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Our Summer In Tehran -

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(generated from captions) the current total is about 460 birds. But there's a catch. When you breed from very few individuals you can create a whole new set of problems. Carl Jones, an old friend and renowned conservationist understands the complications inbreeding causes better than anyone. They all started to lose their feathers and I looked at them and I thought, 'Oh, my gosh, what's going wrong?' Many of Karl's Echo parakeets had succumbed to beak and feather disease, a highly contagious and fatal virus. This one, unfortunately - Doesn't look so good. He looks like a feather off a feather duster. You can see that lots of these feathers are falling out. Oh, dear, and his tray is full of feathers as well, isn't it? These birds are vulnerable in a way that their ancestors were not. Because they're so very rare and so very inbred that they are - you know, they can catch these diseases far more easily. These museum specimens date back to the 1850s,

a time when Echo parakeets were still genetically diverse and strong. One man has been wondering if the genetic information locked away in these specimens could help save the species. Simon Tollington is from the University of Kent. This is basically just so we do as much as we can to prevent spreading feather dust between nest sites. OK.

Simon wants to find out how the population crash affected the genetics and immune systems of the birds, so he takes blood samples from all the new hatchlings. So, you do this every day in the season? Pretty much, yeah, and more than once a day as well. Not too bothered. She's so trusting, no protests at all. It's also a chance for Simon to monitor the chicks for beak and feather disease. OK, we've still got two chicks, so that's good news. Excellent. No sign of the disease immediately? No, not at all. Do they struggle when you're doing that or are they quite - I wouldn't say struggle, they don't exactly like being handled, I don't think. OK. So, if you can just take the bucket once I'm low enough, I'm just gonna slip it over my head. OK, got it? Yep. And there they are. Zoe will be watching us, making sure we don't do anything. 194. Simon needs to monitor the chick's growth before he takes blood and returns them to the wild. It's got the claws in there. Trick is not to let it run off. That's perfect. 130mm. What we're going to do now is take the blood, so - From the jugular? From the jugular. This looks unbelievably tricky. It's OK. It's not going to hurt much.

You two do it with so much more confidence - I'm petrified about hurting it. What's the actual practical application of this for conservation? OK, this sample will go back to the UK for genetic analysis and what we're hoping to learn from that is how the genes in the population have changed since the population bottleneck. So, what we do is we use museum specimens and take DNA samples from these specimens and we can look at the genetic variability before and after the population crash. And with this, we use data on immune function as well, so that we can then hand-pick individuals that we think might be suitable for creating new populations. In other words, what you're doing is you're basically cherry-picking the best Echo parakeets. Exactly, yeah. Obviously with this disease, if we can select individuals that are are more capable to deal with it, then they've got a much better chance of creating a viable long-term population. So are we done with this one now? Yep, all finished. all we've got to do now is to put them back in their little bags and take them back up to the box. Good, and they seem none the worse for wear. Hopefully not, no, plenty of them have had it done before, and we haven't had anything go wrong, so. Something to talk about in the nest box. Selective breeding based on these tests

and information from DNA in the museum specimens could be used to create a more robust population, Echo parakeets better equipped to deal with the challenges of life.

The collections have clues about the future, they hint at what's in store for the world and how we might tackle it. But one question remains - what's in store for us? Chris Stringer has spent a lifetime studying ancient human remains to piece together the story of our history. I wondered how much he can now project forward and tell me what lies ahead for humanity. There is a view, yes - that our culture protects us from the effects of natural selection, but I don't agree with that, I think that we're under selection as much as we ever were. Billions of people globally are still suffering from insufficient food, insufficient water, insufficient medical care. Those people are still strongly under the effects of selection. You know, we have people who are obese, there's exposure to alcohol, to drugs. All of these things are also selective forces. So I think evolution is carrying on but its difficult to project where we will go so we see these, you know, reconstructions of people with stick-thin bodies and giant brains, but that's very unlikely. I mean, you can see how big our brain is, and how we've evolved these large skulls. If you had a crystal ball how would you see our evolution mapping out in the future? Would our brain get bigger and bigger? That's a very difficult one. Obviously in terms of brain size we can see this increase of brain size through time. But I think, probably, our brain size is at about it's limits and there's actually evidence that in the last 20,000 years brain size has got smaller, incredibly, in modern humans. And some of that's probably related to a decrease in body size. But one could argue that obviously - you know, you can't just grow brains regardless - they've got energetic costs, you've got to run that brain - and, of course, our brain size is at about the limits of the female pelvis's ability to deliver a baby. So I think those are real constraints, and one could argue that - obviously we now store a lot of information externally in our computers, our mobile phones, in other people's brains, so a lot of the selective value of having that big brain may be disappearing. But Chris thinks there's a bigger factor that could impact on human evolution in the future. If the predictions about global warming are correct, in the next 100 years we're going to see more climate change than we've seen in the previous 10,000 years, and if that happens, that will interfere with any predictions we ever make about where humans are going. So something as drastic as climate change could push our evolution in a totally different direction? Yes, I mean, if the worst projections are correct then the tropics and sub-tropics will become uninhabitable for humans, and we'll have people surviving in relatively small numbers at the north and south poles, and selection again will be operating there because large numbers of people will die out because of that massive environmental change. And the ones who survive will be, in a sense, the lucky few, whoever they are, at the north and south poles. And the future of humanity will be in their hands. That's it - six hours worth. There are whole rooms we didn't even go into, entire disciplines, whole lifetimes worth of work we didn't even touch on. Maybe the museum is too big for any one person to really get to grips with, too big, even, for one generation to understand. These collections are for all time, and what one generation misses, another picks up on. Changing ideas and changing technology means that each generation sees these amazing collections in a fresh light. Our job is to do what we can with the collections and to make sure that we pass them on to the next generation in good condition. An understanding of the world, the future of an individual species, even the future of humanity itself could some day be influenced by the items stored in the labyrinth of this museum. And because this is one of the greatest natural history collections on earth, I don't doubt that in another 100 years some of this century's greatest ideas will be sparked right here at the Natural History Museum, the museum of life. Closed Captions by CSI .

(People shout over each other) (People chant) (President Ahmadinejad chants slogan to crowd) (Crowd chants slogan) (President Ahmadinejad

COMPUTERISED VOICE: First new voice message. WOMAN: Hey, Justine, just wanted to say come back safely. MAN: I just wanted to wish you and Mateo luck on your trip to Iran. We're worried about you. You probably shouldn't go. JUSTINE SHAPIRO: The relationship between the United States of America and the Islamic Republic of Iran has been volatile since 1979. I'm going to Iran because I want to meet Iranian mothers before our sons meet on the battlefield. WOMAN: I didn't even know that it would be possible for Americans to go there. WOMAN 2: Hi, Justine. Want you to be careful and maybe not mention to people you're Jewish. Sweetie, it's time to get up. We're going to the airport. You said five more minutes. OK. I'll give you... I'll give you three more minutes. I said five! Three. Five. I said five. OK? Do you know how to say 'yes' in Farsi? No. You say 'baleh'. (Laughs) Can you say 'baleh'? Bah. Baleh. OK, let's go. They are boarding. OK. Bye, Dad. Bye, sweetie. Take good care. I love you. JUSTINE, VO: The news media constantly portrays Iranians as protestors, aggressors, victims, and they're always outside, always in the street. What I wanna see are Iranians in their homes as mothers, father, children, grandparents. PILOT: Welcome to Iran where the local time here in Tehran is 7am. For those female travellers with us, we do ask you to respect Islamic tradition here in Iran and make sure that you are suitably attired - long sleeves on your arms and a suitable headdress. Marjaneh, my producer, is Iranian-American. She's been in Tehran for the past few months trying to find three families willing to spend much of their summer with me, Mateo and a camera crew. Finally! This is for you. Oh, you are so sweet. What a great breakfast. (Laughs) Good to see you! I know. Can you believe? (Laughs) I can't believe I'm here. Smells bad. Now, can I take my hijab off? Of course not. No, it stays on, even in the car? Yeah. Who is that? That's Ayatollah Khomeini. He's the supreme leader. Mommy, look at that tall building. There's a lot of construction. Pow, pow! Pow, pow! Pow, pow! (Imitates explosions and gunfire) Oh!

Are you Mateo? Yeah. This is Orang. I'm gonna be your babysitter. How are you? We usually bring something like gift for the boys that they like - chocolate. Oh. MARJANEH: My favourite too. What do you say to Orang? Thank you. Is Orang your first name or your last name? This is my first name, and the last name is Biglari. Biglari? Yeah. How appropriate. Yeah, that's it. Hello! Hello! (Laughs) Nice to see you. So you look so fat, isn't it? (Laughter) No, you're the big fatty. Like this. And put on your socks. This is the new way to put on the socks. (Doorbell rings) (Both speak indistinctly) Mateo, this is Pari. (Babbles) This is Pari's apartment. This is Pari's apartment. (Laughs) And you speak English. Oh... barely. You speak English. Yes, I do. Yes, you do. OK. A little bit. Good. Stand still. She lets us go. Do you notice there's no lights. There's no green light, there's no red light, you just go for it. (Speaks native tongue)

JUSTINE, VO: When I learned that nearly half the population in Iran is considered middle-class, I asked Marjaneh to focus on finding three middle-class families from different backgrounds with kids Mateo's age. They're very excited, actually, to meet you. They're the religious family. Exactly. So is this family pro-Ahmadinejad? Yeah, they are. And here's Daniel's family. He speaks fluent English. Oh. This is Leili and Sina. She's the actress. She's actually the single mum. The single mum. That's right. JUSTINE, VO: Iran is home to one of the most prolific and acclaimed film industries in the world, and from its large pool of film professionals, Marjaneh assembled a wonderful crew. You can't have any juice but you can have some water. JUSTINE, VO: Getting this production off the ground has taken more than a year. The United States Government has laws on the books that complicate working in Iran. On the Iranian side, my application had to be approved by the Iranian Foreign Ministry, the Intelligence Ministry, and the Culture Ministry. Justine, look, I got your press pass. This is what you gave. Yeah, that's the picture I gave. And this is what we got back. Oh! My God, they... they used a pen. It's not even Photoshopped. The latest technology. MAN: Very precious. My press permit through August. JUSTINE, VO: And we've been assigned a government minder. We've been told that our government minder will show up unannounced any day now to monitor our activities and report back to Ershad, the Culture Ministry. First order of business, shopping for the state-mandated wardrobe. I'm so curious about Leili. I wanna see how an Iranian actress who's also divorced lives in a conservative Muslim society. Hello! Come in. (Speaks Persian) (Giggles) Hi! Hi! How are you? (Speaks Persian) It's so nice to finally meet you. Mateo, how are you? (Speaks Persian) You wanna go with Sina? You're wearing your hijab just because of the camera? Oui, oui. (Speaks Persian) (Speaks Persian) She's saying that normally we don't wear scarves inside the house, but because we're being filmed, then we have to. Oh, yes. OK. Wow. That looks good. Mmm. JUSTINE, VO: Leili and I have so much in common. We're both single mums, we both speak French, we're both artists, and we're both raising boys. (Laughs) Pari, our landlady, has become a sort of summertime grandma to Mateo. Mateo, I have a surprise for you. I have a gift. Look. Look at this. (Chuckles) Silkworm. All Iranian children grow up with this. They play all the time with this. Can you feed them every day? Yeah. You should careful. If you don't feed them, they die. Papi, I got pet worms. Pet worms! They're very small so they fit in the box. No! We're using them to make silk. Uh, let's see. One, two... 14. The Torabis have two daughters - Elaheh, who's 11, and Houra, who just turned one. I'm a little nervous to meet them because the father, Doctor Torabi, works for the Revolutionary Guards. The Revolutionary Guards are a powerful military organisation that supports the right wing of the Iranian government. The US government has placed them on a list of terrorist organisations. The Torabis live in a subsidised housing complex for employees of the Revolutionary Guards. They know that Mateo and I come from the United States, but I asked Marjaneh not to tell them that we're Jewish. So do I shake his hand? Can I... No. No, you don't shake his hand. And don't take off your manteau. My manteau? Yeah. You mean my hijab? Your hijab. Everything. Is this...? No, I've got nothing under this. I'm not gonna take it off. (Laughs) Salam. Oh, Houra is such a big girl. Hello, Mateo. Hello. Hello. How are you? (Chuckles) (Speaks Persian)

(Speaks Persian) Why your father didn't come into Iran? I don't know. Carlos... You told him not to. ..and I were divorced. (Marjaneh translates into Persian) Yeah. But very, very good friends. (Marjaneh translates into Persian) Why you are divorced? Why? Oh, very good question. Do you have a few days? (Marjaneh translates into Persian) (Laughs) Very good question. I'm right here, Mommy. I'm right here. I'm right here. Uh-oh.

(Speaks Persian) (Speaks Persian) Awww. La-la. In the United States, normally you hold the baby. You get very tired, your back get tired... Yes, yes. Holding the baby, holding the baby. OK. This is very good. Very good. Yes. You're comfortable. Comfortable. Yes. OK. JUSTINE, VO: Orang, a friend of Marjaneh's, has offered to help out by showing Mateo around Tehran on his weekends. Papi? Papi? Sweetie, get your shoes on. We don't want to be late for the Mexico-Iran game. I already met Sina. I already met the guy who likes soccer. I'm gonna go to his house and watch the game. CARLOS: Wow. (Children giggle) (Leili speaks Persian) Papi? Papa? The game's not playing because tomorrow's a sad day for the Iranians because one of their presidents, tomorrow's his death day. So they're not gonna show the game. What? Mexico? Mexico, quatro, Iran, zero? (Weeps) Say, 'Bye, Papi. I'll see you soon.' Bye, Papi. I'll see you soon. (Weeps) He's fine, Carlos. I'll call you later. He's fine. He's just very tired and disappointed 'cause the game was cancelled. That's all. Sweetie, look, this is news footage from his funeral in 1989. Millions of people came to his funeral. But I thought he was a bad person. Well, a lot of people thought he was a wonderful person. Everyone has their own opinion. He started a very, very huge revolution in Iran in 1979. What was it? Well, Iran used to be ruled by a king called the Shah, and a lot of people were really unhappy with the Shah, and there was a revolution and all the Shah's people had to leave, all the king's people had to leave. And then a religious government took control of Iran. (Man on TV speaks Persian) JUSTINE, VO: Most of the Iranians I've met are passionate about politics. As long as the camera's not in their face, they don't hold back, especially the taxi drivers. Let's see. Politics. America, um... (Speaks Persian) President? No. (Chuckles) (Speaks Persian) (Speaks Persian) In America. In Iran? (Speaks Persian) (Both laugh) JUSTINE, VO: The person I expect Mateo will make the easiest connection with is Daniel. Daniel's mum runs a public relations office, his dad is an architect, and they're raising Daniel to speak English. His grandmother is raising him to speak Persian. Wow! You played all of them. (Speaks Persian) And when Daniel does move, he won't be alone. Iran has the highest brain-drain in the world. Every year, 150,000 to 180,000 Iranians leave Iran. (Leila speaks Persian) (Speaks Persian) (Islamic prayer plays in background) (Speaks Persian)

(Prays) I'm so surprised. I thought that, in Iran, families would be three children, four children, five children. Almost all the families - at least, the middle-class families that I meet in North Tehran - they have on child, maybe two. Maryam's parents and, like, my parents and people from that era, they all have about four kids and all their names start with the same letter. So it's Maryam, Mitra, Mehrdad, Manejeh, and mine's, like, Babak, Behram, Bijan, Birla. (Laughter) MARYAM: Babak, come on. No, you wake up at four and what time do you leave the house? Um... (Laughs) (Laughs) Six. (Laughs) (Laughs) Two hours?! Two hours to get ready? You're so beautiful. What do you need to do? Shower, if she has a hard time, she's, like, 'Wake up. Does this go together? Can I wear this?' (Snores) 'Get out of here! Let me sleep!' (Maryam and Babak laugh) JUSTINE, VO: Mother's Day falls on the birthday of Fatima, daughter of the prophet Mohammad. Marjan Torabi invited us to her home to celebrate. Uh, Fatima? Fatima. Before coming to Iran, I thought Iranian women would be oppressed, downtrodden housewives, but the mothers I've met have gone to university, work AND take care of their families. Today, 60% of Iranian university students are women. Since Mother's Day is considered a holy day, the Basij, a volunteer militia under the control of the Revolutionary Guards get into the act and make offerings to the people. (Speaks Persian) (Speaks Persian) Thank you very much. So beautiful. So wonderful. Thank you very much. Salam. Salam. Nice to meet you. (Speaks Persian) Mateo, Pesaram. Mateo. Mateo, this is Marjan's mother. (Speaks Persian) Very religious. MARJANEH: Justine, look what Doctor Torabi gave Marjan for Mother's Day. It's beautiful. Five diamonds?! You deserve it. You're such a good mother. (Laughs) (Speaks Persian) No.

Marjaneh talked to the director of the day care, so they know we're coming. (Iranian music plays) Oh, they're dancing. Do you wanna dance? No. No. Oh, come on. (Speaks Persian) JUSTINE, VO: Leili's invited me to have lunch with her at a fancy restaurant in her neighbourhood. Organic greens with apple, gorgonzola, candied walnuts. JUSTINE, VO: Though Leili and I have spent quite a bit of time together, I find it's hard to get past the sense of formality and politeness with her. It's not just Leili. Iranians practise a code of conduct, a style of communication that they call 't'aarof'. T'aarof looks like a ping-pong game - one polite exchange after the other, back and forth, back and forth. I'm sure the people playing the game understand the meanings behind the meanings, but for me, t'aarof feels a lot like beating around the bush and never really getting to the point. As an American, especially as a Jewish-American, I was brought up to communicate directly and literally. In a world of t'aarof, I'm a fish out of water. (Both speak French) (Men shout) (Speaks Persian) (Speaks Persian)

(Both speak Persian) (Speaks Persian) JUSTINE, VO: Leili's mother feels so familiar to me.

Oi. Such a Yiddishe mama.

ORANG: Here it is. This is the Grand Bazaar. What kind of juice you like? Here it is. (Speaks Persian) It's fresh. Don't throw it on my head. MATEO: Vroom! Vroom!

(Laughs) Did you see that? I told you you enjoy in Bazaar. Yeah, but in the Bazaar, everything's so bizarre. Yeah, yeah. (Speak indistinctly) This one. This two, and then two more. Would you like to choose one of these kind? No. I just want all circles. OK. And one for my grandma. (Speaks Persian) Bye. Thank you. Bye. (Speaks indistinctly) BOTH: Goodbye. (Whistles softly)

JUSTINE, VO: Marjan Torabi is a pharmacist. She makes custom face creams for a loyal clientele. (Speaks Persian) Uh, circles. Circles. Circles. I'm not sleeping very well. Circles is about your age, OK? (Giggles) Don't say that. JUSTINE, VO: Hanging out with Marjan Torabi is my favourite thing to do in Tehran. I just feel so at ease around her. Marjan Torabi is one of those rare people who truly seems at peace with herself. There don't seem to be many conflicts in her life. Her beliefs, her traditions and values are fully aligned with that of her government. Wow! JUSTINE AND MARJAN: Wow! Grandma, Grandpa, me, Bee Baby. Beebeh. (Chuckles) Father's sister or mother's sister? Mother's sister. My sister. Oh, OK. My sister's daughter in Australia. In Australia. JUSTINE, VO: Marjan would like to visit her sister in Australia, but Doctor Torabi won't let her. Iranian women are not allowed to travel without their husband's written permission. Look at you! You are gorgeous. They're not gonna wa... Let me hold it! They're not gonna see! These photos were taken at a family wedding. Traditional Iranians separate men and women at parties. These photos were taken at the women's party, where men are not allowed. There are lots of parties in Iran where men and women are not separated. You wanna go in? Yep. JUSTINE, VO: In fact, Tehran is famous for its parties. I've been to them, but I can't film them. But imagine men and women dancing together, wearing sexy clothing and drinking, kind of what you see in clubs in major cities around the world. But in Iran, it all happens inside someone's home. I don't mind wearing the hijab nearly as much as I thought I would, but then again, I only have to wear it two more months. For some, wearing the hijab is a sign of one's faith, for others, the hijab is a symbol of oppression. For me as a mother with so much to do, the hijab provides a kind of liberation - it takes me three minutes to get dressed in the morning, and I don't have to worry about my hair. I've been trying to get together with Daniel and his mum, Maryam, but between Daniel's many after-school activities and Maryam's work schedule, we haven't been able to find a time. Finally, today we've arranged to meet for tea and a play date. (Doorbell rings) You bought this for me? Yes. Why thank you. The present that Mateo brought you, it got a little bit bashed up in our suitcase. Uh-huh. It doesn't matter. I hope the puzzle is not broken. It's not broken. Here's my room. Oh, it's pretty small-big. Ooh. In here is my baby clothes. Your baby clothes? Yeah. Is Maryam here? Maryam phoned and apologise 'cause she's gonna be held up at work, so she said she might try and get home as soon as she can, but it's the end of financial year and they have to finish... JUSTINE, VO: Maryam is so hard to pin down. Not only does she work full-time, but she goes to graduate school at night. There's a fishy. It's Nemo. Leili's weekend getaway is just 15 minutes from her house in the cool foothills of the Alborz Mountains. This is such a welcome break from an intensely hot, incessantly noisy and extremely polluted city.

And this is my kind of hiking spot - lots of places to stop and eat and have a cup of tea. This is one of the few public places where I've seen young Iranians hang out together. Up here, far from the ever-watchful eyes of their families and the morality police, young Iranians are able to let their hair down - well, sort of. Incredibly, two-thirds of Iranians are under the age of 30. Their aloof attitude, their provocative dress, only hints at the rebellious spirit within them. The Torabi family and their friends invited us to join them

on a road trip to Mashad, the holiest city in Iran, home to the shrine of Imam Reza. We rented the bus, they brought the tea, and we hit the road. Don't collect dirty bottles. When I say you come down, you come down! You listen to me. You can't pick up garbage anymore. Do you punish your children, Houra, Elaheh? Every mother... Yes. ..should punish. Discipline. OK. Child need the punish of mother. OK. Do you ever hit your children? Slow. Slow. Slow. For punish. (Laughs) Slow hit. Not a pow. No, no, no. And, um, scream. You scream? OK. No. You? Very good at scream. Good screaming? A balloon pop. A balloon pop? (Both laugh)

JUSTINE, VO: On our way to Mashad, we stop at another site, equally holy to some, and that is the tomb of the great Persian poet, Ferdowsi. Iranians are not Arabs. They have a different history, culture and language. After the Muslim Arabs invaded the Persian Empire in the 7th century, Arab influence threatened to crush the Persian language and culture. Recognising this, Ferdowsi wrote the 'Shahnameh', or the 'Book of Kings'. He wrote it in Persian without a single word of Arabic. For this, he is credited with preserving the Persian language and he is considered a national hero for having done so. Please listen to me, very loud. (Recites verse from Shahnameh in Persian) (Speaks Persian) (Recites verse in Persian) In the ancient world, intercontinental travel passed through Iran via the Silk Road. Iran's central location also exposed it to invasions by the Greeks, the Mongols, Turks, Muslim Arabs, the British and the Russians. Perhaps these centuries of cross-cultural interaction have helped define the Iranian character. I find that while Iranians are very hospitable, they're also not entirely accessible. They're somewhere in-between inviting you in and keeping you out.

I think this is also part of t'aarof. T'aarof seems to serve as some kind of protective shield. (Speaks Persian) JUSTINE, VO: T'aarof comes in so many forms. The most common example that I see is when people refuse something offered to them even when they want it out of politeness. T'aarof.

(Speaks Persian) Pow! Pow! (Girls speak Persian) This is the shrine and burial place of Imam Reza. It's the most important shrine in Iran, and of course I wanna go inside. (Speaks Persian) To enter the Imam Reza shrine, or 'Haram', women must wear a chador. My only hesitation is that I'm not sure if Jews are allowed inside. Uh, I... like Mohammed. I respect Mohammed prophet. I am not Muslim. I am Kalimi. OK. OK. Kalimi. Jewish. My father, Kalimi. My mother, Kalimi. Protestant or Catholic? No. Jewish. Yahudi. You are Yahudi? I am Yahudi. OK. I understand. Father, Yahudi. Mother, Yahudi. I respect Mohammed, I respect Jesus Christ, I respect Buddha, I respect... It's OK with you? Yeah. I want to go to... No problem. No problem? OK. I didn't know. I don't know. I wanted to talk to you. OK. I want to go in Haram. It's OK? Let go. Yahudi in Haram? No problem? No problem. Mohammed prophet is for all people of Earth. And another, right - Muhammad Rasul-Allah. Muhammad is a pray... A prophet? JUSTINE, VO: Churches and synagogues are houses of God, but they can feel like pretty cold places. To me, this shrine and the many other mosques I've been to feel a bit more like God's living room. The carpets invite people to relax. Families come and spend the entire day resting, praying, and the pools of water and the fountains drown out the sounds of the outside world. Marjan Torabi reminds me so much of my own sister, her openheartedness, her faith in God, and maybe I remind her of her sister, the one who left Iran and moved to Australia. She wants to teach you a prayer. Teach me a prayer? OK.

So you're asking God that out of all the peacefulness that he has, pour some of his peacefulness into yours. (Speaks Persian) (Sighs) I promise to you. Yeah? (Speaks French) (Laughs) How often does Sina see his dad? About once a week. JUSTINE, VO: In Iran, custody laws are written in favour of the father.

Sina turns nine next year. Wham! Oi! Don't throw it like that! Throw. Wooo! (Both laugh) OK, who's turn is it? Mine! Really? OK. Who can tell me what 20 plus 20 is? 40! 40! 15 plus 6. T... Nine! 15. 18! 15 plus 6. 16. 20! You're both losing! (Screams) (Both laugh) (Speaks Persian) 18 plus 4. What? 22. You win. You get the hose. Oh, yay! (Laughs) Give me that! Yay! Yay! Yay! OH! (Both laugh) (Pari chuckles) So Pari, what do you think of modern-day Tehran? It's too big, it's expanded, it's polluted, no blue sky, no good, nice store, no green and lots of dust. I'm really fed up with cleaning the house. Really fed up. Down the stairs. What? Let's go. Give me your hand. Up there, yeah. That's it. Right there. What's that for? Oldest school, about 600 years ago. How beautiful. You really like it? Have you seen this book before? Uh-uh. This is some pictures from old Tehran. There's no traffic. Yeah. (Phone rings) Excuse me. It's Marjaneh. Hi, Marjaneh. Hi. How are you? What's the matter? What's the matter? Is this about the film or me or...? I have my visa. 48 hours? I have to leave in 48 hours. You're joking. No. Ershad just called and said I have to leave in 48 hours and they don't give a reason. Mateito. MATEO: Yeah? I wanna talk to you. Why do we have to leave tomorrow? Mommy, what happened? You know, like, when you go to an amusement park, you get a ticket? You get a ticket and you can ride on the rides with your ticket, and when your ticket runs out, you can't ride on any more rides? Yeah. Our ticket ran out in Iran and we have to go home. JUSTINE, VO: And with 48 hours to go, the government minder finally makes an appearance. I have a feeling this isn't the first time she's seen a foreign filmmaker in tears. That evening, we got calls from all three families. The Intelligence Ministry had contacted each of them asking questions about me. Two of the families were deeply apologetic, but understandably asked that we not continue to film them. Only the Torabi family wanted to continue to spend time with us on camera and off. I guess because Doctor Torabi works for the Revolutionary Guards, he and his family don't feel quite so vulnerable. When you return to your country, I will miss you, really.

I'll miss you too. We're gonna email? Emailing? Oh, thank you. Yes? You email? Of course. OK. OK. Hastam. Hastam. But this belief give me hope that if I and you are distant... No. Oh, you're reading this to me. (Laughs) OK. I'll look at you. I and you. You are in America and I'm in Iran, very far away. But our hearts are very near together. In spite, you are Jewish, with a different religion and culture, but you found me. Really, it's true and eternal. Thank you. (Stammers) (Laughs) I can't believe you wrote that. Please smile. OK, I'm smiling. Smile is very important in goodbye. Smile, not cry. (Sings in Persian) (Speaks Persian)

JUSTINE, VO: Mrs Torabi suggested that before leaving Tehran, Mateo and I visit a cemetery where you can literally see the human face of war. In the far south of the city in Tehran's largest cemetery, there's a huge area called the 'martyr's section'. This is where fallen soldiers from the Iran-Iraq War are buried. The Iran-Iraq War began in 1980 when Saddam Hussein invaded Iran. Half a million Iranian men and half a million Iraqi men were killed. Hundreds of thousands were wounded. (Speaks Persian)

(Man speaks Persian)

Mateo? JUSTINE, VO: Today's enemies were yesterday's partners. The United States and most of the world sided with Saddam Hussein, even though Saddam Hussein invaded Iran and then attacked with chemical weapons. After eight years of fighting and the loss of a generation of young men, the Iran-Iraq War ended in 1988 in a stalemate. The borders remained unchanged. Look, Iran is surrounded by 13 countries, and most of them have US military bases. Iraq, Kuwait, Afghanistan, Pakistan... Right. Qatar. Saudi Arabia. Oh, definitely. UAE. UAE. Turkey. Three US aircraft carriers in the Persian Gulf. All US military bases? Yep. All around. Oh, my God. Look. Oh, it's gone. It just flew. Wow! Out there, they're free moths. We have to let them go. All of them? All of them, so they have a better life out there. How do you know that? 'Cause if they're in the box, they're gonna not live for very long. If they go out there, they can find their own natural history. If they're here, they're gonna die. JUSTINE, VO: Dear Mateo. And just like that, we're home again, back to the same old routine, but never again the same. I wonder what stories, people, images from our summer in Tehran will stay with you as you grow up. How will you face the political conflicts of your day? My hope, Mateo, is that as you get older, you'll continue moving through this world just as you did in Iran - in wonder, rather than in fear. Closed Captions by CSI

Right. Favourite movies? Um... Fiona? Oh, it's got to be Titanic. Brilliant. Saw it about seven times. Oh, you're joking. Nearly as many times as me. You're so gay. So if you're Kate Winslet, who's your Leonardo?

No, seriously, lads, there's nobody. I'm very careful about that kind of thing these days. Well, at the same time, you should always keep your options open. Fiona, Mum sent me round. Dinner will be ready soon. Oh, great. I'll leave with you in a second. I can stay for a pint if you like. Um, I'll have an orange juice so. Thanks, Dermot. She takes it on the rocks, Dermot. Loads of ice. Very good. Clever. I swear to God, Alex, I'll kill you. THEME MUSIC

? Nothing I fear... Those flowers set off my hay fever, they'll have to go. No. I didn't sleep a wink. So the snoring was just for effect, then? I didn't get a deep sleep. Anyway, it's your fault. I keep having nightmares about your expansion plans. Oh, hear we go. Cathy. In fairness, we've only just got this place going. So we need a new challenge. The viewing's at six. If you want to come, you know where I'll be. God, you look awful. Insomnia. I suppose you don't suffer from it. No. Sleeping like a baby these days. PHONE RINGS Jesus. I haven't even had my morning coffee yet. Java Mocha Columbian. Is that the one? Morning. Mr and Mrs Quinn, is it? That's right, yeah. Mr Murray will see you now. That was your father's pride and joy. I gave it to him when he qualified. I don't know, Mum. I rarely wear one. Well, now might be a good time to start. Help you get organised. And I think there's a tie pin in here somewhere. Very handy... if I had a tie. Do you have to be so... So what? Well, exactly. Look, these are nice things. It's a shame to have them sitting in a drawer. Mum, you know what would be very useful for me right now? What? Money. Look, every time I give you money you fritter it away. When will you start earning a bit of your own? Well, that's why I need some now. To set something up. I've loads of ideas. I've just no capital to try them.

Well, when I really believe that you're serious about even one of them, I'll reconsider. So, you think Janie's actually getting worse? She found my credit card and took it on a shopping trip. At 13? How did she get away with that? The internet's a wonderful thing. Did you talk to her about it? I tried. She just cuts off. Even when I ground her, there's hardly a flicker. What about you, Rosie? I sat her down, told her how disappointed I was. I didn't make a song and dance about it. She knows. I think she's feeling too important. You know, she's suddenly become this special case.

You don't think she is? I think she's in a bad way. But she IS a teenager. Doing our heads in is part of her brief. So, if you ignore it, it might start to wear off? (SIGHS) Maybe. What about you, Liam? What do you think? It's very hard to be happy when you always want more. That's a dig at me. Not everything is about you. Nothing's about me. That's the problem. No, love. It's just that you don't seem to care. I care enough to be here.