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Warlords -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) favoured brand ahead of Holden.

While Commodore remains the

top-selling model in the

country. High fuel prices have

done little to slow the sales

of four-wheel drive or sport

utility vehicles. A decade

ago, SUVs accounted for 1 in

every 10 cars sold. Last year

it was 1 in 5. There has been

some shift towards light cars

and small cars overall, but

that said, four-wheel drives,

sport utility vehicles, they're

still selling strongly. There

were also more people than ever who wanted to get to the speed

limit a little faster in a

little more comfort. We're

talking about people here with

the income and the means to

afford motor cars that cost

over $200,000. I don't think

an interest rate rise really

impacts upon their purchasing

behaviour. At a time when high

performance, cost and comfort

would seem to have outranked efficiency the and

sustainability, the humble push

bike has outsold the car for

the eighth consecutive

year. Slight reduction in the

number of people using the car

to get to work. People are

buying more of everything, but

starting to use the bike more

than ever before. A record 1.5

million new bikes were

purchased last year. Now let's

take a look at the finance

figures.

Now let's take a look at

tomorrow's weather.

That's it from the ABC TV

newsroom for now. For news

through the night go to ABC

online and radio news on the

hour. Goodnight. Closed Captions by CSI

NARRATOR: On July 6, 1940, in Berlin, his victory in Europe. Adolf Hitler celebrated

'the greatest warlord in history'. His army chief called him From Moscow, Hitler's collaborator,

had sent his congratulations. the Russian leader Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill was isolated. In London, the British prime minister Franklin Roosevelt stood aloof. In Washington, the American president In the coming five years,

between these four men would change everything in the relationship in ways that seemed unimaginable. (Speaks German) a war of weapons... While their nations fought of the 20th century ..these four great warlords fought a war of the mind. MAN: What started as a European war for world domination. has developed into a war At the heart of this private war was a series of psychological duels charmed, flattered, in which they lied, schemed, and deceived to win. took place not between enemies, What was curious was that these duels were allies. but between men who, at the time, Yet their behaviour was egotistic, tempestuous, monstrous, glow in which some are seen today, and politically, despite the rosy always selfish. to persevere against them... We shall never cease The duels of the warlords the greatest battles in history. decided the strategies for of a seismic shift in world power. They were also the epicentre From the age of European empires opposed superpowers... to the age of two ideologically for hundreds of millions of people. ..with devastating consequences Obersalzberg in southern Germany. One of the world's loveliest places. It was here in August, 1939, the unthinkable. that Adolf Hitler was thinking on invading Poland, Hitler had set his heart attack before the autumn rains came. and his generals told him he must they would go to war for Poland. But Britain and France had said One thing stood in Hitler's way - would also turn against them the fear that Russia a war on two fronts. and propel him into imprinted in Hitler's mind This was the very thing the First World War 20 years before. as having helped to lose Germany There was only one way out - enemy, Joseph Stalin. a pact with his greatest ideological Hitler put out feelers to Moscow. Though he little realised it, a mental duel with Stalin, he was instigating which, over the next two years, of the Second World War. would decide the destiny of Hitler's approach. Stalin was deeply suspicious written 15 years before, He spent hours reading 'Mein Kampf', underlining key passages, of the Bolshevik leaders - like Hitler's views

men such as Stalin himself. of present-day Russia MAN: Never forget that the rulers are common, bloodstained criminals, that they are the scum of humanity. was now desperate for a deal, But Stalin could see that Hitler minister, Ribbentrop, to Moscow. and offering to send his foreign

he would go with Hitler. Stalin decided Goebbels, noted in his diary... Hitler's propaganda chief, Joseph MAN: 22 August, 1939. with Moscow perfect. Non-aggression pact

Ribbentrop in Moscow on Wednesday. That is something!

We're on top again. Now we can sleep more easily. Ribbentrop landed in Moscow. On August 23, of reassurance. But Hitler needed one piece Heinrich Hoffman, He sent his personal photographer, to film Stalin's earlobes ingrown and Jewish, to see whether they were or separate and Aryan. They were separate. Stalin passed Hitler's test. on August 24, 1939, Shortly after midnight the Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed, and with it, a secret protocol would carve Poland into two. under which Germany and Russia Hitler phoned Ribbentrop. MAN: This will hit like a bombshell. it was not strength, But as Goebbels noted, knifing him in the back but fear of Stalin into history's biggest U-turn. that had forced Hitler position of scrounging for favours, MAN: The Fuhrer believes he's in the and beggars can't be choosers.

the devil feeds on flies. In times of famine, Stalin proposed a toast. In the Kremlin, nation loves its Fuhrer. MAN: I know how much the German like to drink his health. I should therefore acting from fear But like Hitler, Stalin was also that Hitler would attack him. he told his inner circle... That evening, to see who can fool whom. MAN: Of course, it's all a game He thinks he's outsmarted me, it's I who's tricked him. but actually Stalin had found a bedfellow, a long and sneaking admiration. for whose cunning he had held Back in 1934, Stalin had observed Hitler eliminate his rivals within the Nazi Party Night of the Long Knives. in the so-called He remarked... what happened in Germany? MAN: Did you hear Some fellow, that Hitler! Splendid! That's a deed of some skill. Hitler had felt no such mutual admiration. In his early years in power, he was set on the dreams of 'Mein Kampf' - an alliance with Britain's sea empire while he expanded to the east and built his German land empire on the Continent. Only when that plan had clearly failed

did Hitler begin to see in Stalin someone he might do business with. Stalin was the first of the two to be a mass murderer. His terrors killed millions. He once compared his victims with the boyar landowners massacred by Ivan the Terrible 400 years before. MAN: Who's going to remember all this riff-raff in 10 or 20 years time? No-one! Who remembers the names now of the boyars Ivan the Terrible got rid of? No-one. A week before he invaded Poland, Hitler made an eerily similar remark to his generals. MAN: Genghis Khan had millions of men and women

killed by his own will, and with a gay heart. History sees him only as a great state builder. And who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians? For both men,

mass murder was just another weapon in the ideological struggle. The state, whether Communist or Nazi, was supreme. Individuals were its disposable tools. They even extended this idea to their domestic lives. Hitler had secret mistresses, most notably Eva Braun. But in public, no woman could come between him and his nation. One of his secretaries recalled that he emphasised again and again... MAN: My lover is Germany. Stalin did marry, twice, and had children.

But the suicide of his second wife, Nadya, in 1932 further brutalised him. Echoing Hitler, he told an associate... MAN: A true Bolshevik shouldn't and couldn't have a family because he should give himself wholly to the party. Stalin told his son, Vasily... MAN: I'm not Stalin! Stalin is Soviet power. Now, in August, 1939, these two great ideologically opposed warlords were inextricably linked. Eight days after the signing of the pact, Hitler invaded Poland.

Britain declared war. Winston Churchill rejoined the British cabinet. Stalin publicly supported his Nazi collaborator. He told the world... MAN: It is not Germany who has attacked England and France,

but England and France who have attacked Germany. The enslavement of Poland further united the two extreme proponents of totalitarian violence. S.S. units killed 60,000 Jews and members of the Polish ruling class. It was Hitler's first experience of mass murder, and profoundly influenced him. It showed him his followers would actually do it. Stalin's secret police, the NKVD, long-versed in mass killing, would carry out similar massacres in the east of Poland. Among their victims were more than

20,000 Polish officers and political prisoners, whose bodies would be discovered three years later.

As their secret police mutilated Poland, the two dictators faced their destinies hand in hand. Over the next two years, in a mind war unparalleled in world history, they would both become gripped by a series of delusions that would lead them into colossal error, and the bloodiest conflict there has ever been. with Hitler with open eyes. Stalin had entered his pact

he was supping with the devil. He never doubted would give the Soviet Union But he believed the pact both protection and opportunity.

the Nazis invaded Poland, Just a week after he told his inner circle... of capitalist countries. MAN: A war is on between two groups or desiring it, Hitler, without understanding it the capitalist system. is shaking and undermining against the other, We can manoeuvre, pit one side as fiercely as possible. to set them fighting with each other a further desirable outcome - Stalin was also eyeing up the chance to expand his Communist empire. MAN: What would be the harm if, as a result of the route of Poland, we were to extend the Socialist system onto new territories and populations? For Hitler, the pact also opened the door to conquest. He could now turn all his energy and attention to planning the invasion of France. Joseph Goebbels noted Hitler's hopes for a long-term collaboration with Stalin. MAN: 1 October, 1939. in private. Conference with the Fuhrer He is convinced of Russia's loyalty. to pocket a huge profit. After all, Stalin is set in Hitler. But Stalin saw no such loyalty 'Mein Kampf' was etched in his mind. Hitler's youthful ambitions Above all, for the new German Reich. to conquer Russian territory in Europe today, MAN: If we speak of territory only in mind Russia, we can primarily have and her vessel border states. might still one day turn on him, Because he calculated that Hitler a line of buffer zones Stalin set out to build against possible Nazi attack. to protect himself Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia - He forced the Baltic states - to accept Russian garrisons. He told the Latvian delegation...

an unexpected turn, MAN: There has been but one cannot rely upon it. We must be prepared in time. Others who were not prepared paid for it. The Germans might attack. Stalin also tried to bully Finland into giving him a swathe of territory as a further buffer. The Finns refused. Stalin invaded their country. It was a disaster. Russian corpses littered the snow. Within days, thousands of frozen Finally, the Finns were beaten,

125,000 Russian soldiers. but not before killing commissars Stalin sent in his political to shoot the Soviet commanders. But the real fault was his own. of the Red Army's best officers. His terror had got rid As Goebbels noted, Hitler yet more comfort. the Red Army's incompetence offered

MAN: 15 March, 1940. become dangerous for us. The Russians can never we won't need to do it. If Stalin shoots his own generals, but advantages So far, we've had nothing from our alliance with Russia. On May 10, 1940, secured by Stalin, Hitler, with his eastern front launched his Blitzkrieg to the west. France, Belgium and Holland. The German army sliced through from the Continent. The British were driven For Hitler, it was a triumph. For Stalin, a disaster. later Russia's prime minister, Nikita Khrushchev,

to Hitler's lightning victories. recalled Stalin's reaction MAN: I remember being with Stalin. He was extremely nervous. cursing like a cab driver. He was racing round,

he cursed the English. He cursed the French, to defeat them, to crush them? How could they allow Hitler of the German army, Stalin not only saw the superiority sensed our weakness he knew that the Germans with Finland. because of the war we had fought the French Government sued for peace. On June 17, 1940, destructive war The long-lasting and mutually of the Capitalist and Fascist states, anticipated, which Stalin had so gleefully was over in a trice.

celebrated in Munich The next day, as Hitler with Italian dictator Mussolini, Stalin, with gritted teeth, the Wehrmacht's splendid success. sent his congratulations on victory had lanced a boil. For Hitler, War had been avenged. Germany's defeat in the First World in his political life, Now, for the first time he wanted a rest from conquest, and reverting to his old instincts, peace with Britain. The Italian foreign minister, Count Galeazzo Ciano, was also in Munich, and observed Hitler's state of mind. MAN: Hitler makes many reservations the British Empire, on the desirability of dismantling which he considers even today in world equilibrium. to be an important factor who, having made the big win, Hitler is now like the gambler risking nothing more. would like to leave the table having won his victory in the west, But Stalin feared that Hitler, by his long-held ambition might immediately be tempted of expanding to the east. a hugely risky double strategy, Stalin now embarked on going on a 10-day land grab to expand and protect his empire, while also trying not to provoke Hitler. He occupied the Baltic states, and Bessarabia, the northern province of Romania. This was allowed under the Nazi-Soviet Pact. But he also decided to invade another Romanian province, Bukovina. It was not assigned to Stalin under the pact. Hitler's chief of staff, General Franz Halder, noted Hitler's alarm in his diary. MAN: 25 June, 1940. This issue of Bukovina raised by Russia is new,

and goes beyond our agreements with the Russians. At precisely this moment, a second, unexpected twist. Stalin's duel with Hitler took letter from Winston Churchill, The Soviet leader received his first who'd become British prime minister his Blitzkrieg. on the day Hitler launched

to beware of Hitler, It was an appeal to Stalin and come over to Britain's side. Stalin did not reply. Instead, to show Hitler his loyalty, approach to Berlin. he reported Churchill's his own interpretation Hitler now began to make of these two pieces of evidence.

and Churchill's approach. Stalin's rapacity in Romania, Before the war, his secrets of mental processes. Hitler had described to his adjutant works like a calculating machine. MAN: Bear in mind that my brain Each person who makes a presentation to me introduces into this calculating machine a small wheel of information. There forms a certain picture or a number on each wheel. I press a button, and there flashes into my mind the sum of all this information. Now the Hitler calculating machine began to build a conspiracy theory, which would have devastating consequences. On July 6, 1940, Hitler, the victor in Europe, to a hero's welcome. returned to Berlin shines all over the place. MAN: Our wonderful July sun fills the city. An unimaginable ecstasy The crowd roars. a great banqueting hall. The station looks like Then the Fuhrer arrives. A roar of joy fills the station. General Keitel, On this day, Hitler's army chief, called him 'the greatest warlord in history'. But amid his triumph, by one overriding thought. Hitler was increasingly tormented he had won the war. As far as he was concerned, So, why did the British not recognise that fact

and make peace with him? He began to convince himself that there must be some external factor that Britain, and Churchill, were relying on. A week after the day of glory in Berlin, General Halder recorded a momentous development in Hitler's reasoning.

MAN: 13 July, 1940. The Fuhrer is greatly puzzled by Britain's persistent unwillingness to make peace. He sees the answer in Britain's hope in Russia.

in a speech to the Reichstag, On July 19, 1940, for peace to Britain. Hitler made his final plea were not interested. Churchill and the British information from the United States Later that day, a further wheel of

entered Hitler's mind.

by the Democrat Party Franklin Roosevelt was nominated for the third time. to run for president an attack on Nazi aggression. His acceptance speech contained across the globe. Hitler was now seeing spectres MAN: 22 July, 1940. Fuhrer's view. of war by Britain. Reasons for continuation a change in America. One, it hopes for Two, it puts hope in Russia. Stalin is flirting with Britain to keep her in the war, and tie us down. Hitler retreated to the mountains of Obersalzberg,

The delusion was building. Here, the summer before, he'd been dreaming up his pact with Stalin. Now he suspected him. At the end of July, he announced to his generals the result of weeks of agonised reflection. MAN: 31 July, 1940. 11:30. Berghof.

Fuhrer concludes Russia is the factor on which Britain is relying the most. Something must have happened in London. The British were completely down. Now they have perked up again. With Russia smashed, Britain's last hope would be shattered.

The sooner Russia is crushed, the better. If we were to start in May, 1941, we would have five months to finish the job.

It was as yet only an idea, but two enormous delusions - the first that he had already won the war, and the second, that some secret deal

was brewing between Britain and Russia - were leading Hitler down the road to catastrophe. The autumn of 1940 now brought four long months of frustration.

The RAF defeated the Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain,

plans for a cross-Channel invasion were quietly shelved.

Yet despite these setbacks, Hitler kidded himself that he'd done enough. MAN: 15 October, 1940.

Fuhrer on military situation. War is won. Rest is mere question of time. But Hitler still could not force the British to come to terms. And he had become split-minded about Russia, moving troops nearer her borders, but also wanting Stalin to join him in the fight against Britain. Hitler's adjutant, Major Gerhard Engel, noted in his diary... MAN: 4 November, 1940. Fuhrer visibly depressed. He conveys the impression that at the moment,

he does not know how things should proceed. Then came the defining moment. On November 12, 1940, the Russian foreign minister, Vyachelslav Molotov,

arrived in Berlin at Hitler's invitation. Molotov was given the full Nazi fanfare, but the conversations that followed were tense. Hitler's purpose in summoning Molotov was to offer Russia a share in the spoils of victory if it helped him finish off the British. He told him... MAN: England's final capitulation is just a matter of time. Fragments of its empire will be left all over the world. It's time to think about division of this property without a master after our victory. But Stalin wasn't interested in joining Hitler's war, or speculative carve-ups of the British Empire. His instructions to Molotov were to find out what Hitler's troops were up to in Finland and Romania, places right on his doorstep. Molotov put the questions bluntly. Hitler gave vague reassurances. Despite the superficial courtesies, Molotov's cold arrogance, and his needling on the question of territory in Eastern Europe infuriated Hitler, and it reinvigorated him. MAN: 15 November, 1940. The talks had shown where the Russian plans were heading. Molotov had let the cat out of the bag. Fuhrer was really relieved. It would not even remain a marriage of convenience. When Molotov reported back to Moscow on the talks in Berlin, Stalin realised that Hitler was turning against him. In early December, he told his generals...

MAN: We know that Hitler is intoxicated by his victories, and believes that the Red Army will need at least four years to prepare for war. Obviously four years would be more than enough for us, but we must be ready much earlier. We will try to delay the war for another two years. But Hitler was moving at a pace Stalin could not imagine. On December 18, 1940, he issued War Directive No. 23. MAN: The German Wehrmacht must be prepared before the ending of the war against England to crush Soviet Russia in a rapid campaign.

The invasion date was set for May, 1941. But behind the order lay uncertainty. MAN: 18 December, 1940. I'm convinced that the Fuhrer himself does not know how it will turn out. He's very concerned at the lack of clarity as regards the strength of the Russians. Hopes for an English surrender. Does not think America will enter the war. Hitler had finally made the momentous decision - a war on two fronts. The very thing he'd sought to avoid when he'd first made his pact with Stalin. But he'd deluded himself that one front, Britain, was already won. It simply required a knock-out blow against Russia for the British to understand their defeat. Hitler's line of reasoning never began to occur to Stalin. He believed that Hitler either had to beat Churchill, or make a deal with him, before he could think of turning against Russia. In early 1941, he told Politburo members... MAN: We must cherish no illusions.

Fascist Germany is clearly preparing for an attack on the Soviet Union. Why does Hitler want to make an agreement with England? Because he wants to avoid war on two fronts.

Stalin was trusting Hitler to act rationally...

..and to fight Britain and Russia at the same time was clearly irrational. But Stalin failed to realise that despite their similarities,

there was one profound difference between him and Hitler, which made his perfect logic irrelevant. He himself was a methodical, calculating, hard-working man, a master of detail, personally signing death lists at one extreme, and at the other, keeping the tiniest details of gold production in his notebook. Hitler, by contrast, was at heart an idle dreamer. He once described why he'd loved the mountains of Obersalzberg. MAN: When I go to Obersalzberg, I am not drawn there merely by the beauty of the landscape. I feel myself far from petty things. My imagination is stimulated. When I study a problem elsewhere, I see it less clearly. I'm submerged by the details. By night at the Berghof, I often remain for hours with my eyes open, contemplating from my bed mountains lit up by the moon. It's at such moments that brightness enters my mind. For Hitler, the big idea was never to be interrupted by small facts, and having made up his mind to attack Russia for tactical reasons, the original and biggest idea of all was reasserting itself. The ideological struggle against Jews and Bolsheviks. Throughout 1940, Hitler had hardly mentioned the Jews. But on January 30, 1941, in his traditional speech

marking the anniversary of the Nazi's rise to power, he repeated a chilling threat he'd first made before war broke out. At a series of conferences with his generals in the spring of 1941, Hitler made his aims brutally clear. MAN: 3 March, 1941. The forthcoming campaign will lead to a showdown between two different ideologies. The Jewish Bolshevik intelligentsia must be eliminated. 30 March. We must forget the concept of comradeship between soldiers. This is a war of extermination. While Hitler planned his annihilation, Stalin still believed he had at least a year to prepare. On April 13, 1941, he moved to protect his back, signing a pact with Hitler's ally, Japan. Stalin was thrilled with this coup, and got happily tipsy with the Japanese foreign minister, Matsuoka. But he was still following his double strategy. As he said goodbye to Matsuoka, the German military attache in Moscow was present. Stalin told him... MAN: We must remain friends, and we must now do everything to that end. We will stay friends with you whatever happens. But Stalin knew such long-termfriendship was a fantasy. Soon after, he told graduates of Moscow's military academy... MAN: There will be war, and the enemy will be Germany. But that war would not happen yet. Up until this point, Stalin's reasoning was irreproachable. He'd foreseen the eventual conflict with Germany, and was steadily preparing for it. But a bizarre twist would now propel him into his own huge delusion. In April, 1941, Stalin received his second letter from Winston Churchill. Like the first, it would have an electrifying effect on his duel with Hitler. Churchill told him the British had receive intelligence reports of German troop movements which could only be preparations for a Nazi attack on Russia. Stalin was instantly suspicious, not of Hitler, but of Churchill. He told his army chiefs... MAN: Britain is threatening us with the Germans, and threatening the Germans with the Soviet Union. They're playing us off against each other. Then on May 10, 1941, in one of the war's strangest moments, Hitler's deputy, Rudolf Hess, took off from Germany in a Messerschmitt fighter, flew across the North Sea, and parachuted to the ground in Scotland. At that time, Stalin's assistant, present at his key meetings, was Yuri Chadayev, who noted down and later typed up everything Stalin said. From Chadayev's secret unpublished record, it is possible to piece together how Churchill's message and Hess's flight began to lead Stalin towards a conspiracy theory, which would have immensely destructive consequences for his country. Three days after Hess landed, Chadayev recorded the interpretation Stalin gave of these two events. MAN: On the one hand,

Churchill sends us a personal message in which he warns us about Hitler's aggressive intentions, and on the other hand, the British meet Hess, who is undoubtedly Hitler's confidante. What is the conclusion, then? Apparently, when Churchill sent us his personal warning, he believed that we would activate our military machine, then Hitler would have direct and fair reason to launch a preventive crusade against the Soviet Union. In Stalin's eyes,

Churchill's warning was deliberately designed to provoke a war between Germany and Russia. And Churchill was meeting Hess to tell Germany it should strike first. As he brooded on this idea, Stalin concluded that Churchill was not the only provocateur. On June 5, he told his military chiefs...

MAN: England, France and America see in Germany the only hope to get rid of Bolshevism, and therefore help the Nazis in all possible ways in their crusade to the east. This deduction - that the Democratic nations of Europe and America were ganging up on him - became a blinding article of faith.

Throughout May and June, intelligence reports gave warning after warning of imminent German attack. Stalin dismissed every one of them as part of the great conspiracy to provoke him. On June 12, he told his generals... MAN: I am certain that Hitler will not risk creating a second front by attacking the Soviet Union. Hitler is not such an idiot. Millions of German troops gathered within striking distance of Russia's borders. Operation Barbarossa, as it was now called, was scheduled for 10 days time - June 22. The duel between Hitler and Stalin was reaching its endgame. Hitler convinced himself he was fulfilling his destiny. On June 16, 1941, with six days to go, he told Goebbels... MAN: That which we have spent our lives fighting, we will now annihilate. Whether right or wrong, we must win,

and when we have won, who will ask about the method?

in the Luftwaffe That day, a Soviet spy of imminent German attack. sent yet another warning Stalin retorted... of the German air force MAN: Tell the source in the staff

to (BLEEP) his mother. On June 18, Zhukov and Timoshenko, Stalin's two top generals, pleaded with him for a full alert. that Hitler could not attack Stalin reminded them a deal with Britain. without first doing MAN: You have to realise that on their own. Germany will never fight Russia

You must understand this.

Hitler chose his fanfare for victory. On June 20, two days to go, 'Les Preludes'. A passage from Liszt's symphonic poem 'LES PRELUDES' PLAYS to see it coming, Though Stalin still refused to his closest associates it was now apparent that the Nazis were on their way. On June 21, was in Moscow. one of them, Georgi Dimitrov, are multiplying on all sides. MAN: Rumours of an impending attack Have to be on guard. Called Molotov this morning. Molotov says the situation is unclear. There is a major game underway. On June 22, had once invaded Russia, the same day Napoleon Hitler followed in his footsteps. MAN: At 3:30am, the attack begins. in world history. The greatest deployment from a bad dream The Fuhrer is as if released to the decisive moment. the nearer we get seems to disappear. All his tiredness into his thoughts. I'm given a deep insight We have no option, but to attack. must be cauterised. This cancerous abscess Stalin will fall. summoned to the Kremlin. MAN: At 7am, I was urgently Germany has attacked the USSR. The war has begun. Stalin to me, declaring any grievances, "They attacked us without "without demanding any negotiations. like gangsters." "They attacked us viciously, Stalin's great conspiracy theory - that the Democracies were plotting to provoke him - was shattered. His misreading of Hitler, the man he'd viewed as a rational strategist, was totalled. Hitler had completed an extraordinary mental journey. A year before, he had seen the invasion as a tactic to make Britain crumble. set out 20 years before Now the ideology with which he had had once again taken pride of place. Benito Mussolini... He wrote to his Italian ally Duce. MAN: Let me say one more thing, to this decision, Since I struggled through I again feel spiritually free. Union was often very irksome to me, The partnership with the Soviet it seemed to me to be a break for in some way or other, and my former obligations. with my whole origin, my concepts, of these mental agonies. I am happy now to be relieved cleansed Hitler, While Operation Barbarossa it only shocked and depressed Stalin. at Hitler and at his own generals, His fury was directed equally insisted upon by Stalin himself, whose positioning of their forces, had allowed the Germans to smash through Russian defences. MAN: This is a monstrous crime. Those responsible must lose their heads. NKVD units were sent to the front to arrest the guilty men. The commander, General Pavlov, was shot. Five days later, Stalin remarked... MAN: Lenin founded our state, and we've (BLEEP) it up. The Red Army, taken by surprise to allow it to prepare, because Stalin had refused was in headlong retreat.

Two weeks after the invasion, General Halder noted in his diary... MAN: 3 July, 1941. no overstatement to say It is probably won in the space of two weeks. that the Russian campaign has been the war on its head, Militarily, Barbarossa turned and his experience with Hitler

on Stalin. also had a vital psychological effect He later remarked... to make a decision, MAN: When you're trying the mind of the other person, never put yourself into a terrible mistake. because if you do, you can make

Hitler had outwitted him. Stalin had lost the mind game. the eventual loser. But Hitler would be His decision to attack Russia of his own dreams of empire, signed the death warrant and of European imperialism in general. And it would create an unlikely coalition of three ideologically opposed warlords to fight him. But the relationship between the two great Democrats in that coalition began with another mental duel, the duel of the dictators. which ran in parallel with with mutual suspicions, It too was riddled false promises and evasion. the destiny of the world. It too would shape Closed Captions by CSI * TRANSMITTING BEEPS BAND PLAYS