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Rebels And Redcoats -

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(generated from captions) This program is not subtitled attacked the British. In April 1775, American militia they had also started a civil war. In beginning their revolution,

forced to withdraw from Boston. but less than a year later were The British struck back, ideology, but not victory. gave the rebels a powerful The Declaration Of Independence In American papers today, to find the foreign news section. you can be hard pressed

here on Broadway 225 years ago, But if you bought your paper most of the news in your paper. British, and so would the cobbled streets would have been events in London - New Yorkers knew more about did about events in Connecticut. six weeks' sailing away - than they of 1776, When in the momentous summer independent on paper only. themselves independent, they were the 13 disparate colonies declared and colour its future. nation would threaten its ideals The deep divisions within this new had just two things in common - The new American nation

together to represent the states - Congress - a council cobbled of General George Washington. Regular Army, under the command and a newly-formed Continental

enlisting for a year's service. Soldiers were at this time whole coat of paint for a soldier. to take a priming before I took the That was too long. I wished only was a 15-year-old Connecticut boy. Joseph Plumb Martin He kept a diary of his adventures. chores on his grandparents' farm. The call to arms was an escape from a full determination to enlist. One evening, I went off with will enlist, I will," says one. The old bantering began. "If you about it," says another. "You have long been talking I will act my own pleasure." be laughed into it or out of it. Thinks I to myself, "I will not young, naive, untrained, of this fledgling army - Plumb Martin was typical British and their German comrades. discipline and experience of the and ill-equipped to face the loaded it with the fatal charge, I took up the pen, to touch the paper with the pen. writing my name, but took care NOT made several mimic imitations of

over me, gave my hand a stroke - But an unlucky Wight who was leaning

"He has enlisted," said he, a woeful scratch on the paper. causing the pen to make go through with the business now." "Well," thought I, "Might as well "He has made his mark." army life a six month trial. Plumb Martin decided to give six months or a year. to enlist for a short time - Congress only required men was just keeping an army together. One of Washington's real problems to bring in the harvest. trained, he'd be heading home Often, as soon as soon as a man was together 19,000 regular soldiers Even so, Washington scraped to defend New York City. the militia - and local volunteers - in the city itself. He had little joy finding recruits loved all things British, for the Crown. New Yorkers It was the heartland of support

silver and Wedgwood china. had to be imported - fashions, including luxury goods that still the signal for a shopping spree. drew the crowds and was usually The arrival of a British fleet they carried a different cargo. New York in the summer of 1776, But when 200 ships were sighted off from Canada and England - They brought 30,000 soldiers Britain had ever mustered. the largest sea force "like a forest of pine trees." To one observer, the fleet appeared brother General William Howe. Admiral Richard Howe and his The British were led by the embrace of King George III. the American rebels back into They intended to bring Lord Howe commanding the fleet, on the part of the Howe brothers - There's a conviction certainly and Billy Howe leading the army - over a glass of Madeira and cake. that this is going to be sorted out On board the flagship in his diary the British attitude Ambrose Serle. He recorded was the admiral's secretary and are supposed to be near 30,000. The rebels appeared very numerous to the American rebellion. no great matters are to be expected, But from the mode of raising them, discipline is considered. especially when their loose representative of all Americans. But the rebels were by no means citizens were against independence. Here in New York, two-thirds of of allegiance to their king. Some felt it was a betrayal economic ties with Great Britain. financially with the severing of Others feared they'd lose out in the new American nation. these Loyalists were to be outcasts Whatever their motivation, the Declaration Of Independence Despite its ideals, by town, neighbour by neighbour, was forcing Americans - town beyond revolution, into civil war. and brother by brother - of His Majesty's faithful subjects - We learned the deplorable situation and swamps to which they had fled hunted and shot at in the woods to escape the rebels' savage fury.

why the British picked New York. You can see in the world. It's got one of the best harbours

the Americans didn't have. it favours a navy - something And as a collection of islands, its geography is still clear. Although the city has grown up, of Manhattan, south of Wall Street. Old New York was on the tip with Long Island on the far side. On the right is the East River, from the New Jersey mainland. which separates Manhattan Over there is the mighty Hudson, control of Manhattan, If the British could gain they could sail up the Hudson into the heart of rebel territory. of the fleet displayed, With the awesome power chance to pull back from the brink. General Howe gave Washington a former allies against the French. He didn't want to crush his Washington took exception to it. the rebels backed down. But General He sent a letter offering peace if George Washington Esquire, As the address was to would not receive it. among them, and therefore they said there was no such person the impasse between the two sides. may SEEM trivial, but it typified Standing on ceremony over titles recognising the Continental Army then, in a sense, he was If Howe wrote to General Washington

to self-rule. and with it America's right by re-addressing the letter He tried to get round the problem

could imply everything. etc, etc, etc," which, he said, to "George Washington Esq.

And the letter remained unanswered. imply everything, or anything. Washington replied that it could every avenue to peace. They have uniformly blocked up but war and bloodshed, There now seems no alternative of these unhappy people. which must lay at the door islands of New York was by boat. In 1776, transport between the was going to attack, so he took the risky decision to split his forces. Washington had no idea where Howe He left some to guard Manhattan and ferried the rest over to the Brooklyn Heights on Long Island. You can still see why Washington wanted the Brooklyn Heights. They're the ideal artillery position to protect Manhattan. A cannonball went much further if it was fired downhill, and heavy guns up here could reach all the way to the coast. Equally, if Howe controlled the position, he could shoot across Manhattan as far as the Hudson River, and make it impossible for the Americans to stay in the city. The American fortifications on Brooklyn Heights were protected from behind by a five mile stretch of wooded hills, dissected by small roads. The Americans guarded the three main passes, but overlooked the distant Jamaica Pass. Howe's plan was brilliantly conceived, and perfectly executed.

While decoy attacks were made on the main roads, the bulk of the army slipped round through the Jamaica Pass. Realising they were being cut off from the Brooklyn Heights, most of the Americans fled, through swamps and creeks. The rebels abandoned every spot as fast, or faster, than the King's troops advanced upon them. One of their officers did make an attempt to form a considerable line of them in a field, but they had scarce formed when down came the troops, and the poltroons ran in the most broken, disgraceful and precipitate manner at the very first fire. Joseph Plumb Martin was among reinforcements sent to Long Island. The enemy had driven our men into the creek. They came out of the water and mud to us looking like water rats. Many of them were killed in the pond, more were drowned. We went into the water and took out corpses and arms that were sunk.

Those Americans who made it back to Brooklyn were expecting another attack almost by the hour. They were sitting targets - with the East River behind them and the British in front. Incredibly, there was no attack. Howe was hesitating. On the third night, Washington was rowed across from Manhattan to supervise a secret evacuation. It might almost have been the inspiration for Dunkirk. With the help of local boatmen, all the American army and guns was ferried across to Manhattan, under cover of a timely sea fog. Howe's delay was so surprising that one American commander commented, "Howe must be our friend, or no general." So why did Howe hesitate? Perhaps he remembered his losses at Bunker Hill the year before. Or perhaps he was hoping Washington would surrender, so that he wouldn't have to crush the rebellion, making reconciliation impossible. In any event, he didn't show that killer instinct and lost a good opportunity of bringing the war to a swift, if bloody, conclusion. And it wouldn't be the last time that Howe appeared to be soft on the Americans. The Battle of Long Island had emphasised the superiority of a force backed by a fleet. The Americans decided to target British ships with an extraordinary new piece of technology. This is the Turtle - the world's first combat submarine. Designed by David Bushnell of Connecticut, it was used to attack British shipping in New York harbour. It's an ingenious thing with just room enough for one submariner.

Two hand-cranked propellers enable it to move backwards and forwards, and up and down to manoeuvre beneath an enemy vessel. Inside, a cork bobs up and down in a tube to register depth, and it was lit by phosphorescent fungi. This spike was to be screwed into the hull of an enemy vessel. The Turtle would then disengage, leaving this keg of explosives attached to the enemy by a rope. There was some sort of timing device. The Turtle's maiden voyage was on the 6th September 1776. Its plucky sailor was Ezra Lee.

He got right underneath the British flagship, HMS Eagle, but hit metal, not wood, and couldn't attach the bomb. He had to jettison it and it caused a huge explosion. This gave the British such a scare that they shifted the whole fleet. As the Americans pulled out of New York City, fire engulfed lower Manhattan. In the path of the flames was St Paul's Chapel on Broadway. Its vicar, Reverend John Howard, says that it has a remarkable place in American history. The church was new then - it had just been built in 1766, and the great fire of 1776 destroyed most of what was then the city of New York - everything from this point down to the lower end of Manhattan. The citizens of New York so highly regarded this structure that they assembled bucket brigades and surrounded it and prevented St Paul's chapel from burning.

225 years later, the chapel survived another tragedy - the collapse of the Twin Towers right beside it. For the Americans, it bears witness to the continuity of faith forged in the revolution. America had been exposed to religion...not just through established churches, not just through state churches such as the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church in Continental Europe, but had learned its religion from travelling itinerant preachers. The great awakening had happened in America with the Westley's, and it was an environment in which each individual was free to choose the faith that he would follow. We could say that all armies believe God is on their side. Do you think the revolutionaries did? Absolutely. My impression is that in the case of Washington,

as in the case of most of his colleagues, his comrades in arms at that time, that faith - an ongoing personal relationship with God - was deeply held, deeply important,

absolutely fundamental to them in carrying on their public duties. Faith in God and faith in the cause would be tested to the limit after the retreat from New York. That green mass is Central Park, and it gives a good idea of what this part of Manhattan looked like. During their retreat, the Americans were using Indian tracks

down the right hand side of the park, and the British were just a short distance away on the other. Howe didn't cut off the retreat. Some witnesses suggest that he was preoccupied with looking for suitable winter quarters. Billy Howe was a brave man and no fool, but he'd let another golden opportunity of trapping Washington slip through his fingers. Perhaps it was the British belief in their own military superiority that blinded them to American defensive tactics. Nothing terrifies these people more than being surrounded. They will not fight at any rate, unless they're sure of a retreat. Retreat certainly wasn't a dirty word as far as George Washington was concerned. Given his opponent's strength, it was a positive military strategy. He was like a boxer, ducking and weaving, trying to avoid the knockout blow. He rarely attacked and tried to accept battle only on HIS terms. He knew that his best chance of winning the war was to build up the strength of his own army and gradually wear down the enemy army on a foreign soil. But the retreat from Manhattan was panicky. To Washington's anger, many raw recruits abandoned vital supplies - ammunition, tents, food and clothing. It left them little with which to face the coming winter, and no safe place to rest for long. Joseph Plumb Martin was becoming disillusioned with army life. It now began to be cool weather - especially the nights. To have to lie on the cold and wet ground without a blanket and with thin summer clothing was tedious. I have often lain on one side until the upper side smarted with cold, then turned and let the other take its turn at smarting. Perhaps it would rain all night. All that could be done was lie down, take the musket in our arms, place the lock between our thighs, and weather it out. The Americans surrendered Fort Washington and 3,000 men. They retreated into New Jersey and abandoned Fort Lee and more supplies. They commandeered food and clothing from the locals, but found them unsupportive. Many didn't want to take sides, others were deeply opposed to the revolution. The inhabitants here were almost entirely what were termed Tories. An old lady, of whom I often procured

milk, used always to lecture me about my opposition to good King George. She had always said, that the regulars would make us fly like pigeons. I was not afraid of her poisoning the milk - she had not wit nor resolution enough to do it. The Continental Army fell back through New Brunswick and Princeton. The Redcoats pursuing them said it was like a game of Bo-Peep. Winter fighting was unusual in the 18th century. And on 14th December,

Howe called off the hunt and went to New York City with his officers. It signalled ten days of parties and balls to celebrate Christmas. He could also spend some time with his mistress - the wife of his prison commissioner. A ditty ran - "Sir William, he, snug as a flea, lay all this time a-snoring. "nor dreamt of harm, as he lay warm, in bed with Mrs Loring." Things weren't so cosy for Washington's army. They didn't have enough food, boots or shelter. Morale was very low, and there were so many desertions that Washington had to post guards to prevent people leaving. His army was down to 5,000 men, and soon he would have no army at all. Enlistments were coming to an end. Plumb Martin was one of the first to be released. Here ends my first campaign. I learned something of a soldier's life. Enough, I thought, to keep me at home for the future. I was then determined to rest easy with the knowledge I had acquired in the army. But the ease of a winter spent at home caused me to alter my mind.

The 31st of December, just a few weeks away, for most of his troops. was the release date the game would pretty much be up. unless a new army could be enlisted Washington told his brother that was worth reviving, to prove the army He had to do something spectacular or watch the revolution crumble. of when and where. It was just a question and their German allies in pursuit, The Americans, with the British crossed into Pennsylvania, didn't stop until they passed Washington reached the Delaware, where they felt safe to stop. When all the boats for miles around. he seized or destroyed transport for a surprise attack. following him, and also gave him This prevented the British from pig iron to Philadelphia. normally used for transporting These are 40ft Durham boats, for moving cannon, horses and men. As cargo boats, they were ideal German troops, known as Hessians. Trenton was now occupied by his royal relatives in Germany. soldiers hired by George III from They were formidable professional

who regarded them as mercenaries hated by the Americans, The Hessians were particularly interfering in a foreign war. of Colonel Johann Rall. They were under the command DRUMBEATS the Hessians celebrated Christmas, The moment was right. While primed for a counter-offensive. Washington's men were being English sympathiser Thomas Paine, officers read them a speech by Waiting to cross the Delaware, It was called American Crisis. what they were fighting for. to remind them that try men's souls. "These are the times

patriot will, in this crisis, "The summer soldier and the sunshine country. But he that stands it now, "shrink from the service of his and thanks of man and woman." "deserves the love But the Americans were betrayed. to Colonel Rall. A spy took a warning Lay your shoulders to the wheel. "Up and help us. that in the depth of winter, "Let it be told to the future world and virtue could survive, "when nothing but hope alarmed at one common danger, "that the city and country, "came forth to meet and repulse it." finish his game before reading it. that very night but he decided to The letter warned Rall of an attack sad..." If Rall read the note now, "By cowardice and submission, the faced potential disaster. The American army Washington's plan would be ruined. "..Slavery without hope.

and bawdyhouses for the Hessians, "Our homes turned into barracks whose fathers we shall doubt of. "and a future race to provide for, and weep over it. "Look on this picture who believes it not, one thoughtless wretch "And if there remains "let him suffer it, unlamented." DRUMBEATS Rall drank late into the night. He didn't read the note. of the Delaware. three simultaneous crossings Washington planned presented huge risks. But even the journey with lashing sleet. The 25 December was a filthy night and full of small ice floes The river was swollen as they crossed. which crashed into the boats Washington's men got across. It was so dangerous, that only at half-strength. He would fight the battle enshrined in American history. This crossing has become as it was getting light - The Americans marched into Trenton they still surprised the guards. hours later than planned. But Rall could hardly be roused. After a night of heavy drinking, to commemorate the spot This monument was built placed their cannon. where Washington's troops clear line of fire the cannons had From this height, you can see the and old Queen streets. down old King were bowled over like skittles. lodgings to meet the attack, they As the Hessians poured out of their the Americans took 900 prisoners. the Hessians had surrendered and Within an hour, Colonel Rall was mortally wounded. victory, but it was crucial. casualties. Trenton was a small The Americans suffered only a few inflict damage on their enemies. It showed the Americans could still but did he have an army? Washington now had a victory - to their discharge. His men were counting the hours The general begged them to stay, The revolution hung in the balance. but not one man came forward. reasonably expected. and more than can be You have done all I asked you to do But your country is at stake - your wives, your houses, and all that you hold dear. and we know not how to spare you. with fatigues and hardships You have worn yourselves out We are facing the crisis... which is to decide our destiny. His men answered the call. important achievement, so far. It was perhaps Washington's most was still in being. The Continental Army other one too. Bring them around. Watch your elbow. Bring the at home and abroad. new enthusiasm for the cause - These small successes generated Gently! Gently! and equipment to the Americans. funded the smuggling of weapons The kings of France and Spain

wanted the British to be beaten. overthrow of a fellow monarch, they Although wary of encouraging the Right, sir. Put these on the muskets! had a new momentum. The American army The following year, 1777, around New Jersey, from the populated areas the British campaign shifted away northwards to Canada. the mighty Hudson River, I'm travelling along Lake Champlain to New York City. which flows all the way from warpaths in North America. It's one of the best-trodden could control this waterway, The British hoped that if they Massachusetts and Connecticut. they could cut off rebellious they already had New York City, They already had Canada, the dots in between. now they wanted to join of upper New York state - Canada into the wilderness country The British would thrust down from and American Indian communities. a wild land of remote towns was General John Burgoyne. The campaign leader was a playwright and gambler. As well as a soldier, Burgoyne at his London club He'd wagered 50 guineas from America within a year. that he'd return victorious the mountebank in Johnny Burgoyne. There's a bit of the actor and There's a bluff and a flourish, this complicated campaign together. going to be able to put and he's never quite of his superior in New York - He was allowed to act independently

much to the latter's annoyance. William Howe - The rivalry between commanders proved to be a British weakness. There's one key difference over the command structure during this war. Washington is in command throughout. As well as being a good military strategist, he's quite political. But it means that for the Americans there is one directing brain to see the whole campaign through. But not with the British. There's never a single British directing brain start to finish. Burgoyne wanted Howe to push up from New York as far as Albany, while he pushed down from Canada through Indian territory. With the war on their doorstep, many tribes, who would rather have stayed out of a British civil war, were forced to take sides. Professor Colin Calloway says the revolution was a disaster for American Indians. Almost every Indian community is split by the civil war. The Cherokees divide over it,

the Iroquois confederacy splits over it. Indian villages are split over which side to support. And the issues that make them divide? I think survival. They're all looking for the best route to take in this very difficult situation. Where do our best interests lie and what are our chances of coming out of this with our way of life intact? 500 American Indians joined Burgoyne as scouts for his army. He exploited their fearsome image by publishing a proclamation threatening to unleash them on disloyal citizens. Burgoyne's arrogance disgusted American doctor James Thatcher. From the pompous manner in which he has arrayed his titles, we suppose that he considers they match our military strength. "By John Burgoyne ESQUIRE! Lieutenant-General of his Majesty's force in America, "Colonel of the Queen's Regiment of Light Dragoons, Governor of Fort William etc, etc, etc." The British ministry - not satisfied with the disgraceful expedient of hiring foreign mercenaries -

resort also to the savages of the wilderness! Here was the image of the British government unleashing these terrible warriors

on people who, after all, were British subjects. That was something that needed some explaining. Now, the whole notion of what constituted civilised warfare was pretty muddy, and many Indians regarded the French, British and Americans as the perpetrators of uncivilised warfare. They fought by different rules. By June, Burgoyne's Indian scouts were approaching Fort Ticonderoga. It appeared to be a formidable American stronghold defending the narrowest part of Lake Champlain. 23-year-old Dr Thatcher, who was billeted there, was confident Burgoyne's army would not get past the fort. The utmost exertions are being made to strengthen Ticonderoga. Mount Independence, across from Ticonderoga, is strongly fortified and well-supplied with artillery. The communication between these two places is maintained by a floating bridge. It is admirably adapted to the double purpose of a communication, as well as an impenetrable barrier to any vessel attempting to pass. both sides of the lake, The Americans held

it too steep for artillery. height - Mount Defiance - thinking but they hadn't fortified THAT was Major General William Phillips, Burgoyne's senior artillery officer industrious and irascible. described as honest, a goat can go, a man can go, He told Burgoyne that where he can drag a gun. and where a man can go, two 12-pounder cannon up there. It took the British two days to get Mount Defiance, the enemy have taken over It is with astonishment that we find all our works at Ticonderoga. completely overlook and command which from its height and proximity, is viewed as critical and alarming. The situation of our garrison ships smashed the floating bridge, The whole garrison fled. British with hardly a shot being fired. and Ticonderoga was taken The abandonment of Ticonderoga the greatest surprise and alarm. has occasioned nor more unexpected. throughout our country and our army, No event could be more severely felt

cause a dark and gloomy aspect. This disaster has given to our actually worked in their favour. morale, the loss of Ticonderoga But while it was a blow to American forests of New York state. from the waterways, into the virgin Burgoyne's pursuit lured him away but it was to take him a month. to reach the Hudson, He attempted a 25-mile shortcut retinue of camp followers - He was hampered by a huge and officers' wives in coaches. 500 women and children, goes on campaign with Mrs Redcoat. almost a century away - the Redcoat Right up to the Crimean war - legal sense, but Burgoyne's army Often not "Mrs" in any literal, mistresses and hangers-on. comes here with wives, followers, recorded their terrible journey. in Burgoyne's army, Thomas Anburey, a lieutenant and marshes were so numerous, The watery lands to pass them. we had to construct 40 bridges was a bridge two miles in length. Over one morass, with nature, but also with sabotage The British not only had to contend with its environment. from an enemy familiar of Independence and Vietnam. between the American War There are real parallels war and it strikes me that any army I was in America during the Vietnam it doesn't know, is disadvantaged. a long way from home in a country

supplies from another continent - It has to bring It controls them in the daytime, of even its own supporters. it's never really in control as its own artillery reaches, it controls them as far better organised opposition but it's at the mercy of a tougher, when it can't defend them. which gets at its supporters became. His supply line from Canada the more extreme his difficulties The deeper Burgoyne went, He had to leave men to protect it, was stretched to the limit. to less than 5,000 men. reducing his army on their right to scalp victims, his Indian allies. They insisted Burgoyne also couldn't control which harmed the British cause. their feet on its neck, or dead enemy and placing one of They seize the head of the disabled which covers the top of the head, twist the hair to extend the skin no purchase with their knife, If the hair is short and they have and draw their scalping knife. and strip it off with their teeth. they stoop There was public revulsion who was under their protection. a young American woman when the Indians scalped to the British Jane McCrea was loyal propaganda coup for the Americans. own officers. Her death was a and engaged to one of Burgoyne's hold possession of the fair prize. a quarrel arose to decide who should On the way back to Burgoyne's camp, his tomahawk into her skull... one of the monsters struck During the controversy, of her scalp. ..and immediately stripped her fuelled a long-running saga. The death of Jane McCrea about Britain's savage allies, Patriots declaimed angrily it triggered a flood of recruiting. and subsequent commentators said best to raise men to stop Burgoyne, But Congress was already doing its certainly had an impact later, had any real impact. But it and I doubt if this tragedy and Jane McCrea was depicted as a martyr to a cause to which she had never subscribed. This image of Indian savagery in the revolution was painted in 1804, after America had won its independence. After rejecting the British Empire, America looked westwards to build its own empire - on Indian land. Anti-Indian sentiment helped justify this action. That painting and that story typified for many people what Indians did in the revolution. They murdered innocent women and children, they fought against the new nation at the moment of its birth. Having done that, they could not complain therefore, when the new nation established itself, and said, "There's no place for you here." By late summer, Burgoyne's army had reached the Hudson. The river runs along the wood line. Burgoyne crossed to this side and destroyed his boat bridge behind, cutting his umbilical cord with Canada. His men were now on half-rations with supplies for just a month.

Success now depended on reinforcement and supplies from the south.

But contact was proving difficult. The Second World War American commander, Omar Bradley, said, "Congress makes a man a general, "but communications makes him a commander." That was the British problem in 1777. Late in the day, Burgoyne got a message that Howe had moved south to Pennsylvania, leaving Gen Clinton in New York. Burgoyne was counting on relief from Clinton, despite the uncertainty of messages getting through. Howe in Philadelphia, Clinton in New York state and Burgoyne here, all had their plans and their ambitions.

If Burgoyne had retreated when he had the chance, his army would still have posed a threat to American strategy. But sometimes there is nothing so stupid as a gallant officer. Burgoyne could not conceive of retreat, even if pressing on sacrificed his long-suffering soldiers. At Saratoga, he ordered them up onto the heights

to attack a newly-formed army commanded by General Horatio Gates. The British faced 9,000 Americans - double their own force. The Redcoats had learned to fear the American riflemen - legendary marksmen - who used the accuracy of their rifles to snipe at the enemy from deep cover.

BLOWS WHISTLE The riflemen had a distinctive private signal to communicate. BIRD SQUAWKS

RUSTLING AND BIRD SQUAWKS Right... Fire into the spot! At Saratoga, Colonel Morgan's rifle corps intercepted the British, picking off their officers to throw the troops into confusion. The riflemen claimed 600 victims that day.

Fire! But riflemen were among the most vulnerable troops in the field. While an infantryman armed with a musket could reload three or four times a minute, and fix a bayonet for hand-to-hand fighting, a rifle took a minute to reload and had no bayonet. If rushed after firing, the rifleman was defenceless. Saratoga was the first battle where Americans used the European tactic of using infantryman to protect riflemen. Burgoyne was surprised by the Americans' tenacity and discipline. The action went backwards and forwards like waves. The Americans left the battlefield to the British that night. Gates knew that without supplies, Burgoyne's army was crippled. All he had to do was wait. After three weeks, and no sign of Clinton, Burgoyne made a final fruitless attack. He was forced to surrender or starve. Burgoyne negotiated a gentlemanly surrender with Gates that allowed him to take his army home -

terms that were later broken. They toasted George Washington and they toasted King George. Yet Burgoyne was oblivious to the serious impact his defeat would have on the war. Saratoga did more than remove a piece from the military chessboard. It sent out a clear political message. Here in America, where the Loyalists were disheartened and patriots elated. And back in Britain, where the war's opponents said they'd seen this coming all along. Most of all, Saratoga delighted the French -

a waning superpower humiliated by British victory in the Seven Years War, and persuaded them to enter the conflict. It had always been a civil war, now it was a world war as well. Next week, the war moves south. Convinced of Loyalist support, the British launch a southern offensive, and get a shock. The rebels fight back with the highly-effective tactics of guerrilla warfare. Subtitles by Karin Anderson BBC Broadcast 2003 E-mail us at subtitling@bbc.co.uk

Stella McCartney has succeeded whereby rights she should've fallen flat on her face. Few people arouse more antagonism than the children of the rich and famous. And she could've allowed being the child of a Beatle to intimidate her. But she didn't. Instead, she's blazed her own trail in her own chosen profession. One of the most creative and cutthroat imaginable. The world of fashion. At the age of 16, Stella left school to learn her trade from the ground up. She was apprenticed off and on for five years then, astonishingly, she transformed her graduation show here at Saint Martins School of Art into her professional debut. and it was greeted with unanimous acclaim. Soon after that she opened her own fashion house, and in 2001 she was voted Designer of the Year by the world's most prestigious fashion magazine 'Vogue'. Today, at the age of 31, she's already at the top of the tree. And luckily for us, she's been keeping her own video diary since her student days. This is Stella's story. LIGHT-HEARTED MUSIC PLAYS STELLA: So, I'm on the Eurostar and I am being watched by some guy opposite while I'm doing this filming. He obviously thinks I'm weird. It's June 24, 2001. Tons and tons of things have happened probably since I was last filming. I'm trying to think what's happened. Everything.