his plans for Thames purification. In this respect, "his latest effort is still a half-measure. "It will, however, ensure destruction of the river-borne fish trade, ruin waterside towns "and waste upon the unthankful flood the fertilising matter." We read another newspaper condemning him for his lack of ability for getting this project off the ground, and I just couldn't believe it! Yet again, they're criticising him for what he's trying to do, which is a good thing, and they won't let him do it! The Times, sir. Why is it called the Board of Works, when Mr Bazalgette has neither the money nor the power to carry out the works? Bazalgette and his team redrew the plans five times, to try and satisfy the Government, and five times, the plans were rejected. All the while, the sewage was piling up. BIG BEN CHIMES A great stink enveloped London. As summer temperatures soared, the stench became unbearable. Fearing that cholera would return, all but a few MPs fled from the capital. This lime solution is designed to stop the smell that comes off the river, which is due to sewerage, but I think that the lime solution is a lot worse than the stuff that's supposed to be coming in! The air now in poison. The air is contaminated. The steward of the Houses of Parliament has said that he can no longer be responsible for the welfare and health of the House. Even though there was no cholera outbreak that summer of 1858, the smell was worse than ever. The great stink had forced Parliament's hand. Bowing to public pressure, the honourable members finally passed a bill that gave Bazalgette the go-ahead. After seven years of planning, endless setbacks, rejections and disappointments, they gave him ?3 million and told him to start immediately. "The main drainage of London, "and the interception of sewage from the Thames, is finally commenced, "the spade, the shovel and the pick having taken the place of pens, ink and debate." The task facing Bazalgette was truly immense. 318 million bricks were needed to build 1,100 miles of sewer, to carry away over 31 billion gallons of sewage a year. This will form part of a high-level sewer, trained in from Hampstead. What you see before you is a small section that will become a five-mile trench. The cheapest way to build was the cut-and-cover method. Dig the trench, build the sewer, and fill the earth back in on top. There's over 20,000 of us on the picks and shovels alone. Also the work will be done this way. Cut-and-cover in the trenches. Once we get any deeper than this, then it'll be down to the miners. Poor sods! The mining part of the operation was immensely dangerous. At first, the only thing to keep the men from being buried alive were timber supports. Once finished, the system relied on the strength of the bricks, and, above all, the cement that held them together. Bazalgette's plan meant creating a honeycomb of tunnels under London. Any weakness and the city would collapse on top of them. Oh! The choice of cement was critical. Bazalgette opted for an untested new material - Portland cement. I am aware that my distinguished colleagues, Mr Brunel and Mr Stevenson, have doubts about this. And yes, it is considerably more expensive. But this cement is perfect for the job. It hardens on contact with water, it will last for many, many years. I am building, not merely for this generation, but for generations to come. Bazalgette's entire reputation depended on this choice. It's a problem. The slightest change in the mixture and the strength is significantly reduced. If he got it wrong, it would mean disaster. Despite doubts, Bazalgette remained committed to the Portland cement. To minimise risk, he introduced a rigorous system of testing, effectively inventing modern quality control. They have to test a sample from every batch... before we can even touch it. Over 100 miles a ton... BOOM! RAPID SHELLFIRE The sewer workers were right in the line of fire from the Royal Artillery's practice range. Instructions have been forwarded to Artillery Practice in Woolwich, to the effect that no more firing in the direction of the drainage works is to take place at present. Despite these problems, initial progress was good. The northern high-level sewer is now completed from Hampstead to Old Ford. Length - eight miles. The middle-level sewer is progressing well, causing but little impediment as it traverses major thoroughfares such as Piccadilly and Oxford Street. But, within a year, work would come to a standstill, and each delay took its toll on Bazalgette. It has taken seven years to get the work underway. Now, as soon as it begins, the bricklayers withdraw their labour. It's enough to try the patience of any man. The bricklayers demanded a rise, from five to six shillings a day. Bazalgette had to give in. There was no shortage of work for skilled labour in London. Then, as Bazalgette's underground world started to take shape, the accidents began. A gas main was fractured by navvies digging a northern mid-level sewer in Shoreditch, East London. The gas exploded, killing a passer-by. As Clerkenwell, work on the first underground railway ran right next to the course of the Fleet sewer. BOOM! The railway workers had dug too close to the sewer wall. The sewer burst, the railway flooded, and Bazalgette was blamed. CRASH! GLASS SMASHES And then, in South London... "A fatal accident happened yesterday "at the main drainage works at Deptford. At 7.00 in the morning, "a great mass of earth and timber fell upon the men working in a deep cutting." Six men were missing, buried alive. Following hours of frantic digging, the rescue team managed to bring out three survivors. MAN: Here he is! After more desperate efforts, they reached another man, but he was dead. The men even resorted to digging with their hands, but again, by the time they reached the next man, Bray, he, too, was dead. After 15 hours' digging, another miner was still unaccounted for. "Dear Mrs Bray... "It is with deepest regret that I... "Please accept my sincerest sympathies." Bazalgette felt each loss deeply. Compared with other engineers of the time, he had the highest of safety standards. Less than 10 fatalities are recorded throughout the construction of the sewers. Yet the Press still vilified him. The Times was scathing. The Mercury lead with "The uselessness of the Board of Works." So, Bazalgette decided to win over the Press. He invited reporters to witness the joining of two sections of tunnel at Woolwich. His reputation was on the line. Welcome, gentlemen! I trust you will find the surroundings not too uncomfortable! You are now standing in the southern outfall sewer, connecting Greenwich to the Erith Marshes, a distance of more than seven miles. I have invited you today to witness two tunnel sections being joined. Edward, can you proceed? Sir. The risk Bazalgette was taking was huge. HIS calculations may have been meticulous, but there was no guarantee that those running the project day-to-day were so precise. No one could be sure the two tunnels would actually meet. We should see some signs any moment now... MAN: We should be in there by now! If they didn't, he knew the newspapers would crucify him. HAMMERING MAN: 'Ere, listen... DISTANT HAMMERING MEN SHOUT AND APPLAUD "So accurate were the designs that, when the two bodies of men met, "there was not a deviation of a quarter-inch in their projection. "To Mr Bazalgette, no tribute of praise can be undeserved." Once the Woolwich tunnel was completed, all South London's sewage could start flowing to the pumping station at Crossness. This was always Bazalgette's first choice for the outfall. The Government had fought him all the way, delaying the scheme for years. But now, the politicians came to applaud his engineering marvel and, in particular, the biggest pumps ever made. Well, the James Watt company has designed and built these four magnificent steam engines, the largest of their kind in the world. These engines will pump sewage 21ft up into holding reservoirs, where it can be held until the tide turns. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales will be turning them on for the first time. Literally. In our haste to be ready for today, we haven't been able to conduct all the tests that we would have liked. There's always the chance that it...might not work. METALLIC TAPPING Your Royal Highness... ..distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. On behalf of the Board of Works, I wish to thank you all for coming here today. A few years ago, stench and pestilence were ubiquitous in our great city. And terrible epidemics of the cholera claimed the lives of many thousands of our fellow citizens. Although differences continue to exist as to the causes of disease, it is clear that our new drainage system is already effecting a dramatic improvement in health across the metropolis. APPROVAL FROM CROWD I now ask His Royal Highness to switch on the engines. RUMBLING GETS LOUDER CHEERING FANFARE I hope his country is as proud of him as I am! I just can't believe this day has actually arrived, after years of planning and politics and worrying. I never doubted he would triumph. It's absolutely magnificent. My wife would agree with me - I generally don't care for much hyperbole when it comes to these things - but it's been rather marvellous, hasn't it? The celebrations were premature. The new system may have been functioning in most of London, but it wasn't yet in the East End. Less than three months after the grand opening at Crossness, the cholera returned. Once again, health officials had to resort to desperate measures. The possessions of victims were fumigated with sulphur in a vain attempt to stop the disease spreading. Once again, William Farr had the grim task of registering the deaths. And there was a puzzle. With the sewers almost complete, the worst of the smell had gone. So, why had the cholera come back? This reservoir provides drinking water to the East End. I'm assured by the East London Water Company that the river that feeds it has been filtered. Yet earlier today, I saw something very strange. That strange thing would be the vital clue that eventually led Farr to unmask the true cause of cholera. The Russell family's water supply in Poplar had suddenly stopped. After five days without water, Mr Russell unscrewed the tap and found an eel, 14 inches in length. It was in a putrid state, and the stench arising from it was most fearful. Since then, two of his children, and his wife, have been taken ill. Eels caught in this reservoir today. If there are eels in the reservoir, it cannot be filtered. Therefore sewage is getting into the water supply, spreading the disease. And not through the air, through miasma, like I'd thought before. Everything I've ever done for public health has been based on a falsehood. A public inquiry revealed that the East London Water Company had been supplying unfiltered water, polluted by sewage. No one had doubted the connection between cholera and sewage, but only Dr John Snow had understood exactly how they were connected. Like many others, I have always believed in the Miasma theory - that the disease was carried by smell. Now, I realise I was wrong, that Dr Snow was correct. Cholera is water-borne. And yet, since the sewers were built, the cholera has died out, and everywhere, public health has improved. I thought the sewers were helping, because they remove the stench, the pestilence, and therefore, the disease. And that was our priority. The purification of the water was always secondary. Yet that is what made a difference to my fellow citizens. This, then, is the supreme irony of Bazalgette's story. He had built his sewers when almost everyone believed the Miasma theory. His aim, simply to take away the smell. But by also removing the sewage, he had accidentally ensured that future generations of Londoners would be safe from the deadly disease. He had saved the city. If the malignant spirits, whom we moderns call cholera, typhus and smallpox, were to set out in quest of the man who has been their deadliest foe in all London, they would make their way to the home of Joseph Bazalgette. The accuracy of John Snow's observations was fully vindicated. 'Cholera is a water-borne disease!' But, tragically, he never lived to see his theory accepted. By the time he was proved right, John Snow had been dead for eight years. The effectiveness of Bazalgette's great work was proven for all on the 26th July, 1867. That night, the equivalent of two months' average rainfall fell on London. Bazalgette's sewers coped with every last drop. The final section of the sewer system was the Thames Embankment, a mammoth engineering project in its own right. It housed both the northern low-level sewer and the Metropolitan underground railway. And, in time, the embankments would help to create a faster-flowing, cleaner river. And if it's all working as it should, no-one will even think about it! When he finished with the sewers, Bazalgette turned his attention to London itself. His bridges span the river at Putney, Battersea and Hammersmith. He replaced narrow streets with broad boulevards. He laid out parks right across the metropolis. As much as any man, Joseph Bazalgette made modern London. As for cholera, it never returned after Bazalgette's sewers were completed. We can only guess at how many lives he saved. Subtitles by Annelie Beaton & Carla Rossi, BBC Broadcast - 2003

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