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'Tonight on the New Inventors - a makeover for kebabs, making computers smaller and faster, from cunning foxes.' and how to save little lambs APPLAUSE G'day. I'm James O'Loghlin.

between a man and his car, Also tonight, the close bond on top of your shoes. and why you should wear spikes but not overexcited judges. First, our energetic James Bradfield Moody, Tonight they're engineer science journalist Bernie Hobbs, Christine Kininmonth. and journalist and inventor Thank you, James. Welcome. APPLAUSE OK, imagine it's 3am.

You're out way too late. but you feel weak. You're stumbling home, You have no power. out of energy, You're completely spent, there's only one thing and you know that that can save you. in the entire world LAUGHTER You need a kebab. No, no!

a fast, nutritious snack, If you're after it's hard to go past a kebab. But if you're behind the counter, hot, and sometimes dangerous work. cutting the meat is tedious, very expensive, the slicer is expensive, 'Not only that, the meat is the better.' and the less time handling both,

cuts the meat for you automatically I've invented a kebab robot that at the press of a button. the circumference of the meat, 'A pressure sensor measures are needed to complete a circuit. and works out how many slices The robot arm starts to slice, the customer's salad is chosen, and by the time their meat is ready.' Thank you, sir.

Mmm! Kebabalicious!

Tek Temel. Please welcome from Sydney, Hey, Tek, how are you, mate? APPLAUSE Hi. How are you? two things at one time, right? Now, with this, you can do a kebab shop a lot of time. So, I guess you would save That's correct. you get a better product? And do you think Your meat is cut consistently. Uh, yes, of course. nice and symmetrical. It always looks it's dang hot next to this thing! Yeah, yeah, true, and also, That's correct.

100 times a day. And if you're doing that in the actual kebab shop. That's probably the worst job Yeah.

there's other things as well. And obviously you're gonna have a person For example, to the meat, that's in close proximity who's very, very hot all the time.

this thing solves that problem. So, hygienically, it works. Simple push of a button. Yeah, right, well, let's see how Now, how does that work? It's got a pressure sensor. has a little spring in it, The pressure sensor

bits and pieces in it, and it's got some other with the meat, and as soon as it makes contact to do the next process. it tells its microchip inside And it just keeps going up there. Fantastic! And it just keeps going. It'll go all the way around, I reckon, and then... but that's probably enough for me, the taste test, obviously. Cos you gotta give it Of course. LAUGHTER In it goes. LAUGHTER in this? Did you put enough lettuce and tomato

OK, and then we'll just see how it... ..tastes. Mmm! Kebabalicious, right? Kebabalicious! You carry on, Tek. It's good, it's fantastic. All right, come across to the panel. Mmm! Yum! it's cut like that, or not? Is it... Do you reckon it tastes better if

itself, that electric blade. Um, well, I mean, that slicer Yeah. Yeah, right. That comes with every kebab shop. the robot, and it does it for you. You just clip your own slicer into Uh, around 4,500. How much does it cost? Oh, stop it! Mmm!

LAUGHTER None for you. No tastes. Um, do you have any comments? I think it smells great, James. Look, Tek, a hot, greasy environment for electronics, is not the ideal place

so what have you done to make sure in those hot conditions? your invention works effectively Uh, well, the actual... are underneath in the - Most of the electronics Covered underneath. Don't mind me. or grease exposure whatsoever. So, that doesn't get any heat by using a robot, And one of the things - taking the person out. you're actually a visual check. So, you're getting rid of the meat's actually cooked How do you make sure that when you're cutting it?

the visual checker out. Yes, you don't actually take

to check that it's actually cooked? So, the staff member still has but it still saves in costs That's right, that task is doing something else. because whoever's not doing an element into it But couldn't you add since it did a slice on that piece, that times the last time and surely it can work out by timing for the next lot to cook? how long it takes

slice for a minimum of two minutes, So, say, it won't do another

you're getting cooked meat. and then you know uh, a good way to do it. Yes, timing isn't a very...

temperature sensor on it, We'll have a laser the right temperature, so, once it reaches then it can be operatable. Nice! Otherwise it won't be operatable. very enthusiastic, And if someone gets while it's rotating, and chops a bit manually to cope with that is your sensor sensitive enough or is that gonna throw it out? and still do good slicing,

and just takes a bite out of it? Yeah, what if someone comes up LAUGHTER with some of the stores, Well, we worked together to contour around the meat and they wanted for it a centimetre. up to around, you know, than a centimetre, So, if it's any deeper it'll continue repairing the meat, or - Cos look at that - it's's so thin. It's very regular. Isn't it, and regular?

You can almost... I think I can see the audience. LAUGHTER Summing up? Look, I think this is gonna save money and time to free people up to make that perfect kebab. Good luck. Thank you very much. Mmm, you've made 3am trashy Bernie very happy, Tek. LAUGHTER It's a pretty big start-up cost, but I imagine that, you know, obviously people are gonna jump at it because, as you said, it's the most onerous job in the kebab shop and people will get rid of that job. You're very into your kebabs, aren't you? Very committed!

Ladies and gentlemen, please thank Tek Temel. Well done, mate. Thank you very much. Can I keep this? Yes, you can. APPLAUSE Cheers! Now, how do you know if you love your car? Not your kebab, your car, possibly a bit too much. Well, just watch and find out. MAN: 'G'day. My name is Michael. I'm 19.' Here you go. 'I love my mum.' Hey. 'I love my girlfriend.

And I love my car. Modifying it has cost me thousands of dollars, and about as many hours. My favourite mods are these gauges. They measure oil pressure and volts. But mounting them on the dash is against the law. Mounting them on the bonnet is the only alternative,

but you just can't trust they'll be there the next morning, and Mum's got priority on the carport.

So, I had to invent the Gauge Keeper. With the Gauge Keeper, I can hook in or remove my gauges in a few seconds, and we all sleep a lot better.' APPLAUSE He loves his gauges. What's wrong with that? What's wrong with that?! LAUGHTER Now, you may have noticed that computers keep getting smaller and faster,

and you probably assume that this will keep happening, but actually, it may not

unless there's a big technological breakthrough.

We have to develop new quicker ways to send information, and our next inventors have done just that by inventing, check this out, a way to squeeze several beams of light into a single beam of light.

Electronic communications are central to our lives. But our quest for smaller and faster devices is about to hit a fundamental barrier. MAN: 'At the smaller scale, the quantum laws take over.

An entirely new way to encode and communicate information

awaits in the manipulation of photons - particles of light.'

Entangling photons is currently achievable. Involving multiple laser beams and multiple detectors. Our technique makes this much simpler. 'We can entangle multiple channels of light with a single laser beam.' 'We can also identify different entangled patterns with only one detector.' Entangling photons could one day be used for faster computers, better mobile phones,

and many other devices that we can't imagine yet.

Please welcome from Canberra, Professor Hans Bachor and Seiji Armstrong. APPLAUSE Seiji. G'day, James. How are you? Hans. Now, I know you didn't knock this up in the backyard last night. You've been working on this for 25 years, and it's an interesting analogy you draw between where we're going now with computers and the transfer of information between analogue, we've moved to digital, and this is the next step, is that it?

That's what we're thinking - the next step will be quantum. Yeah, the next step will be quantum, which is a head-bending concept, but it's sort of... it's all about rope, really. Well, what do these ropes represent? They represent patterns in laser beams, and we encode our information, we send it with these patterns. So, normally when you're transmitting information via beams of light, they're...

Well, what does this mean? They're wiggling independently. They're fuzzy - when you look really closely, they're fuzzy,

and that's the quantum work, that's the photons. OK, and so what you're doing by entangling them is you're making them oscillate - Together. Together like this. You're sort of connecting them, and then you're - Then we're putting it all in one beam, and we bring - You're putting it all in one beam like this. So, combining it, almost turning it into a rope. And that makes it simpler. And doing that, you can actually get lots more information

and transfer it from A to B more quickly, and more securely, is that right? That's exactly right. Previously, other groups have had, say, multiple laser beams, multiple detectors, and it gets very messy and complicated. But you're doing it all with one. Just with one. Well, we've got another demo here. If we bring the lights down. You've got... Well, that's just a beam of light, is it? Laser pointer. Nothing fancy? Nothing fancy. Don't get excited.

Now, it goes through a crystal there. That's right. And these two black boxes, and they are binding different beams of light together, and then what happens here? So, that's the detector. Yeah. It's essentially a fancy camera that takes a photo of the laser beam. And essentially, though, doing this, you can get information A to B more quickly, more securely. That's right. It's as simple as we could make it. Terrifically simple - that's why it only took 25 years.

Um, come over to the panel. Hans, I understand you think that not only are there the benefits that we talked about, but there are other unknown benefits that might come from doing things this way that we can't even imagine yet. Absolutely. I mean, when you think when we went from analogue to digital, we thought it would just be faster. Yeah.

But then nobody thought about the internet. People suddenly start doing things, so our idea is that when we come to the quantum, we can make it even faster, people will come up with new ideas.

Not teleportation, but almost anything else. That's exactly right. OK. Uh, Bernie?

Um, Hans and Seiji, you know, I'm a science communicator, so it's my job to understand science and explain it to other people, and the only thing that gives me relief with quantum physics

is that Einstein never really got it either. LAUGHTER So, it is really hard, but I love that what you've done is made it faster and more efficient to send messages by combining what did take a lot of beams into a single beam. Now, you've said that we're looking at a new communications technology. Are you just talking about faster mobile phone, faster internet, or we really are talking about

completely new things that could be possible? Well, the beginning will just be the faster part, and that's where you start, and then all sorts of people - engineers and other people will get into it and say, "That's what I can do with the additional speed." We're not just sending zeros and ones, like in digital. We're sending all these possible combinations, and that's where the advantage comes from. So, towards the goal of quantum technology existing, because of this, are we 2% closer, 20%, 60% closer?

How big a deal is this? It's about scalability, you know. In the end, you won't see these things. They will be part of your new phone, they will be part of your new gadget.

So, we have to make them small, compact and simple.

So, what we feel is really a big step forward is the simplicity of only having these three components, rather than the big table you saw in the video clip. Christine? Well, I mean, I want to know why you haven't spent your time

inventing a composting toilet, or something that I can understand, but given that I'm rising to the challenge of getting my head around it, I understand that the Australian Defence Force is taking an interest in this, and I'm wondering whether or not that's because, of course, the security is gonna mean a lot in terms of defence. There is already one quantum technology out there with commercial companies, and that is securely sending messages. We call it quantum cryptography.

Um, that's parallel to this.

As I said, entanglement is part of all of these, and I think they are particularly interested in the Q approach, but it will go much further. So, can someone who hacks into the signal - is the signal destroyed by them hacking into it, or can they get the information, and then you know they've got the - It's completely destroyed, so you can't see it. So you can't get information unless you're the intended recipient. Exactly right. We did start off with all the digital equipment

being based on analogue lines. Are we gonna be able to use the existing digital lines, say, fibre optic or other, to actually have this equipment on it? To a large extent, yes. So, the piece of fibre, for example, you can re-use the optical fibre. That will be possible. There's a little bit of a problem with losses. If you lose too much, then the quantum effect disappears. So, we might have to be careful there.

We're talking about a quantum repeater - a station we put in every hundred, few hundred kilometres, but once we have that gadget, and that will be another breakthrough, then we can actually have a whole network of stations being linked in this quantum way. Summing up. Bernie? I have to say, in the initial video package, Hans, it looked like two young kids had brought Einstein back from the dead... LAUGHTER

And, Seiji, I'm really glad you have.

LAUGHTER Good luck with it. You're talking about mobile phones becoming smaller - I actually want them to be a bit bigger cos... I find them quite hard to use at the moment cos they're quite small, but I appreciate what you're doing, and I know that it's gonna help me somewhere along the line, so thank you. LAUGHTER The internet revolution was based on Moore's law, which meant technology was gonna double every 18 months. If we're gonna continue doing that, you need something like - That's right, yes. Is that right?

Yep, so, well done, guys. Keep pushing the limit. Good on you! Thank you very much. And I think we got there. Please thank Hans Bachor and Seiji Armstrong. Thanks very much. APPLAUSE Thanks very much. Good on you, mate. APPLAUSE Now a way to get as much space as you need in a crowded lift.

APPLAUSE Probably work on crowded trains too. Now, if you were a little sweet lamb, what would you be most scared of? Wolves? No, actually, foxes. Foxes sneak into paddocks, creep up on little sweet lambs, and, well, I know there's kids watching, but... This is an invention that could save the sweet little lambs.

MAN: 'They're always out there, and after dark, they pounce. Foxes and wild dogs prey on helpless farm stock at night.'

The only way to stop them is to be on guard at all times, and, hey, that's not very practical, is it?

'My invention is a light system

to repel foxes that prey on vulnerable farm stock. The system is designed around the foxes' natural fear of humans. The lights are portable, and placed in the paddock where it can be clearly seen by the fox before it gets too close. Crucially, the LED lights in the fittings are placed in such a way

that they flash at certain intervals, which gives the illusion of movement, as if someone is continually patrolling the paddock with a torch.' With my invention, the lights are on, there's nobody's home, but the wily fox is none the wiser.

Please welcome from Oberon, near Bathurst in NSW, Ian Whalan. APPLAUSE G'day, Ian. How are you? Fine. The first few days of a lamb's life

is when they're really vulnerable to foxes, right? Virtually the first 24 hours. Particularly ewes having twins - the first lamb will wander off, start bleeding, and that's when a fox will sneak in, take that lamb while she's having the second lamb. And you've been using this for four years and you haven't lost one? Oh, yes - that I know of. Yeah. I've found it 100%. OK, so, it's got a little thing here where it can clip onto a - A star picket. A star picket. What you would normally do, I guess, is take a flashlight out

and sort of search for foxes, and they are smart enough to know that if there's a light around - They sense a human. Yeah. So, it's either send the wife out all night with a flashlight, or... (LAUGHS) All right, so, if night falls, then there's a light sensor in that. That's right. That'll automatically turn on. Mm-hm. And that will give the illusion - Of somebody wandering in the paddock,

and what you would do is set up four or five of them within the paddock, as you would set up scarecrows, and then the fox will come in, see the light flashing, move on somewhere else. Now, we have a fox lurking in the background. There's its silhouette. It's going! It works! It works a treat. Goodbye, fox. OK, it's morning now. The lights come up. And all - one, two, three - they're all here. They're still here. Come across to the panel. You've sold about 20, have you? I've sold a few to my neighbours. Yeah?

All the neighbours I talked to

liked the idea once I explained how it works.

What do they cost? Oh, around about $60, $70. If you save one lamb, then that's... Well, lambs are worth somewhere between $120 to $150, fat lambs. OK. Christine, farmer's daughter! Gee, Ian, you're getting a good price for your lambs, I have to say. LAUGHTER What a wonderful invention. I mean, I have to say that there's nothing worse than seeing a lamb that's been torn apart by a fox,

and the mothers are so distressed after a fox has been in. And I'm just wondering, I guess, the inventiveness of yours

alongside the old kerosene fox lights. This light here will run anywhere between three to six months. Really? Yes, yes. For eight to ten hours a night? That's right, depending on whether you're running summer, winter. Wintertime, you've got a greater night span, so they won't run as long. And the fact that you've got it up on a star picket and that light seems to be up at sort of human head height

rather than down shining in the fox's eyes. That's right. Well, see, the light will actually work from a distance.

At some 300, 400 metres when the fox first sees the light, he will then divert around it, then he'll come to another light that is perhaps set up on another bank, and then eventually give up and move off to eat your neighbours' sheep. So, Ian, how have you tested this?

Have you done some trials to show that it works? The four years that I've tested it -

on the first year when I set them up, and I didn't do any night shooting, didn't lose a lamb, but, yeah, baited that year. The next I didn't put any baits out, once again, didn't lose any lambs. The third year, I moved my lambing forward one month, ahead of my neighbours, which meant that I was the only restaurant open. LAUGHTER And once again, I lost no lambs. Last year, I happened to lose two lambs during a snowstorm, and the one thing that you don't do

is leave your dead lambs lying in the paddock because that will attract foxes. I left them there, and for six weeks, they weren't touched.

Foxes are smart. They're a hell of a lot smarter than sheep.

Actually, this biro is a lot smarter than a sheep, but, um... (ALL EXCLAIM) I disagree. It was a cheap shot. I'm sorry. It was bad ovine racism. LAUGHTER But what I'm wondering is if this fox that's very smart gets scared by the light, doesn't it scare the lambs as well?

No, it doesn't. When I went to LED lights, which are a lot brighter than just conventional bulbs, I thought that there could be the risk of sheep taking fright at this, but, no, there's no effect at all. The sheep will actually camp around these lights, and you set these lights up a little thicker around their camp. Would it work for us for burglars? If they're foxes. If they were foxes, then, yes, it would. All right, summing up. Christine? Well, wonderful idea, and I'd love to see a solar version.

Yes, yes, I'm working on a solar version. No, look, this is an excellent alternative to some of the, you know, the time-consuming or environmentally harmful ways that we do it otherwise. I think your challenge is to convince the farming community that this is going to work.

And also there's the native animals too. There's no reasons why this can't protect penguins or anything that is vulnerable to foxes. Well, that's the really interesting thing for me. The foxes are the biggest problem for our native fauna - they take more than feral cats.

Anything that keeps fox numbers down is terrific. Good on you! Thank you very much, Ian. Please thank Ian Whalen.

Thank you. Thank you. APPLAUSE So, who's gonna win tonight? Which of the three would you pick? Our judges' choice could be named our Inventor of the Year. Will it be the automatic consistent kebab-cutter, the Hyper Slicer, the computer speeding up and shrinking Multimode Entanglement,

or the fox-tricking, lamb-saving Foxlight? Which one do we need the most? Let's look at need first. James? Look, James, I think for me, the winner in need tonight is actually the Multimode Entanglement, because we, you know, we need to actually find faster and better ways of communicating and sending messages over computers, and this is gonna be - Why do we need... Why do we need to find faster ways? You know, anybody who's watching this over the Net, for example,

at the moment would say that's a fantastic thing. Soon we're gonna be sending more and more information from one place to another.

Yeah, but how much TV can you watch? I think, in terms of need, it's reducing the fox problem. It's Foxlight, something that is a simple solution and protects, um, you know, protects lamb, preferably also native fauna. I guess if you're a person standing next to a hot kebab machine, you would think there would be a need

for the kebab-slicer, the Hyper Slicer.

For me, you know, things like tele-operation, telemedicine, telehealth, all that sort of stuff is gonna require more and more communications power -

But, James, we are already on the way to getting it. I think need is the one area where Multimode Entanglement is not, you know, really outstanding, but for a design, I think it's brilliant.

I mean, the fact that you've got a multiple... Instead of having to use multiple beams to send one message each

and have multiple receivers, you're able to encode multiple messages into a single beam, and have them all interpreted by... It's just... It's a fantastic advance. I have to say that, you know, from an engineering design perspective, I really do like the Hyper Slicer as well.

I think that's really neat. The first robot that's actually delivered on its promises since the Jetsons. You know, it's, like, giving us something we want. I mean, that Foxlight,

it's certainly got some original aspects to it. using the LED light, and the blinking, the blinking side, but certainly we've got a fox light at home which is - What about the marketability of the Foxlight? What's, you know... Is that gonna sell, do we think? Well, once you start getting proof of the pudding and a neighbour says, "Well, I've got them, they're working for me,"

and you just happen to have more fox kills at your flock of sheep, then it's gotta be very easy for you to go out and buy these $60 lights, and then pass those foxes on to the next farm,

so I can see that word of mouth is going - and that's a big factor with farming. Well, who do you think you would pick as a winner tonight? James? James, look - James. LAUGHTER

I'm delighted that we actually have got something as forward-looking as the Multimode Entanglement, so for me, that is my winner for a whole lot of criteria. Yep. Uh, I think on some of the criteria,

our inventions tonight are absolutely outstanding, and I think with the market, Hyper Slicer is just gonna absolutely go off, but, um, I would be voting against the future if I didn't vote for Multimode Entanglement. I mean, it's the necessary step to be made to make all these, or one of the necessary steps. Christine? And for me, you talk about baby lambs and saving baby lambs, very hard for us to go past anything that saves a life,

even if it's a baby lamb.

So, very difficult to say yes to Multimode Entanglement for that reason,

but I'm gonna say yes to Multimode Entanglement. Then our winner tonight is Multimode Entanglement - Hans Bachor and Seiji Armstrong. APPLAUSE Good on you, Seiji. Congratulations. Good on you, Hans. Thank you! Well done. There you go. Thank you very much. Hans and Seiji are in the running to be named our Inventors of the Year,

but there's also the People's Choice Award that goes to the invention that receives the most of your votes. So, text '1' for the Hyper Slicer, '2' for the Multimode Entanglement, or '3' for the Foxlight to: Thank you very much to our judges. Thank you. Huge round of applause for our four inventors tonight. Wonderful work. Thank you very much for coming on.

And finally, the quote from writer Aldous Huxley, who said, "There's only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and that's your own self." Good night. APPLAUSE 'We know that last week, the panel picked Henk de Graaf and his Aeration Manager. But what did you pick as the People's Choice?

There was the Shark Claw... ..the Aeration Manager, and the Rotabrade. And you picked the Rotabrade!' Closed Captions by CSI *

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the plane crash in Papua New Guinea.

The wreckage of the charter flight

The wreckage of the charter flight to Kokoda was discovered this morning.

All 13 on board were killed.

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