Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Disclaimer: The Parliamentary Library does not warrant the accuracy of closed captions. These are derived automatically from the broadcaster's signal.
Stateline (ACT) -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) Virginia, the leaves are from a newly-planted Wolom ine pine. Buss are coming from interchanges, bring water and be mindful it's a construction site. It's on top of the hill, but it site. It's a little bit breezy

gives you a of the gives you a fantastic panorama ACT. Indeed, it's site. Mark, thank you very much indeed. Thank you, Virginia. And that's ABC News. Stay with us now for 'Stateline' with Craig coming up next. Have a weekend, goodnight. coming up next. Have a great

Closed Captions by This Program Is Captioned Live. Hello and welcome to Stateline. I'm Craig Canberra. On Monday, we had ride as dawn breaks across

holiday for city's 96th birthday which was actually yesterday. On 12 March 1913, Canberra its name by Lady Denman, the Canberra was officially given

wife Governor-General, at a ceremony on what is now Capital Hill. But in years, other sites had Hill. But in the preceding

possibilities from Bombala to years, other sites had been

Jervis Bay, Tumut and Dalgety. Some pretty politics of the site fancy footwork went into the with five political politics of the site selection,

heavyweights as the drama. heavyweights as key players in

that the drama. It's no co incidence Watson, Hughes, Fisher, Deakin that we have suburbs called

their story and Reid. David Headon has

Archive, we have National Film and Sound

from that day in 1913 which has

never been shown before. On the first day of 1901, the Australia federated to great a the separate colonies of

Commonwealth. - to create a Commonwealth. Eight years after that, in November 1908, the battle of the sites, and controversial battle of the battle of the sites, the long

sites to confirm the new democratic nation's city finally drew to an un easy close. this one had winners and close. But, like all battle,

wounded, heroes In this episode, we focus on a wounded, heroes and vanquished.

select group of five leaders who we might place with select group of five men, validity around the camp fire. You will validity around the winners' each of them camp fire. You will recognise

Canberra. On the five in question, four ministers and the question, four are early prime

Minister from successive Labor ministers and the fifth a

1916. Now, the portraits of four prime ministers are 1916. Now, the portraits of the

hanging on permanent display in the elegant Kings Hall of Old Parliament House. So the elegant Kings Hall of the

Old Parliament House. So let's

go and take a look. There's this Watts, Australia - Chris Watson, Australia's third Prime Minister, the Labor Party's first Prime Minister in office for a mere 4.5 moo Mos but man destined to play a big role in the national capital's story. Australia's story. And there's George Reid, Minister and as canny Australia's fourth Prime

tactician as anyone in the Minister and as canny a

Fisher, the Labor Australia's fifth, a real favourite of Minister and a man destined to favourite of our present Prime

be in power for most of the key sen tenry years from 1908 to little digger, Labor man turned 1915. And Billy Hughes, the

divisive National Minister during most divisive National Party Prime

years of the Great War yofrnd. His portrait - beyond. years of the Great War and

His portrait now hangs in the national Gallery. Last but by no national portrait

personality measure least, King O'Malley, destine ed to O'Malley, the legendary King

indelible and unique stamp O'Malley, destine ed to put his

these formidable men the history of Canberra. All

Australia public life have federate ed Commonwealth Parliament in the historic first national vote in 1901. It was a Parliament which, according to Billy Hughes's biographer, Farmer White, constitute add which has never since been equalled. So let's start John Christian, - Chris - short months that the fledgling Watson Government was in power in 1904, it could only manage one lonely piece of legislation - a seat of Government act for Dalgety. If anyone might stick with this - permitted to stick with political choice, it was Watson. A thought ft man born of sturdy, atypical Watson. A thought ft principle

stock, Watson is the only Australian Prime Minister to be born outside of Australia, the British fact in Chile of the British Isles. It was in

germ nvernian and an Irish-New Zealand moesht. Watson spent his early years in New Zealand as a railway worker and a print printer. He came spo to Australia in 1886, finding a job as a stablehand at Government House in Sydney. The story goes that, after a bit of a chat with the governor, Lord Carrington, he was sixpence for a beer. Watson Carrington, he was given

on... a billiards player and voracious player, rower, deft cards and

reader, Watson soaked up the movement from an early age. It politics of the trade union

political career in the infant Labor Party. Here he is, later 20s, with fellow Labor Party. Here he is, in his

parliamentary Labor later 20s, with fellow NSW members in 1895. Watson parliamentary Labor Party

soon prove to be as important as anyone of the bigger name reshaping a colonial Federation founders in

previously based on narrow free reshaping a colonial politics

trade or protectionist loyalties into the ideological and philosophical modern, Labor and non-Labor forces. But it of it was the intense politicking of the early national Parliaments, including his own short Prime Minister 147, that took a se voor toll on Watson's health. By his own health. By his own admission, the experience knocked his nerves to tatters. Perhaps that is the reason why he adopted the national capital's cause. For Chris Watson, the capital of his adopted country was not just a national just a national priority, it was a passionate, crusade. But why Biographers have suggested Biographers have suggested that Watson's Canberra Watson's Canberra interest involved this un likely chap involved this un likely chap - long-term Black Rod Legislative Council Stuart Mole. It was probably Mole who encouraged Watson to go and see the Canberra site for at first hand. Few men were better equipped than the forbiddingly elect Mole forbiddingly elect Mole mole to assess the other southern site as future capital. He as future capital. He had a soft spot for the corner of NSW corner of NSW having lived in the Brindabellas and ridden the Brindabellas and ridden all over the southern country from the mountains to the sea. at this photo, I am willing to admit it's bit of a stretch to imagine Mole as a Snowy River. You will just have to take my word for Watson was Mole's parliamentary member in South Sydney. Watson evidently listened to the Usher of the Black astroers a bit of adventurous travel went and travel went and saw Canberra for himself. There for himself. There is Watson with Sir Willan Lyon with Sir Willan Lyon and Billy Hughes on senators. Lion is struggling to get his prodigious get his prodigious bulk over a rabbit proof fence. In mid-August 1906, we know mid-August 1906, we know for sure that Watson was one of the 36 senators and Repps to disembark at the Queanbeyan railway stition on a chis p late winter Monaro late winter Monaro morn, ready to run the slide rule over this contender, Canberra. Chris Watson as always cut a commanding figure within the group. One member of the large party was heard to And he was determined to get his way with the this watershed visit by the parliamentarians on the brightest of all possible stay Day Canberra,'s stocks soared. Watson took it upon himself to become Canberra's principal advocate Representatives, then in Melbourne. This was his summary of the superior credentials of the Canberra site. There is the plain in the sceptre and foot hills all around. Beyond that we have on the south-west and south the Murrumbidgee mount ains tow rg as background. There are mountain gorges every diversity of scenery. And I have been I have been informed by trout fishers that there are most interesting places of the mount ains full of beauty and within a short distance of the suggested site. I do not say that picturesqueness alone should decide the question but other things being equal I think beautiful ought to turn the scale. Watson scale. Watson privately rued the fact that so many the fact that so many members of Parliament did not get Parliament did not get to see the Canberra site soon enough, including himself. Had he seen it earlier, he wrote - "I should not have voted for any other." George Reid was un deniably one most significant founding fathers. For many decades after his death in 1958, Reid's reputation suffered because of the judgments of one or two of his equally his equally illustrious con#2e6r7 con#2e6r7 ris. The sometimes jealous, jealous, ever manipulative Henry Parkes called him a babbling lunatic. Then diary enter in his book published until 1944 which a whole generation of Australian scientists, post World War II. It is no flattering been unable to traverse his extraordinary appearance, his immense, unwieldy jelly immense, unwieldy jelly 46 like stomach stomach always threatening to brace his weight band, brace his weight band, his little legs apparently bowed rising behind his ears and rounding to his chin. He had no taste for literature, for art, newspapers satisfied He was fond of society and social amusement u social amusement u be and at the theatre his presence was for the crowd. He for the crowd. He resembled Henry Park because he was vain and selfish, a consummate politician even more politician even more cunning if anything excelling Parkes variety of contemperation. Deakin was no admirer of admirer of the NSW free trader Reid but Deakin did write that Reid was a consummate politician. politician. According to his biographer, Reid was the best platform speak pler the empire. More significantly, he was the most outspoken defender of social and economic Libralism in either the NSW the Australian Parliaments. Reid aggressively for what he believed in and just about always got what he wanted. Audiences loved his quick wit and sharp humour. When and sharp humour. When a woman called out to him on called out to him on the husings that, wife I'd poison you." Read Reid is said to have re "Madam, if I were your I'd poison myself." On another occasion occasion a heckler took issue with his bulging precroecious ly asking what the baby would be call and what tsh he said, "If it's what it is, all piss and wind, I'll call it after you, young call it after you, young el fella" but Reid has a role in the Federation role in the Federation debates. From 1895 to 1899 he virtually single handedly gain add more democratic, more accessible constitution for coming nation. And we should not forget that it was Reid forget that it was Reid who, as Premier of NSW, convened secret Premiers meeting in 1899 at which it was confirmed that NSW would host the capital site. At first, Reid favoured the western sites of Bathurst, Orange and nearby Lindhurst. However, when it became clear in became clear in 1906-07 that the more remote the more remote southern sites of Albury, Tumut, Bombala and contenders, Reid eventually swung his formidable weight behind Canberra. He and took turns in took turns in the House of Representatives Representatives to disparage Dalgety, the prime pick of Western Australian surveyor and noted explore other noted explore other Sir John Forrest. Reid was especially keen to knock the Chris mattic probably seeded when he succeeded when the house that Forrest had acquired all his surveying experience in the desert, hardly a qualification, Reid wryly observed, opinion about prosperous, abundant east coast NSW. In abundant east coast NSW. In the last months of the capital debate in late 1908, Reid astutely recognised they were surrounded by too were surrounded by too many nervous politicians, conscious of the opinions of their distant constituencies. The site known as Canberra might just be just be too specific, too prescriptive to get up in parliamentry vote of continent-wide strategically conjure ed strategically conjure ed the less defnit, more less defnit, more diplomatic, less geographically less geographically threatening district of Yass-Canberra. And so it was in the final vote so it was in the final vote of October and November 1908 that Yass-Canberra triumphed over number of other option, one of which was Canberra. With deft sleight of hand, Chris Watson and George de sired de sired result. In later year, others emerged to play their sometimes supporting, sometimes principle roles in the Canberra story. Let's look briefly at briefly at three of them. Thanks to the genuinely iconic cinematograph cinematograph footage of the foundation stone ceremony, directed by that boyen of the Australian silent film era Raymond Longford, we sharing the same poedium on Capital Hill on 12 March 1913. Andrew 1913. Andrew Fisher, Billy Hughes, and King O'Malley. I took the podium that dusty took the podium that dusty day, Prime Minister Andrew Prime Minister Andrew Fisher had just three more run in a period. During which his laict second time in the job. The first time he had come to against the odds, just one week after the Senate voted after the Senate voted for Yass-Canberra over Tumut on the 6th of November, 19 o. Thus, one of Fisher's first nation building tasks was to see building tasks was to see the seat of government act of legislation. Indeed, in the period from late 1908 to 1915, no less than three no less than three Fisher governments would be in Australia. The in Australia. The cumulative effect was both permanent and profound. In October Prime Minister Rudd launched the first the first substantial biography of this seminal figure. Perhaps figure. Perhaps our present Prime Minister should introduce the accomplishments of our fifth Prime Minister. Fisher introduced legislation to establish this nation 's capital, Canberra. Andrew Fisher should be honoured in Australian history political pioneer, as a re former and a great committed to the great task Australian nation building. David biography provides Mr Pl biography provides Mr Pl Rudd and all of us with an abundant of of history. Fisher was a political leader, administration of integral importance to the early history of our nation. Coming to office for the first time on 13 November 1908, November 1908, he recognised heedly that, seat of Government question must be got out of the way. It had gone on for far too long. Fisher took immediate steps and pientd a Minister for home affairs. Within a month coming to office, his Minister had issued had issued instruction s to Mark Skaife. These Mark Skaife. These instructions confirm for us that the second national Labor Government appreciated the scale of its responsible on this responsible on this vital question. The surveyor question. The surveyor will bear in mind that the Federal capital should be a beautiful city, occupying a commanding position with position with extensive views and features which will then themselves to the eave oh evolution of a design worth only for the project not just for the present but all Fisher articulated his thoughts for the nation's capital city on the March 1913 podium he too imagined future. Here on this spot future. Here on this spot in the near future and I hope the thought of Australia will be given expression to. this city will be the seat learning as well as of and it wills will be the home of art. While Billy Hughes was neither temperamently atund neither temperamently atund nor indeed destined to play a very, very good on the finer grain detail. after the battle of the sites had concluded, Hughes infectiously the flavour of earlier the flavour of earlier more innocent times autobiographical volumes he pin ed in the 1880ks hen he ed in the 1880ks hen he sat down to reflect on a long life. The story of how the Parliament is a chapter of history lingers the history lingers the fragrance of of romance. If there is one actor in the capital drama who has more of this fragrance of dance, than any other, it is King O'Malley. So fragrant King O'Malley. So fragrant that the redoubtable Bob Ellis used the details of O'Malley's life for the for the music, 'The Legend of King O'Malley', in 1970. King O'Malley', in 1970. A production so popular that had been widely credited with kick starting a new era kick starting a new era in Australian theatre. John Bell directed production - his first in production - his first in an illustrious career. Soon we hope His eccentric character, brash American manners, yumen and - acumen yumen and - acumen and personal criz ma. I am out of criz ma. I am out of breath and out of time. I look forward 'Canberra''s beautiful Thanks to the National Film and Sound Archive, Library and the National Archives for their assistance with this project. Damian Porombka was the editor and Porombka was the editor and co producer. The five being rolled out in ACT rool schools adds Parliament of this year's history curriculum. The celebrating the appointment of a new creative a new creative director, Clare Belfrage. how it's done. Belfrage. Every day she shows

I've glass for about 20 still have a very strong passion for it. I got into this industry because I kind of stumbled across it in my university degree. I went to Monash University to ceramic design and in course there was glass and glaz ceramic design and in that

blowing in fluked it in a way. blowing in particular. So I

completely loved it and entranced by it. I think completely loved it and was

working with momentium an amazing thing to do. And working with momentium glass is

it's - molten glass is an amazing thing to. Do like a you might have worked amazing thing to. Do like a kid

and then clay and you might have worked with mud

of things. All of our hands in, that but to work with molten glass It's with molten glass is unusual. material in that way, it's hot and glowing and the Collors are hold the finished object really beautiful. Yet when you

your hand the next day it has all of those other properties of glass that we all know level of transparency and of glass that we all know - its

and how hard and level of transparency and gloss

challenging and that's probably is. It's physically really

something that I really enjoy ability as well. The aspect the sort of weight that ability as well. The aspect of

carrying around the sort of weight that you're

heat is a real factor to deal with it's gorgeous to it in winter but really with it's gorgeous to be doing

tough it in winter but really really work very much in a team. tough in summer obviously. I

usually have two assistants that work with me to make work. that work with me to make the that work is together, work. It's a great thing when

there's a lot of intuition that work is together, when

play, that is just thing. play, that is just an exciting process as enjoy process as well and I really it. Sometimes it feels slow but enjoy that. There's a drama to

there when the next day you come and get your work out of the kiln and you see what you've produced. It's satisfying. I have developed very distinctive style by flaming long, thin fine very distinctive style which is

threads of coloured glass on to the surface of my glass forms while still in the hot I draw my inspiration from the details in nature. I've been really interested in the small things that you see that draw you in, focussed on surface as I've looked at moss and liken focussed on surface as well.

and barks and - lichen and ba, and skins and rinds and elements are repeated in like in the architecture of a elements are repeated in nairt

leaf, the vane-like work. - vain-like work.- piece, it is a great relief. work. When you finish a

mean it depends pleased you feel relief that you've safely got there's definitely a feeling of

it into the kiln because, you know, many times you actually lose a piece along the way. I can fall off and smash on the floor and you have to start again. relief I think that you feel. start again. It's largely

know, always got the next three or four ideas that are me a bit down the track. I or four ideas that are calling

don't know, I guess maybe one day my body will bit tired of it nothing in bit tired of it but certainly heading in that direction. That's the program another week. Next That's the program for

will investigate the another week. Next week, we

empire will investigate the growing Airport. To fin thish week, empire which is the Canberra

Canberra at - at dawn from a balloon. See Canberra at its most beautiful

you next week. Closed Captions by CSI

and it's very nice, We've been sent this walking stick, Hi, I'm Andy Muirhead. but it's got this inside. that could be used for? What do you think Find out tonight on Collectors. THEME MUSIC

than a Bond film, 'Tonight, more numberplates I travel to a galaxy far, far away,

why you can't stop at one, Gordon finds out and from China, beautiful jade.'