Note: Where available, the PDF/Word icon below is provided to view the complete and fully formatted document
Disclaimer: The Parliamentary Library does not warrant the accuracy of closed captions. These are derived automatically from the broadcaster's signal.
The House Of Windsor: A Royal Dynasty -

View in ParlView

(generated from captions) Using a palette on a very long stick, from the oven carefully the baker takes the bread

so as not to burn himself. And there we have it. Beautiful, golden bread nourishing and healthy. in a farmer's field. And it all began with an ear of wheat

Closed Captions by CSI

*

*

famous family in the world. 'This is the story of the most still working, monarchy. The longest living, Its kings and queens... ..its wise rulers, and its foolish ones. and their tragic lives. Its beautiful princesses,

stronger with age. The queens who grew The dedicated princes, always straight and true. and young men who were and monarchy redeemed. The story of monarchy in peril The story of the Windsors.

with this man, George V, The Windsor dynasty began to do the unthinkable who in 1917 would be obliged the German-sounding Saxe-Coburg Gotha and change the royal name from to the very English Windsor. that had stood on a hill Named after the famous castle for nearly 1,000 years. 20 miles from London his wife Queen Mary King George V and became the first Windsors,

and eventful reign. and this is the story of their long in Victorian Britain, Our story begins Albert, died of pneumonia. when in 1892, George's older brother,

his late brother's fiancee, A year later, George married Princess Mary of Teck, of a German prince. the English-born daughter

would become a love match, Their marriage of convenience whose long reign was nearing its end, and soon Victoria, great-grandson, Prince Edward. would be posing with another

a further five children - George and Mary would produce and the baby, Prince John. Bertie, Henry, George and Mary, He died of epilepsy, age 14. finally stopped. In 1901, the old Queen's heart just 18 years old, She'd come to the throne in 1837, the awe-inspiring matriarch and mature into who ruled a great empire. its mark on the nation. Her severe moral code had left became King Edward VII. At the age of 59, George's father in 1902, On the day of his coronation, the air tingles with expectation. was the polar opposite of his mother. Everyone knew that Edward

and extravagant lifestyle. He enjoyed a flamboyant tolerated his philandering. His wife Alexandra had always great joys were his mistresses, Even in late middle age, Edward's birds on the wing.' and the chance to shoot

above all else, NEWSREEL: 'Edward VII was, an English gentleman. Here, in his lovely Norfolk home, the surroundings he loved best we see him amongst and a gun under his arm. with a dog at his heels English Royal Family as a family, These intimate scenes show the and form a pleasing contrast at home amongst friends, to the more usual scenes of royalty, and dignity of kingship.' amid all the splendour

# Happy days are here again # The skies above are clear again # Let us sing a song of cheer again # Happy days are here again... welcomed the relaxed standards 'Britain's upper classes Edward VII brought to his reign. introduce the idea Edward's reign would that pleasure was a good thing. for everyone.' One long, Edwardian summer # Happy days are here again are gone. # # Your cares and troubles was about to close. 'But the Edwardian era

with rich food and tobacco. The King had punished his body Edward VII died in 1910, aged 68. fun-loving monarch, The nation mourned their merry, remarkably peaceful.' whose reign had been died on May 6, 1910 NEWSREEL: 'That great monarch

in the tenth year of his reign. by eight foreign sovereigns, The coffin was followed walked the Duke of Connaught, and behind the gun carriage and King Edward, King George, the then Kaiser, then a very youthful prince.' peace treaties 'The late King had secured

with several European governments,

as the Uncle of Europe. and had been known affectionately new king, George V, That night, the grief-stricken would write in his diary, and best of fathers."' "I have lost my best friend NEWSREEL: 'But of all the spectacle, of the King's dog Caesar, perhaps the appearance and moving sight.' was the most poignant

George was crowned king, 'A year later, with his shy wife, Mary, his queen. could be intimidating - Yet Mary's statuesque bearing

especially those towering hats.' Where did you get that tile? # Where did you get that hat? And just the proper style # Isn't it a nobby one

Just the same as that # I should like to have one where did you go that hat?" # # Wherever I go they shout, "Hello, Prince Edward, 'George and Mary's older son, to naval college, age 13. would be sent like his father and his grandfather. He was following a royal tradition, to Dartmouth Naval College. Young Edward later went on despite his royal blood. He'd be be bullied by the older boys Edward never took to the navy. between father and son. This would create an early tension were Victorian parents, George and Mary

were starved of affection. and their children his heir, Edward, Prince of Wales. In 1911, George decided to make

and ostentatious ceremony. The investiture was an elaborate when he saw his medieval costume. The 17-year-old prince was aghast at Dartmouth would see him He knew that his classmates in that humiliating outfit, of the cinema newsreel. thanks to the invention 1911 was a good year for pageantry, his mark as a monarch. as George strove to make to choose than Delhi, And what better place to be crowned Emperor of India, where he became the first king in a magnificent ceremony. honoured the event The great English composer Elgar

Of The Mughal Emperors, with his March marching maharajas.' inspired by all those MARCHING MUSIC

when it was all over, 'But George was relieved and he and Mary were back in England by a village green. in a cool pavilion

This was the lost Britain that George and Mary still believed in. A pastoral utopia where manly boys escorted innocent maidens. But the world was changing and women like these had launched a war of the sexes. Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst, mother and daughter, had founded the suffragette movement

which campaigned for women's right to the vote. They demonstrated in parliament and when they were thrown out, demonstrated outside. The controversy would directly affect the Royal Family when George and Mary went to the country's greatest horse race, the Derby, to watch their horse run. The race began smoothly enough. But then, as the horses reached Tattenham Corner,

a young woman walked out onto the track. Suddenly, and with deadly timing, she threw herself under the hooves of the king's own horse. The shocked monarch would discover later that the dead woman was Emily Davison, a young suffragette, who'd sacrificed herself for the cause. Even though George detested what the suffragettes stood for he was deeply upset.

Emily Davison's funeral became a recruitment banner. The suffragettes had their first martyr.' CHURCH BELL TOLLS 'But the war between the sexes would be replaced by something much worse. It is August 1914 and George rides out at the head of a cavalry battalion. As monarch he is head of Britain's armed forces. But it's a distinction that weighs heavily. The threat of war with Germany continues to haunt the King.

Germany's absolute ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm, is his cousin and many other relatives are German aristocrats. If war comes, it will be a family feud on a terrible scale.

No one had fought a war like this before with such lethal firepower on both sides. The only way forward for those poor foot soldiers was to charge enemy lines. Those who weren't killed were maimed or wounded.' # The Soldiers Of The King 'George led a recruiting drive to replace all those lost men.

It saddened him  and Mary even more. She wore mourning black when the news was bad  and it was often bad.' SONG CONTINUES 'Yet popular opinion still favoured the war and young men continued to volunteer. On the Western Front in France, George was visiting British troops

accompanied by his son Prince Edward, who'd joined the army in 1914, just 20 years old. He wanted to share the thrills and terrors of the battlefield with other soldiers but was not allowed to fight because he was the future king.' SONG CONTINUES

'Edward envied his younger brother Bertie who was serving on the cruiser Cumberland.' # Brother Bertie went away # To do his bit the other day... 'Bertie saw spectacular action in the Battle of Jutland.' NEWSREEL: 'On 31st May 1916, the two fleets met in the historic battle of Jutland. Here the British battleships are firing salvos. The young duke went through this battle in the A turret of a Collingwood. Within the armour plated depths of such a turret as this the young duke and some 40 companions

operated the complicated mechanism of modern fire control. The mightiest fleets the seas of the world had ever seen were joined in mortal conflict off the Danish coast for over 12 hours.' 'He commanded his gun crew with distinction and was mentioned in dispatches. However, shortly after the battle he was sent home on sick leave.

On the home front, Queen Mary set out to raise the spirits of ordinary folk.

The war had forced Mary to emerge from her shy reserve. She engaged with people in a new way.' # ..old thing, cheer-i-o, chin chin, # Nah-poo, toodle-oo, goodbye-ee. # 'Throughout the war years George and Mary had been living on a limited diet as an example to their ration-hit subjects. The royal couple were visiting a market garden which was sending all its produce to servicemen overseas. It was one way ordinary citizens could help the war effort. A thousand miles away in Russia there was disturbing news.

A royal dynasty thought to be one of the world's most secure was in real peril. The communist firebrand, Lenin, had lit the torch of revolution and armed rebels had taken over the Winter Palace in St Petersburg. The Royal Family, including George's cousin, Czar Nicholas, were under house arrest. George feared that the revolution would spread. It had certainly reached Germany. George's German cousin Kaiser Wilhelm who'd been in charge of all military operations, was sacked by his own generals. It was 1917 and the old aristocratic world had begun to fall apart. George seemed to be ageing under the strain of war. He'd demonstrated his loyalty to his land and his people, and to the troops fighting in his name. But as a fever of anti-war feeling ran through the country, all German-owned shops were attacked and there were spiteful rumours printed in the press that George was "a German alien". "I may be dull," the king was reported to have said, "but I'm no bloody alien." As German Gotha bombers rained destruction on London,

George agreed that the Royal Family's name of three generations - Saxe-Coburg Gotha - would have to go. George summoned his advisors to a crisis meeting at Windsor Castle. It was here that George's private secretary said, "Look around you, sire, at this ancient castle."

George agreed that 'Windsor' should be the new royal name.

The House of Windsor was born.' # Over there, over there # Send the word, send the word over there # That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming... 'By 1918, however, the war was on the turn.' # Send the word, send the word to beware

# We'll be over, we're coming over # And we won't come till it's over over there. # 'The American intervention had tipped the scales. It was finally over - the war between nations whose heads of state were all cousins.' # When the war is over, Mother dear # When the band all play...

'Back in London, crowds headed for the palace to salute George and Mary, the first Windsors.' # ..people cheer # And the boys come marching through the dear home town # The joy bells ringing gaily... 'The joy would not last. In the cities and towns men without jobs marched through the streets demanding what the politicians had promised -

a land fit for heroes - while their children scavenged for scraps.'

# When the war is over, Mother dear. # 'The King and Queen, keenly aware that peacetime had brought a different kind of misery, set out on a tour of Britain designed to lift the country's spirit. In Wales, George even awarded some postwar medals. At last in peacetime, Edward, the Prince of Wales, was given a role. It was decided that the charismatic and popular prince should become a roving ambassador,

dispatched to the far-flung corners of the Empire to strengthen colonial ties. First stop - Canada.' NEWSREEL: 'One thing which immediately endeared the Prince to both English and French elements of the population was his plea to be regarded as a Canadian, if not actually by birth, yet certainly in mind and spirit. At Toronto, as with Quebec, the Prince was greeted with the warmest enthusiasm. It's recorded that with 40,000 people looking on he sprinted after a wounded soldier's cap, which a high wind had blown off, brought it back and placed it on the man's head. Our Canadian cousins developed such a vigorous handshake, that soon after these pictures were taken, the Prince's right hand was put out of action.' 'In spring 1920, Edward was off again for another Empire tour, this time sailing on the battleship Renown.' NEWSREEL: 'After experiencing rough weather, the Renown eventually reached Auckland, New Zealand. While inspecting the guard of honour on the quayside,

the Prince actually recognised an NCO he had met in France. With a list of strenuous engagements to fulfil,

the Prince applied himself to the tasks so energetically that according to chronicles of the tour he could have had little time for sleep. The warmth of his reception temporarily robbed him

of the use of his right hand. But that didn't prevent him greeting these veterans with his left.

A year later the Prince visited India and his arrival in Calcutta was the signal for further great demonstrations of loyalty in keeping with the pomp and splendour of the East. But the people were no more delighted than the Prince himself

and a record of the occasion says that even the horses seemed pleased.' 'While Edward wowed the masses on the other side of the world, back in Britain his sister Princess Mary was organising projects to help British servicemen

who'd suffered during the war. She had kept in touch with some of the veterans. Today, she was startled by a vigorous display of artificial limbs.

In fact, 1922 would be a memorable year for Princess Mary.

She married Viscount Lascelles, a war hero. As the royal couple joined the bride and groom on the palace balcony, the Queen seemed to be looking for the film cameras. We would soon discover why. She'd asked to see all the newsreel footage of her daughter's wedding. A famous traditionalist was putting the royal seal of approval on that modern medium, the cinema. But her husband, the King, was distracted by armed rebellion in Ireland. There had been periodic eruptions for years and now resistance was toughening. The British government had decided to fight rebellion with terror. They sent in a hit squad known as the Black and Tans whose indiscriminate killing would swing the Irish to the rebels' cause. When it became obvious that Catholic Ireland was about to win independence, Protestants in the north became alarmed. They protested in front of parliament. The King made a special visit to Belfast in the heart of Ulster with the Queen alongside, to reassure Irish Protestants that they would not be abandoned. But while King George pursued the paths of peace, his son Edward was pursuing the paths of pleasure - hunting foxes. As ever he was easily distracted by a pretty face.

Meanwhile, his younger brother, the Duke of York's long pursuit of a Scottish lass had ended happily. He'd just announced his engagement to Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, a vivacious beauty. The year was 1923, it was springtime - the time for weddings.'

CROWD CHEERS AND APPLAUDS 'Bertie had fallen for his lovely bride Elizabeth at first sight. She'd kept him waiting but had finally said yes. The King and Queen were enchanted by their new daughter-in-law who was reassuringly old-fashioned and determined. Her confidence would help Bertie to master his shyness. Edward, who'd been best man at his brother's wedding,

was now performing the same role

at the marriage of his friend, Louis Mountbatten. That family too had made a name change in 1917, from their old German name of Battenberg. But now people were wondering why Edward was always the best man, never the bridegroom. But Edward was not yet ready for marriage as he would demonstrate on yet another tour of the New World.'

NEWSREEL: 'In 1924, the Prince of Wales visited the United States in the Berengaria. All the American newspapers visited him too. They besieged him on the boat and pursued him everywhere, complete with straw hats and cameras. This was his second visit to the North American continent and memories of the previous hospitality he had received assured a happy stay.' 'On this side of the Atlantic where standards were more relaxed, Edward would delight in the company of other men's wives. No virgins, no betrothals, no problems.' NEWSREEL: 'With true American aptness the people described him as the Prince of Goodfellas. At San Diego, California, the welcoming crowds were almost the biggest ever seen. There his Royal Highness was able to indulge his fondness for surf-riding, one of the many items in a busy programme which the people of San Diego had devised.

And if it wasn't the surfboard it was the added thrills of the surf boat. For two months the Prince enjoyed his holiday. He must have thought deeply on the truly wonderful kindness

and open-hearted cordiality shown by our American cousins.' 'Women fought for the chance to dance with such a handsome prince,

as one of them recalled.' Is the Prince of Wales a good dancer? Oh, I should say he is a good dancer. He's a perfectly wonderful dancer. I was so thrilled. He was just awfully nice and,

and before I met him of course I was scared to death. I didn't know what I was going to say. But he's so perfectly natural.

It just seemed like dancing with anybody else and you talked and you didn't talk about anything particular and a little bit of everything and it was loads of fun, that's all.

'Everywhere he went he was hailed as the perfect model of a modern prince, a master of style and that rare thing, a royal ambassador with a common touch. In Canada he was introduced to what was then called a Red Indian tribe and he did something that would have horrified his father - donning the headdress of an Indian chief with the enthusiasm of a small boy. Canada, like the United States, not only welcomed its Prince Charming, it swallowed him up. In the land of the free he was not adored from a distance, as he was in Europe. He was a captive of fame who belonged to everybody, and was beginning to show the strain.

Meanwhile, his stay-at-home father King George V, now aged 60, was delighting his subjects as he celebrated his official birthday riding a magnificent white stallion

as he led the traditional Trooping the Colour ceremony.' MARCHING BAND MUSIC 'George was in his element, observing an ancient tradition - inspecting the soldiers of the King. George, always slow to embrace the new, had finally realised the power of radio which would allow him to reach out to all his subjects. The speech with which he opened the British Empire Exhibition in 1925

was heard by millions - when reception permitted.'

(INDISTINCT) I've come here today with the Queen... 'Later, the King and Queen strolled across to the amusement park with George sporting a dove-grey bowler hat that was positively risque by his standards. Despite his natural conservatism and love of tradition, George was beginning to recognise what his father Edward VII had sensed from the first -

that in order to survive, the monarchy must not just accept change, it must learn to embrace it. The year would end sadly.

On 20th November, 1925, Queen Alexandra, the Queen Mother,

died at Sandringham House in Norfolk. It was traditionally the monarch's country home. But George had let his mother stay on after her husband's death. She'd stayed for 15 years. Now George was leading the long line of mourners for a queen with a famously tender heart. George had been her favourite child.

But for now her loving son, the King, would have to conceal his grief. Yet the gloom was soon banished by the news that Bertie and his wife had produced a first baby called Elizabeth.

She would be left behind with her nanny as her parents, the Duke and Duchess of York, set off on their world tour which would take them to Australia and beyond.

Bertie and Elizabeth were becoming increasingly popular.' # Hurry to my blue heaven... NEWSREEL: 'All New Zealand seemed to be taking part to the welcome to Their Majesties when they arrived. And one of their most interesting experiences was when they watched native Maori dancers.' DRUM BEATS # Turn to the right, # And a little white light

# Will lead you to my blue heaven # You'll see a smiling face # A fireplace, a cosy room # And a little nest that's nestled where the roses bloom # Just Molly and me

# The little baby makes three

# And we're happy in my blue heaven... 'With their children undertaking more royal duties themselves, the King and Queen could relax and enjoy the British summer. They had a regular date with the Tennis Championship at Wimbledon. Mary was a passionate fan and never missed a big match, especially when Britain's finest player Fred Perry was on court. George was happier at Lords Cricket Ground meeting the teams in the Gentlemen versus Players match. Every August, George and Mary took the royal yacht to Cowes on the Isle of Wight for their holiday break.' # ..call and the evening is nigh # I hurry to my blue heaven

'Later, with his hand on the tiller, George would carve himself a bit of paradise.' # There's a little white light # Will lead you to my blue heaven. # 'There were dark clouds ahead however, for as the decade ended, George's health took a dangerous turn. He was driven to his holiday home in Bognor,

a resort town on the South Coast

where his doctors hoped he'd recover from a lung infection. For weeks, Mary nursed him herself. As his condition worsened, crowds gathered outside Buckingham Palace.

Meanwhile, Prince Edward was touring Africa  partly to keep him out of George's sight. The King was furious about his womanising

and his habit of reporting sick for the more boring assignments. He wasn't ill for this one on the Gold Coast. Nor when there were charming young ladies to keep him company. The Prince was in Kenya

when word reached him that his father was close to death. But Edward was having a fling with a colonial officer's wife and declined to leave until he was recalled by the Palace. When the prodigal son returned, a small miracle had taken place. George had recovered completely. Back in London he rode through ecstatic crowds with his devoted Mary. His doctors said it was the Queen who'd saved him. Bertie and his wife, with five-year-old Princess Elizabeth, now had a second daughter  the baby, Princess Margaret Rose. The progress of the two sisters would be followed by a public hungry for royal titbits. After all, their grandfather was the King.' NEWSREEL: 'There is a newcomer to our story. The scene is Olympia, 1931, and Princess Elizabeth evidently inherits her parents' love for the horse. Foundation stones are as numerous on the pages of the engagement books of royalty as daisies in springtime. This one is being laid at St Mary's Hospital, Paddington. Well and truly laid, your Royal Highness. A much less serious occasion is the St James' Palace Garden Party.'

'But the King was feeling anxious about his empire once again. Just when he'd recovered his health and the sun seemed to be shining on everything royal, menacing storms were blowing in from the east.' # Don't know why # There's no sun up in the sky Stormy weather # Since my gal and I ain't together # It's rainin' all the time # Life is bare, gloom and misery everywhere # Stormy weather # Just can't get my poor self together # It's rainin' all the time. # 'Night club crooners might sing about their breaking hearts, but how could that compare with the breaking up of a great empire whose beating heart had always been India, the land his grandmother, Queen Victoria, had called "the jewel in the crown"? Now the leader of India's independence movement - Mahatma Gandhi - a mixture of holy man and clever politician, was in London to discuss the future of British rule in his country. It worried George.' # Let's do the breakaway # Get hot and shake away # You'll do the breakaway by and by. # 'He believed that if India was lost the Empire would fall apart. That's why he seized the chance to broadcast a Christmas message in the early 1930s to all his subjects in every corner of the Empire.'

Through one of the marvels of modern science I am enabled this day to speak to all my peoples throughout the Empire. My life's aim has been to serve. Your loyalty, your confidence in me

has been my abundant reward. I speak now from my home and from my heart to you all. To men and women so cut off by the snow, the desert or the sea,

that only voices out of the air can reach them. To all, to each, God bless you.

'He saw himself as father to this community of nations. Some distinguished Britons opposed this view 

among them the composer Sir Edward Elgar, who protested vehemently when his famous march was turned into a song - Land Of Hope And Glory that glorified imperial power.' Good morning gentlemen. (ALL GREET) Glad to see you all. Do play this tune as though you've never heard it before. Are you all ready? # Land Of Hope And Glory 'Elgar was one of those modern liberals who admired the Royal Family and especially the King, but who believed that it was time that Britain relinquished its empire.

Right now the King was less worried about his empire than about a domestic crisis. In 1931, during a tour of Scotland, he was summoned back to London to sort out a political stalemate. The general election had produced a hung parliament with no party winning a clear majority. It was the monarch's constitutional right to solve such a dilemma

by choosing the prime minister. In the end the King asked the Labour prime minister, Ramsay MacDonald, to lead a new 3-party national government. The King was praised for his statesmanship. But by now he was seriously worried about the moral character of his son and heir, Edward, who had formed a dangerous alliance with his even wilder young brother, Prince George. The pair were currently causing a sensation in Argentina.'

We're going over to the oil fields from there? So I believe. Hopefully you'll open the exhibition in Buenos Aires. I'm sure that'll be most impressive. NEWSREEL: 'What an amazing constitution the Prince of Wales must have. In one day alone he carried out no fewer than six ceremonies with a change of dress for each occasion. Here he is accompanied by Prince George arriving at a garden party in Buenos Aires where he shook hands with over 500 people. And there's the famous boater which he has made so popular.

His duties done with but a few hours of daylight left, he dashes to the nearest aerodrome where his own plane awaits to fly him to the country to keep a dinner appointment. Poor Prince. What a life!' # Now ain't she sweet? # See her coming down the street # Now I ask you very confidentially Ain't she sweet? 'They both went on to Sweden where the lovely Swedish Princess Ingrid was being linked romantically to either Edward or George. But which one does the Princess fancy? The Swedish air is thick with the buzz of royal gossip. In fact, Edward's there to open a golf course and demonstrates a classically correct swing. But what's he whispering into his brother's ear? Possibly, "Ingrid's all yours, Brother," because Edward has a very different agenda. As only his close friends knew, this woman had entered his life.'

# Now ain't she sweet? See her coming down the street. # 'In 1930 he'd been introduced to an American divorcee called Wallis Simpson. No one could have guessed then what a smouldering time bomb she would become although many  the King among them  recognised a much more dangerous time bomb smouldering away in Germany where Adolf Hitler was promising his crushed people a great new empire.'

GERMAN SONG 'But the price would be paid in blood and the remorseless persecution of a whole people - the Jews.' GERMAN SONG CONTINUES 'What a relief to be in Scotland for the Braemar Highland games

with King George baring his knees in public to the amusement of his adored grandchild, Princess Elizabeth. Queen Mary looked on with approval.' NEWSREEL: 'Oh, here's the King and Queen and here's the Duke and Duchess of York too. Oh, and the wee Princess Elizabeth. What a bonnie wee sight. Oh, this is a real royal Braemar gathering this year.' 'Returning to London, the Queen was doing the rounds of her favourite charities. Something had changed in Mary in the 1930s. She made more solo appearances which had raised her self-confidence. Famous for her cool elegance, she now exuded an instant warmth that people everywhere responded to. That smile suggested a new kind of serenity. But her husband George had an air of melancholy these days. There was no mystery about its cause - his son.

By 1934 he'd formed an obsessive attachment to that mysterious American woman. There were rumours that he wanted to marry her

although she was already married. Why couldn't Edward be more like Bertie - a settled, sober man who put duty and family first? George made a curious entry in his diary at this time - "I believe Bertie and his wife will be the saviours of the monarchy."

Edward was now the odd one out in the Royal Family. A restless bachelor, 40 years old, who'd turned his back on custom and convention. The rest of the King's children had matured well.

Prince Henry had finally married

that charming young woman with the long name - Lady Alice Montagu-Scott - on a memorable day in 1935. Even Prince George, who'd led a wild playboy life was now happily married to Princess Marina of Greece with a much loved first child.

But now the whole Royal Family would be involved as a great occasion approaches. It is the summer of 1935 as King George V and Queen Mary climb into the royal coach for a long ride through the streets of London. They're celebrating the silver jubilee of their reign  25 years on the throne - through happy times and turbulent ones.

As they pass through the streets of South London they are deeply touched by the response of the adoring crowds.' NEWSREEL: 'As it passes along the Camberwell New Road, it provides our cameraman with the opportunity of catching an excellent follow shot of the royal pair. On this shot let us end with Their Majesties retreating back to Buckingham Palace

with the happiest memories of South London's outspoken loyalty.' 'For the first time in their long reign this modest couple who've put service and duty to their subjects before everything else, are convinced that they are loved. A golden summer had saluted the jubilee. For the fortunate few, the highlight of those celebrations was the Royal garden party - staged in the green expanse of Buckingham Palace's garden.' NEWSREEL: 'On this brilliant afternoon there are not only four generations of the Royal Family including Princess Elizabeth, but also the cream of the English aristocracy and many visitors from abroad including high Indian officials and their wives. And now Their Majesties are on their way back from tea, stopping frequently for presentations by members of the royal household but often not even waiting for the formal introduction. Such is the informality of modern royalty. There is the Prince of Wales. His Majesty is in great form and seems to enjoy a jocular remark as much as anyone. This garden party has shown once again what a delightfully informal host and hostess our King and Queen are and brings to an end a brilliant Silver Jubilee season.' TRUMPETS AND FANFARE 'As the jubilee lights flicker out, George's thankyou speech comes from the heart.' BROADCAST: Words cannot express my thoughts and feelings. I can only say to you, my very dear people, that the Queen and I thank you from the depths of our hearts, for all the loyalty and may I say the love with which this day and always you have surrounded us. 'The new year of 1936 was scarcely a month old when George died. His generous heart had stopped at last.' NEWSREEL: 'This is London. The following bulletin was issued at 9:25.

The King's life is moving peacefully towards its close.' 'A broken-hearted Mary prepared for his funeral. The King's coffin was borne from Sandringham and brought by train to London. Edward, who led the mourners, seemed a tormented figure. He was now King Edward VIII - the second monarch of the House of Windsor.' NEWSREEL: 'As the train draws slowly into King's Cross station a silence falls over the great crowds who are lining the route from the station to Westminster Hall. Only the muffled peal of the bells of Westminster Abbey breaks the hush that falls over the Empire's capital. The King and his royal brothers continue to walk behind the gun carriage. The tolling of the bells most significant for what the Empire feels today.' TRUMPETS SOUND ROYAL HERALD: Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David... CANNON BOOMS ..is now, by the death of our late Sovereign of happy memory, become our only, CANNON BOOMS

lawful Edward VIII.

'From the moment he became king, the call of duty beckoned.' NEWSREEL: 'For only the second time in 250 years a king of England is to distribute alms to the poor with his own hands. 70 aged people will each receive a silver maundy pence and a gift of about ?5.

Actually only 42 people should have benefited this year - one for every year of the King's age. But His Majesty has commanded that the gift should be made as if his father was still alive. So 38 extra people will be grateful for His Majesty's generosity.' 'The cameras followed him wherever he went and so did the crowds. He cut a handsome figure presiding over his first Trooping of the Colour ceremony. The People's Prince had become the People's King. But the prime minister, Stanley Baldwin, was on a collision course with the new king. He sensed that Edward wanted to marry Wallis Simpson, a divorced woman. In the summer of 1936, as Edward sailed off to the Mediterranean on yet another holiday with Wallis, the alarm bells began to ring.'

# Blues, 20th century blues

# Are getting me down... # 'Edward was neglecting his royal duties. Press photographers caught him in intimate moments with his mistress in their Riviera hideaway. The lovers' story was dispatched to America where there was no censorship for the privileged.' NEWSREEL: 'Today the American Press is filled with rumours of royal romance - of the possibility of King Edward marrying Mrs Wallis Simpson, the former Baltimore belle. Yesterday, as a girl, she lived in Maryland in this quiet and humble Baltimore home. Tomorrow, she may dwell in Buckingham Palace. King Edward and Mrs Simpson

have been pictured together on many occasions. And in this topsy-turvy world

it may be time for an American woman to marry a British king. Only one man knows the answer

and as yet, he is keeping it a royal secret.' 'By an ominous coincidence, the great glass monument that Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had created - the Crystal Palace - was destroyed by fire even as Edward's reign came under siege. The House of Windsor itself was now in peril. Edward, now in Wales, was unaware of the scandal that was about to break.' NEWSREEL: 'Bringing the whole problem of the depressed areas out of the shadows into the floodlight of world attention, His Majesty's visit to South Wales

is not only a promise of new life but a gesture of sympathy. With men and women who for years have borne bravely the misery and sufferings of unemployment, who have had to watch helpless while their homes and their towns fell into ruin and decay. Yet, so stout of heart are these people,

for His Majesty's visit they can still put on a brave show.'

'Cheered and adored wherever he walked,

Edward had begun to believe that he was invincible. He had no idea of the forces ranging against him.' NEWSREEL: 'But beneath all this His Majesty saw the disillusion and suffering brought by long, workless years. His visit has cheered them as nothing else could. As he leaves, there's a new-found faith that some solution will be found.' 'There would be no easy solution to the King's constitutional predicament. Prime Minster Baldwin and British press barons had conspired to keep the King's affair out of the newspapers. But now the whole country knew that their monarch wanted to marry an American woman who'd been twice divorced. Over the next few days the tension was cranked up as the nation split into opposed camps  those who wanted the King to marry his sweetheart, and those against. Those against the marriage included the Government and the Church of England. Among the highly placed, Winston Churchill was a lone champion of the King's right to choose his own bride. It became clear that Edward had been cornered. He would have to give up Wallis or renounce the throne. As decision day neared, restless crowds gathered at the Palace gates. Then came the broadcast that would stun the world.' KING EDWARD VIII: You all know the reasons which have entailed me to renounce the throne. But I want you to understand that in making up my mind I did not forget the country or the Empire.

But you must believe me when I tell you that I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as King as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love.

And now we all have a new king. I wish him and you, his people, happiness and prosperity with all my heart. God bless you all.

God save the King. NEWSREEL: 'And the throne passes to King Edward VIII's younger brother and his wife whom we have known and loved for so long as Their Royal Highnesses, the Duke and Duchess of York. To the new sovereign King Albert I and Queen Elizabeth and to the little lady who is now heir to the throne, long life and all happiness.' 'Edward's reign of just 10.5 months

had been one of the shortest in British history. The new king was not King Albert as a newsreel had proclaimed. Bertie, the shy Duke of York, had taken his father's name. He was now King George VI, third monarch of the Windsor dynasty. The new king was the opposite of his runaway brother Edward. He was a family man  happily married and a loving father. George VI would pick up his brother's discarded crown and polish it until it glowed with honour.'

Closed Captions by CSI *

This Program Is Captioned Live. job's done but there's no sign of a

of a ceasefire. Fighting off a white pointer and living to tell the tell the tale. Thousands homeless as Fiji battles deadly storms. And Australian cricket toasts a swashbuckling batsman. Good evening, I'm Virginia Haussegger. Welcome to ABC ABC News. There's plenty of talk about ending the conflict but little sign of happening. Israel says it's close to achieving close to achieving its goals in the Gaza offensive but the Gaza offensive but it's continuing to pound the continuing to pound the strip. Army reservists are being thrown into battle and now troops have made their advance into advance into Gaza's most populated area. All the while, the Palestinian death toll grows. It's now nearing 900.