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Welcome to day two of the

2020 Summit. I am Phillip

Willams and this is the last

day in the quest for new ideas

for Australia. For hours

yesterday, the 10 groups of 10

delegates each debated and

distilled and by the end of

today the PM wants just 30

great ideas and 10 of them have

to be low or no cost. It is a

big ask and I am joined by the

'Financial Review''s Laura

Tingle and News Ltd's Steve

Lewis. The national balloon festival is on also at the

moment. Is there extra lift over Parliament House at the

moment or is that unkind? I

noted only yesterday only three

balloons went up in the air, I

am not sure how many went up

this morning. There has been a

lot of good ideas generated

through the course of the first

day. The challenge was always

going to be to distil those

down to 30 or 40, which will

emerge by around about 3pm this

afternoon. Then of course the

task is the government looking

at those and considering how

many of them are realistic.

Are you impressed by what you

see so far? I sat through a

fair bit of the governance

session yesterday. I was

impressioned by the fact that a

broad range of people came to

Canberra wanting to discuss,

wanting to debate the future,

how Australia might look in the how Australia might look in the

year 2020. A number of younger

people, very articulate and

smart. I think it is a great

idea to get a discourse going

on what sort of country we want

to see in the future. So I'm

supportive of that. I think

the challenges was always gob

to be, and if you want to be

cynical about this process, is

how many real istic ideas will

emerge from the summit. For

instance, Bob Debus talked

about a Republic by 2010. That

is fantastic, I would like to

see that but that is not

realistic. So I guess at the

end of the day we have to see

how many realistic policies

will emerge and then gauge -

how does one gauge the success

of the summit given this is the

first time such an event like

this has actually taken place.

Laura Tingle, there is no

genuine intent of doubting the passion and

genuine intent of all the

summiter, that comes through

very clearly. But having a

night to think about what has

been achieved so far, what are

your conclusions? I suppose

when we were talking about all

these things yesterday, there

was a lot of focus on new ideas

and as Steve has been talking

about, the governance stream,

what we are really seeing is a

re package ing and revisiting

of other ideas as well. It

doesn't really matter, the

Republic is not a new idea but

what we are seeing is the 2020

Summit is forming up something

which is readjusting a lot of

debates which have gone off the

agenda, but nothing is really

happening. Certainly in the

economy stream, which I was

following yesterday, there was

some interesting ideas there.

Everybody knows that state

taxing are inefficient and

that's a big eye-glaezing, but

there are a lot of issues like

people saying - wait a minute,

should we be looking longer

term at moving the entire tax

system much more to a Goods and

Services Tax type base and

income tax. These are

perennial issues if you like in

the tax be - debate but the

2020 Summit is a way of

bringing a lot of

bringing a lot of people

together from very diverse backgrounds to think about

those things again. Old ideas

but given a big kick along.

Yes, and looked at in the

fresh contexter our current

problems. Climate change is

going to be a huge issue of the summit because it is the issue

of the moment but it has

affects on all those other

actually see issues like tax and you could

actually see some quite

interesting cross fertilisation

of debates in the context of

climate change. Steve Lewis,

because it is difficult because

you have got so many cross

overs with all these committee,

climate change does affect so

many thing, education affects

so many of these classification

through the climate change s as well. I didn't sit

stream but if I can pick up on

biggest challenge what Laura was saying, the

biggest challenge the rugd

faces is the implementation of

a national emissions trading

scheme. They want that up and

running by 2020. I am not sure

how much debate there was on

that yesterday, but that will

be the biggest single challenge

of the government, to have it

up and running before the next

election. It is very well

talking about a greener

economy, but the biggest

challenge on climate change is

facing us right now. I don't

know how much debate there is

about those sorts of issues.

If you want to criticise the

forum, perhaps it is looking at

these other issue wrs there are real challenges facing the

government right now. The

expectation between viewers

watching this program right now

and what is deliverable and in

fact we won't know what is

government gives its response deliverable until the

at the end of the year. That

is true and there is also this

divide between people who are

here and getting am immense

amount of good talking to

groups they won't get any

exposure to which is making

them think afresh about the way

they approach policy and people

who aren't here saying - come

on, come up with something

interesting, otherwise it is a

complete waste of time. You

can't relay the importance of

that, the mingling of ideas.

Kevin Rudd was at church this

morning, St Johns in Canberra.

What do you think he was

praying for? I think if will

was one idea he wanted out of

safe Brendan Nelson's this summit it was a way to

leadership. Because I think

more than any other I think

that's what the government

would like. I am not sure this

summit will come up with this

particular proposal. I think

he wants some good ideas that

the government can tick off on

by the end of this year, so

they can look back and say they

have had some success, that we

have brought together this very

diverse group and come up with

some good plans for the future.

I just have to interrupt you

there because we have to return

House for to the Great Hall of Parliament

House for the plenary session

on how the world fears us.

There will be a big challenge

to take the best ideas from

today, and to implement them

but I am sure that we will find

many of the ideas today will be

implemented and will lead to

improvements. To try and

capture this in the brief

moment we have got is going

going to be very challenging.

I am really excited about

shifting the debate of

environment to the economic and

social spheers. I find it does

get a bit pigeon holed away

from the environment and to

have really amazing debates

about where we can take

sustainable thinking into the

future. I think there will be

a revelation, my view is, about

the ideas that have come

forward and the consensus that

will be there and I think the

government will probably most

definitely act. I think even

if one idea comes out of the

summit it has been a fantastic


Ladies and gentlemen, please

welcome David Spears. APPLAUSE

Good morning and welcome to

this morning's session, how

does the world view us. I am

David Spears from Sky news,

unlike you lot I am not one of

the 1,000 best and brightest of

this nation, I am merely here

to facilitate what will be a

very interesting session this

morning. What the world thinks

of Australia and what we want

the world to think of Australia

in 2020. Are we seen as just'

resources pit or a resourceful nation? Does the world think

we are too obsessed with sport?

Are we seen as the depity

sheriff of the United States?

Are we seen as welcoming or

racist? We are going to

approach this from two per -

perspectives this morning. We

are going to see what ex pats

think and also talk about

people with the migrant

experience. People who come

from overseas to live here,

what do they think about this

country. We are going to hear

from a number of ex Pat Aussies

living in in the morning. We

are going to here from Bob

Ishewood. Johnmils, and Sarah

bower who works in Hong Kong

for US investment bank Lehman

brothers. We have four guests

joining us here on stage.

Please, make them welcome.

APPLAUSE I am afraid are you

not one of our guests this

morning. I am sorry James.

Maybe we can have a chat later


The guests we have for this

morning's session, I will

introduce each of them. We

have Richard Pestel he is a

world leading oncologist and he

is based in fill dellfia. He

is also going to be talking to

us a bit about the ex pat

experience and we have three

other guests to talk about the

migrant experience. What it's

like living in Australia as a

migrant, or indeed the child of

migrant parents. Lenni Samuel

was born and worked in Ethiopia

before moving to Belgium and

then she made a rather dramatic

shift from Brussels to Ballarat

and she now is the Victorian multi-cultural commissioner.

She is the community engagement co-ordinator at Victoria

university. She is on the

board of directors at the royal women's hospital and is also

the chair of its community

advisory committee and also the

chair of the SBS community

advisory committee. Tanya

Plibersek is the minister for

housing and status of women.

Her parents migrated from

Slovenia in the 1950s. They

actually lived - Tania told me

just minutes away from each

other in slov ina but didn't

know each other. They met at a

dance at the paddington town

hall. Sam Haddid is a late

call-up to this session. He

parents migrated from Lebanon

in the 1970s. She is a member

of the Youth Summit steering

committee. She is a research

assistant from the university

of technology in Sydney and she

has been involved in a range of youth organisations and

programs. So welcome to all of

you, this morning we are going

to look at the challenges faced

by migrants and their children

we. Will talk to you about that

and how the migrant experience

can be improved in Australia.

We are going to explore what

makes us proud to be

Australians and also what, if

anything we are a little built

embarrassed about. How

Australia can improve its

image, standing and its role on

the world stage. We are going

to start with a couple of our

over assess contributors via

vooe - video and look at the

reaction they get when they

tell people they are from

Australia. They say - what

part? Me too. Either that or

they say "Great country, I have

a relative who lives there".

Or "you know what, that's a

place I have always wanted to

go to but it is just a bit too

far". People don't gently comment anymore I am from

Australia. There are lots of

us working and living overseas

in lots of places around the

world, particularly in Asia.

So I don't think there is

anything particularly

remarkable about chancing upon

an Australian. Let me ask you

as another successful ex-pat

abroad, is that the same sort

of reaction you get, it is not

such a big deal to bunch into

an Aussie in a leading field

overseas? I think one of the

great things about being an ex

pat, I have been one for the

last 17 year, is every day I

have been away I have been

proud to be an Australian and I

think that's one of the great

element, it wasn't brought out

in those interviews but it is

the basic principle, that what

you are as an Australian, sense

of fair go, people want to give

it a go and of course we are

extremely good at sport, you

know. But I think there has

been an evolution of what the

Australian identity is. We

started off as a group of

pioneers, you know, taking over

a very savage country, being

successful at that, evolved

into the shrimp on the bar by

piece and then I think moved

into a time where we are now

seen as being a courageous,

clever and courtus country.

But I think the big quest -

question for us all is what we

will be seen as 2020. I hope

we will be seen as

compassioniate to our own

sitzins and to global sit

displens. We will get to that

a little later. What it means

to be Australian, what people

think of us overseas. I was in

China a week ago with the PM,

and when I was given the call

up to take part in this session

this morning, so I thought I

would do a little bit of

research and talk to people on

the street about what did they

think of Australia. The

reaction was almost universal.

Big country, harbour bridge,

kangaroo. Now these are all

good things but I thought maybe

they are just being nice. What

do they really think of

Australia? What do they really

think sets Australians apart?

What designs us. Here -

defines us. Here is what our

ex-pats thought. People see a

distinction in the people. And

an attitude. I think it is

that Australian larrikin

attitude prevails abroad.

Particularly in the case of

the European Union, there is a

broad perception, dare one say

even a slight envy of

Australia's incredibly rich

resource economy. So, in a

continent that has 500 million

people and has mined and farmed

every square centimetre of that

earth and for mill enna, there

is a sense in which Australia's

resources are an enormous

opportunity for this economy.

There is equally a pe seption

in which Australia's lack of

water and lack of water

resource management and a lack

of agreement between

Australia's government s at all

levels, local, state and

national, and it doesn't seem

there has been any change since

the election on that broad perception, have to get their

act together and they have to

get their act together as an

act of urgency. I would like

this think it was different by

now but I would have to say to

you that if you were to ask

someone regardless of where

they were born and lived in the

globe, regardless of their

socio or economic background

what was distinctive about Australia they would still tell

you we are a country of

sporting heroes. We are a

country of sporting heroes, but

are we seen as too obsessed

with sport? Richard, what do

you think? I think we are

very, very good at it aren't

we, so that's part of it. It

is a country of winners. I

think that the successful

stories are not just those of

winning but also winning in a

very special way. You know,

gentleman, Landy was a great

athlete but he stepped back to

pick Ron Clark up at the right

moment when he fell over and we

tend to win from the front and

win all the way. So that's a distinction we have when we

play sport. I want to get into this migrant experience issue

and what people coming here to

live think of Australia. Tanya

Plibersek, I will start with

you, because the timeline here is going to be interesting.

Your parents migrated in the

1950s. Can you tell us - that

was during a wave of immigration from southern

Europe. Can you tell us what

it was like for you growing up

as the child of migrant parent whose came out during that

wave? I went to schools where

there were very few kids who

weren't from a Anglo

background, so I suppose

particularly as a small child -

we would be walking to school

and Mum would speak Slovenian

to me, and I would say to her

"speak English to me Mum". I

suppose it was when I was in

high school to be really proud

of the fact I have two cultures

to call on and two languages to

speak, families in two country,

two parts of the world, two

histories to acknowledge, and I

don't think that's unusual. I

think it takes many people a

little bit of time to come to

terms with the benefits of

having two cultures to draw on

rather than you know trying to

be like every other kid. Did

you find it easy though to

maintain a hold on those two

cultures? I have never felt

conflicted. I have only ever

felt grateful actually, that I

have got two worlds two draw

from. Sam, your parents came

in the 1970s, how did that -

your experience compare and

differ from Tania's? I have to

say, my experience is actually

re enforced by Tanias because

we have a new generation of

second generation migrants who

are so proud of their culture

and gone are the days where we

have to identify with one or

the other what we are - what we

are seeing at the moment is I

guess young people are hybrid

identities that have

affiliations with a wide range

of cultural group, of sub

cultural groups and I think

that's a really, really

powerful movement among young

people at the moment because we

have reshaped this whole - old

discourse of a clash of

cultures and now what we are

seeing with young people from

migrant backgrounds is the

opportunity to bridge cultures.

I think I'm in a particularly

add van obtainingus position to

bridge the gap between

ignorance and knowledge and I

think that's because of the way

I was raised and because I am a

product of the amaze ing social

and cultural capital of my own

community. I come from Western

Sydney and it is amazingly culturally diverse and

competent and I think I am a

product of that leadership and

that investment in that

community. You why born in

Australia but after I suppose

the new age of terrorism and

the concerns in the community

about radical Islam etc, how

has that affected you and your

family? Even though, as I say,

you have been here a long time

and you were borng here - born

here? . Most definitely. It is

really difficult for some

communities because they have

been here for quite a while and

have been making a proactive investment in the wider

Australian society and then to

be suddenly positioned in this

defensive mode of trying to proof themselves as

Australians, even though they

have been making a contribution

to this society has taken a

toll on our community and

suddenly we have to reshift the

way we provide services and

reshift our understanding of

our own community. And to

conflate different types of

migrant s and different types

of #34i78 communities - Muslim communities together

communities together is really

problematic. Elana you came

here in 1985 from an African

background. Is there any

similarities of your

experience, coming at a later

stage in life other than two

other guests who were born

here. What sort of experience

did you have that compares to

that? My experience I am from

refugee background. I seek

asylum when I arrived here. It

is different to people that

have been here as a second

generation. 12 years living in

Australia, the first two years

was very, very difficult to

find your way around, to know

who is next door neighbour,

coming from Africa going to

Belgium was a big cultural

shock because Belgium is a very

quiet and close country. The

people are very reserved but

once you get to know them they

are the loveliest people in the

world and from there coming to

adjust in Australia, Australia

was very welcoming, people on

the streets say good Day to

you, and they say hello. We

were expressed they say hl -

surprised they say hello. But

there was anonymity in our own

community in Ethiopia. People

don't talk to each other

because of what is happening

back home. And on top of the

settlement issue we have to

deal with our own issues

between the

communities. Bringing the

baggage from your home country.

Did your perception of

Australia change once you got

here? Can you tell us a bit

about what you thought of

Australia before you came here

and how that changed once you

had been living here for a

while. To tell you the truth I

didn't have any idea about

Australia except getting the

brochure from Ballarat

university and the sunny

picture. After I arrived here

from Belgium going to Ballarat

- is this Australia? Because

we used to do our shopping from

a milk bar. We thought that

was a supermarket. Fairly

expensive way to buy your

- Very expensive. Your nappies

and bread and milk. Very

expensive. Is there enough

support do you think from a

government level for new

migrants to learn things like -

don't shop at the milk bar? It

changed a lot since we arrived

here. We work very hard as a

community. I don't want people

to go through that what I have

been through. People were very

supportive, but to navigate

your way in this complex system

was very, very difficult. So,

my work, working with the

diverse community, that is my

vision is each and everyone who

step to our shore to be able to

get the support they need in

initial stages. The first six

months of refugee experience is

like a honey moon. You come

from a very diverse situation

to Australia where you can get

a bread on the table, I - you

don't have to worry police

chasing you or worry about your

kids going out and play in the

playground. Coming to

Australia it is a peaceful

country, they can walk around

and play in the park. After

six months that is where the

reality hits you. When you

couldn't find a job, when you

didn't send your kids to school

because the school system is

not catering for the kids who

are coming from that background

because they put them according

to their age not according to their knowledge and they couldn't fit up in that system.

So that's the issue and we as a

community and my work at

Victorian university as a

community engagement

co-ordinator we try to core

ordinate programs, integrate

programs with welfare organisations, with the university, with the community

working together, and that's -

we have been very successful in

that and people don't have to

go and shop in the milk bar for

their day-to-day. Tania,

friends and family that you

keep in contact with overseas,

what do they think of Australia

and do you think they have got

the right idea? The right

perception? David, I remember

the first day I walked into

this new Parliament House, it

was my first day on the job, I

was working for a backbench

Senator, and I remember

thinking to myself "isn't it amazing that someone's parent

whose came to this country with literally nothing can

participate in our democracy

this way". And, when I was elected to the Federal

Parliament it was bigger news

in Slovinea, much, much, bigger

news in Slovenia, I can tell

you, than it was here. Much

bigger news. I think that my -

the relatives and friends that

I have in Slovenia, which is incidentally all of my

relatives, we have got no

family here, they think it is

incredible that someone who's

parents were essentially refugees can come to this

country and end up in the

Federal Parliament. And, I

think they are right to think

that that is a very special

thing about this country. It

is a very special thing about

this country and I think in

large part you would have to

say about our education system

and our wonderful public

education system. I don't

think I would have achieved any

of the things that I have

without that. APPLAUSE. So I

think that that perception is

of Australia being a place

where you get a little bit of

support and a lot of

opportunity, I think that's a

very important - and relatively

true perception, not true for everyone unfortunately. I

think that's what we are doing

this weekend, trying to make

that more true. But the other

thing I found with relatives

who visit here, is they thought

it was really odd that we were

so polite to the person who

sold us a bus ticket or the

person who served us a coffee.

And I thought - that was

strange because you would think

Slovenia in those days was part

of Yugoslavia, which was a

communist economy and you know

the sort of PR on that was it

was a very egalitarian society,

but, in fact, it wasn't. It

was a very, very high rack call

society. So people who had a

university degree were - you

know they were streamed from a

very early age to technical or

academic education. Decisions

were made very early about the

sort of post school training

you would do. That set your

work course, that determined

your pension at the end of your

working life, so really there

wasn't a lot of movement

between groups in

society Classes. And I think

that there, the relatives who

would visit here really did

perceive us as quite an

egalitarian society with a lot

of movement potentially, across

different types of work or

social strata or whatever you

want to call it, and I worry

that that is - that's not true

for everyone. It has become

less true for a marginalised

group in our community. So I

think that that is - a real

challenge for our future to

make sure that that idea that

we give possibility to every

child born in this country and

that with some support and the

right help that child can achieve to their full potential

and do anything they want to

do. You have all talked about

fairly positive experiences I

think so far. Would any of you

say that we are or are seen as

a racist country? No. I

don't think we are a racist

country. You don't think we

are seen that way either? No,

I don't. I think there are

levels of ignorance in

Australian society that can be

overcome and there are barriers

to cultural sensiblities,

cultural awareness but I don't

think as a nation we are

racist. I think that we are

seen as a culturally diverse

society. I think we need to

work on the way we unite within

the cultural diversities. And

young people are shedding the

legacy of the white Australia

policy, I think these days. I think that's absolutely true

but I think the bad news for us

is a couple of times in the

last decade and a half, say, we

have had some very bad press overseas because the things

that have made it on to TV

screens overseas have been the

Cronulla riot, Pauline Hanson's

comments, those sorts of

things. The bad news for us is

that is a tiny minority of what

we represent. It makes C NN.

I don't know whether this will,

this weekend but the few bad

news stories do. I want to get

into foreign policy decision.

Richard, I want to bring you in

on this migrant issue and a lot

of migrants coming here find

their qualifications aren't

recognised, be they doctors or

engineer s. You are someone in

the health and medical field.

Is this something that you

think could be fixed or

addressed? You know, it is a

really good question. I think

one of the huge opportunities

we have as Australians is global citizens. I mentioned

this earlier and the question

is how do you create this

interprap ablity between

countries that will provide

mutual benefits for Australians

and those countries that are

partners. And I think in

education we have got a

tremendous strength. The

universities here are second to

none in the world, the schools

are outstanding. We have to

continue to build that and we

have, I think, built very

strong relationships based on

discoveries that have been made

by medical researchers and

basic scientists here. That is

a place where we could build

inter opera billity between the

countries. Education having

similar types of degrees that

are recognised in the US and

recognised in Australia or

recognised in Europe would be a

great way to get started on

that and I know there is a lot

of work that has been done over

the last 10 years in - trying

to built that. I will just get

you to pick up on that because

you have got a direct personal

experience with this question.

I can I say what Richard say

in terms of recognition of

qualification, the issue we are

facing in most of the newly

arived communities is people

migrates to Australia with high

qualification, even if their

qualification is recognised, to

get into the workforce is very,

very difficult and what we have

to do as a nation is to

education employers by having

these people into the workforce

they benefit a lot. The benefit

of having people who speak more

than 3, 4 languages, people who

have got a lot of experience

working in their country, it is

a matter of risk killing them

and then get them back to the

workforce. There is a lot of

way of doing that. We are not

using those capital we do have

in Australia. Let's move on.

At the risk of being labelled

that horrible world

un-Australian, I want to

explore whether there is anything embarrassing about

being Australian. Let's check

what our overseas guests

thought about this question. Nothing embarrassing me about

Australia, I am one of those

people who's profoundly

greatful that I was born in

Australia. When you fly home

and that Qantas jet starts

circling Sydney and the cabin

crew pipe the Australian youth

choir singing "I till call

Australia home". I am one of

those people who gets misty

every time. I am impressed

that Australia is not a

Republic - I am embarrassed

that Australia is not a

Republic. I hope that comes

back on the agenda at some

point. Well, there it it is.

The word that is rippling

around this summit fairly

frequently, a Republic.

Richard, is this an

embarrassment for Australia

overseas we are still a

constitutional monarchy? To be

honest I have never really come

across situations where anybody

thought that the leader of this country was anyone other than

the PM of the country. But I

certainly understand that there

is a real and valid dialogue

and discussion to take place

around the way in which the

country should be structured.

But I don't think the world

sees Australia as being run by

the Queen. Maybe not in the

US, but in Britain they

certainly do and in fact every

time a PM visits there, the

story is just all over the

papers there about the fact

that Australia is still bound

to the monarchy. It is an

issue in that country in

particular. Sam, what do you

think? Is this something

that's embarrassing? Well, I

think we are paving the path

for implementing a Republic

within Australia. I think the

national die local and the discourse has begun. I think

it is a given. We are going to

be a Republic. I hope it is

sooner than later. And right

now, the conversation is about

what model, what form should

this Republic take? And we

shouldn't be too rash in terms

of which model to adopt. I

think we should take some

measured deliberation,

consultation with the community

first and foremost. But I

think it will happen and it

should happen. Getting back to

the question about what is embarrassing about Australia

Sam, anything in your mind? I

have to say, this is being

reconciled of course, but the

delayed apology to the

indigenous community: I was

personally embarrassed for that

and on a positive note, I think

one of the APPLAUSE One of the

proudest moments of my life as

an Australian was sitting in

this Great Hall behind the

stolen generation members,

families of the Stolen

Generation and listening to the

national apology. I think that

was when I felt like I was an

Australian as well. It was

such an a amazing, such a

successful nation building

exercise and we should never

under estimate the power of

symbolism in this country, and

it has done good for indigenous

and non-indigenous Australians

rch The apologise was something

that was noticed around the

world. This was an act that

did get a lot of coverage in

other parts of the world and a

lot of people, a lot of world

leaders raised it with the PM

on his visit. So, I guess our

treatment of indigenous

Australians is something that

people pay attention to round

the world. Absolutely and I

don't know how any of us can

justify or live with a 17 year

life expectancy gap. That is

something we do have to say as

a nation we just have to fix

it. While we can tell China

what to do about Tibet, we do

hear the response - why don't

you fix your own problems like

that 17 year gap. Do you think

this is an embarrassment still

for Australia? Unquestionably.

There is one more embarrassment

- Not veg might. Don't say

that. No, I think Pamela

Anderson in the bay watch Cosi

in the ug boots. I think we

did a terrible thing to world

fashion. Is there anything you

find embarrassing at all? I

agree with Tania and Sam in

regard to the treatment of

indigenous Australians. And

our image in the world and also

the treatment of asylum seekers

in dissension centres. -

detention centres. Has that

issue been resolved now or do

you still think - do we still

need a more compassionate approach towards asylum

seekers? Of course, if there

is a will, there is a way. If

we are serious about human

right, that is where we have to

start, from our home and then

we can talk about Tibet and

others. Richard when we talk

about compassion, and I know

this is an issue you have been

thinking about as well, you

believe Australia should have a

more compassioniate image

abroad? Yes, the opportunity

that Australia has right now is

to lead on the global stage.

And the question is, as we move

towards 2020, what are those

leadership responsibilities we

are going to have. And I think

that there is a tremendous

opportunity to lead with this

image of being compassionate,

as a compassionate country both

looking to our own people, our

indigenous people and to the

disenfranchised group, but also

compassion on a global scale.

And leading by example there as

well. Do you think we are not seen as compassionate in the

United States where you you

work? Look, I think there is a

real dramatic evolution in that

perception and I think exactly

with a voice that was heard

around the world - with the

response to our indigenous

people and I think that's, if

you like, a stake in the ground

for the future of this country,

the way it can be seen in a

more visible way. You have all

talked about a couple of things

in recent times - the apology,

the asylum seeker issue. I

want to see what our overseas

guests think about what we have

done in the last couple of

decades that change perceptions

of Australia. I do think that

perceptions of Australia have

changed over a 15, 20 year

period. I think that there was

a much greater propensity, 15,

20 years ago for someone to hit

you on the back and say "g'day

mate". In a bad Australian

accent. But in 2008,

Australians have carved out a

much bigger presence across a

much broader range of issues

internationally. And so I

think people are used to

dealing with Australians on a

much broader range of issues.

So, I hope that that means that

they see Australia as a more sophisticated country and

Australians as being more

sophisticate ed individuals. I

think Americans increasingly

are more conscious of Australia

because we are more involved in

issues that you know of

interest to Americans. The

participation in Iraq, and

Afghanistan, and the stance on

global warming that Australia

has taken I think has actually

raised aware ness for the

average American about the

country and its people.

Perceptions of Australia have

changed because of different

kinds of individual engagement.

Engagement with our films,

engagement with particular

performing ensembles, visual

artists and so forth. The

development and rise,

exponential rise in quality and

number of indigenous arts has

made a huge difference to the

perception of Australia. Bob

Isherwood in the middle in New

York raised an interesting

point. Our participation in

Iraq and Afghanistan was noticeed in the United States.

Whether you agree with that, it

was certainly welcomed by the

Bush administration and also it

seems by a great number of

American people as well. Our

support for the alliance.

Tania, you obviously disagreed

with the Iraq war, but when you

look at our foreign policy in

the past decade. How do you

think our position in Iraq and

Afghanistan has changed

perceptions of Australia. I

don't know whether you are

right about the American people

welcoming our participation.

Our support for the alliance I

think. There is also a lot of

opposition to the Iraq war in

the United States and that's

particularly the case as it has

dragged on. I don't - I have

never thought that it's

necessary for us to do exactly

what we are told to in

situations like that, just to

keep the alliance strong. I

think we have a strong

alliance. I think the PM's

recent visit there shows what a

strong friendship there is

between our two nations, but I

think our foreign policy

decisions have to be based on

Australia's priorities and

Australian decisions and I

don't believe that our alliance

and our friendship depends on

signing up for a war like Iraq. Richard, you live and work

there and you have done

for... APPLAUSE For 17 year,

what do you think? How have

our decisions on Iraq and

Afghanistan gone down with the

American people? You know, I

think that Australia and

America have got a very

uniquely strong relationship

and I think that Australia has

stuck with American despite global challenges and their

approval for things they have

been doing. And I think we

have shared blood in most of

the major conflicts over the

last century. And you know,

1942 when we had some conflict

on our northern borders, the

national guard, 23rd division

came, boys from Wisconsin who

were in their late teens and

early 20s didn't think twice to

give their lives for

Australians. So I wouldn't

contest the initial decision,

but I think this again has

evolved and I think that the

Australian people have

responded appropriately,

intelligently as new

information came forward and

obviously the appropriate

decision has been made

sequentially. But I wouldn't

question the importance of the

real contribution that America

and Australia have made to each

other's benefit, particularly

maintaining security in this

part of the globe. So I think

there are a lot of other

elements to it which are very

important. This is a very,

very important relationship to

this country. APPLAUSE. What

about this depyouity sheriff

notion. Does anybody see us

that way? There will always be

people who see it that way but

I think Australia calls its own

shots and has made this pretty

clear. We have heard a lot

yesterday at the summit about

the rise of China in

particular, and how that is the

biggest challenge, I suppose,

for Australia as we look

towards 2020. If we do

inevitably draw closer and have

deeper ties with China, do you

think that's a good thing and

do you think people around the

world will be watching how

Australia does that,

particularly with a manda rin

speaking PM? I think having

alliance with different

countries t is Australia's

choice, and if there is any

opportunity we can work

together that's a fantastic

way. I would love to see, let

alone China, every migrant

community here to have a great

link with their own country

because they are ambassadors

for their own country. We can

benefit a lot for having that

link. So I think that's a

great idea. I want to look at

what we can do to improve

Australia's image abroad and

indeed improve recognition of

Australia beyond just the

harbour bridge and kangaroos.

Here is what the ex-pats say

they would like to import to Australia from around the

world. What I would really

like to bring back to Australia

is an institutional pride. The

CSIRO, the ABC, our

universities have been very

poorly funded and very poorly

managed over a number of years.

And I am not talking about

people inside those

institutions who have enormous

good will twashdz them -

towards them and are trying

their best. I am talking about

the way in which government

understands what those institutions can do for

Australia. If I had to - if I

was able to import anything

from where I am to Australia it

would be a couple of things.

One is an increased sense of

globelisation. I think some

Australians get it, some don't.

The other thing that I would

import is a lower personal tax

rate. I think we would all

like to see a lower personal

tax rate. It does raise an

interesting question about our

economy and how that is seen

around the world mpltd and rich

- and Richard, are we seen as a

lucky country because of our

natural resources more than

perhaps a creative and

innovative country? OK. So I

mean, my perspective on this is

that we are very good at

channeling our creative

capacity. We have got a lot

of very clever people and they

have in turn changed the world.

For example, the nature of

peptic ulcer disease, the

concept of the way of that

disease has changed completely

over the last 20 years because

two Australians questioned the

dogma and now hundreds of millions of people who would

have been affected by this

disease are treated with simple

antibiotics, similarly the

cervical cancer disease. And

so, this is the way in which we

have harnessed what we do here

very, very well. A well

educated, clever country, and

the aspect of globalisation or

compassionate globelisation

here is we are harnessing this creative force to change the

world in a very positive way.

Resources, but they are intellectual resources as well

as gold and iron ore. Tanya

Plibersek, what do you think we

can do to improve our image

overseas? I think there has

been a time in Australia in the

recent past when debate,

discussion, challenge, really

wasn't encouraged and anyone

who said "why do we do it this

way". Was told they were

marginal to society, they were

inner city, left wing,

Late-sipping, char donnay

socialists. Says the MP for

Sydney. I don't see anything

wrong with those things. What

I want for this nation is we

are not afraid to lift our

sights, we are not afraid to

debate and challenge one

another. That it's not seen as

marginal to Australian life to ask how can we do things

better. Elana anything that

springs to mind for you that

would be a good way of

improving Australia's image?

To look at our cultural

diversity which you don't get

it. Maybe Canada will be the

one which compares with

Australia. We have got a

cultural capital and we should

be able to use that to have our

image in the world. Using our

cultural capital. Sam, tourism

ads, these are aimed at drawing

tourists to Australia, but they

do say a lot about what

Australia is to the rest of the

world. Indeed it is probably

all a lot of people would see

about Australia. Whether it is

the Paul Hogan throw a shrimp

on the Barbie or Lara Bingle -

where the bloody hell are you,

it does seeming to a constant

theme of beaches, good weather.

Is that the right way to

promote Australia?

Unfortunately I don't look

like Lara Bingle. Relatives of

mine when they come to

Australia they imagine being

greeted at the airport with a

kangaroo with a beer in his

hand. Not a bad idea. I think

we need to be a bit culturally

diversion in the way we project

our image to the world because

that then becomes internlised

by Australian citizens and we

need to have a more reflective

image of Australia. Just

looking around in the audience

we have an amazing plethora of

individuals from all walks of

life and that needs to be I

guess reflected in those

national advertising campaigns

definitely. We are going to

look at our hopes for the

future, we we want to be in

2020 in terms of how we want

the world to view Australia.

Here is the vision of our three

ex-pats. I hope that heading

to 2020 Australia can have a

clear objective and clear

definition to get to a place

and stand for something.

Certainly, I think we need to

have some thought around where

we stand with primary produce.

I mean t is something we fall

in and out of love with as far

as our economy is run, and

maybe it is not suggesting - it

is not either/or, or an and/and

world where maybe we can not

only sell stuff raw, that we

grow and dig out of the ground,

but can become value adders.

Maybe that's a role for us. The

value-adders, or maybe we could

become the imagineer s for the

world. Maybe that is what our

equity might be going forward.

In which case we need probably

to be looking for carefully at

our universities. Can we build

our universities and make those

the very best universities in

the world to export the very

best brain power from Australia

and to import great brain power

into Australia as well. My

hopes for the Australian future

is it continues on its current

success trajectory. Whilst

maintaining its natural

environment and maintaining

that sense of liberty that

people who live in Australia

have the privilege of enjoying.

I have very high hopes for

Australia and its future. Australia and its future. And

I am very optimistic about this

country and its opportunities.

But I summarise my hopes and

fears by saying beyond any

questions of salinity, of

water resource management, of

population impact, the

governance, of our economic

cycles, I think it is very

important to understand what

decision-making processes

underpin all of that and what

will be the impediments to a

really great future for

Australia. I think we actually

have to learn fundamentally how

to link our thinking up, how to

link our decision making up in

a much more streamlined way.

Well, they are the hopes and

visions of our ex-pats. Let's

go around the couch. Tania,

first to you. What sort of

Australia would you like to see

projected in 2020? Well, I

would like to be - I would like

to be thinking about the past

12 years and how we had spent

that time building a

partnership between government, the not for profit sector,

business and the community and

how in that time we had tackled

homelessness and reflecting on

how we could take that approach

that has been successful in

homelessness by 2020 and

applying it to the next

challenge in the Australian

community. Do you think that

is something people overseas

recognise. Our homelessness

problem. I don't think we are

perceived as a particularly bad

country where it comes to homelessness but I think we

could do much, much better than

we are doing. What is your

hope for the future? My vision

for the future is 2020, a long

way to go, but we have to start

now today, we plan, we talked

about it, we had - we engaged

in conversation, what we would

do in - what we see Australia

in 2020. My vision is, yes,

good to think about ahead, but

we have to start now from today

on all 1,000 people who have

been participating, passioniate, energetic and

talking about new ideas and

solutions, going out to their

own community where they

belong, where they work or

live, and share that. And

start from today on about what

we are going to do in future.

This is a start, this is a

community engagement which is

very passioniate about and we

are seeing it. This is an

example of community engage:

let's keep up this. This

word, compassioniate country

keeps coming up. Richard, what

is your vision for the future

and do you share that hope for

a compassioniate image?

Absolutely. I think this is

something that everybody can

get behind as a vision of what

this country can be. We could

be seen as the most

compassionate and ethical

country on the globe and lead by our behaviour. And by that

I mean, compassioniate and

ethical towards our own people,

they may be the homeless or

people social ly

disenfranchised or people on

disability who can't afford to

make telephone calls. And

focussed on a compassion iate

global vision. I think that

Australia has a tremendous

opportunity to relatively cost effectively impact health care

for example on a global scale.

We have technologies we have

developed here, we can use the

web to deploy, to really impact

cancer prevention for example

and disguise - disease

prevention around the world. I

thirk that will be a - I think

that would be a very cool image

for Australia to be leading as

a compassioniate and ethical

global citizen. I hope as

Australians we can become a

global citizenry and we take a

step up, take a bold stance

against climate change, and

against poverty around the

world. I think we have amazing

social movements in Australia

that are doing so much for

these global initiatives and I

would hope that the government

actually reflects this and

keeps up with these amazing

movements. You have raised two really interesting points there

I think Sam, that we haven't

fleshed out much. One is

climate change and the other is

global poverty. Now, I will

throw this to all of you,

climate change, would you like

to see Australia playing a lead

role, playing a much more

advanced role than we currently

are on climate change. Whether

that's through setting much

deeper targets to cut emissions, whether that's

through greater investment. Is

this something Australia can

lead on do you rest of you

think? I think you would have

to say we have gone in about 18

weeks since we have been in

government from prettiy much

equal last in leadership on the

world to climate change to

toward the front of the pack

and I am convinced that

particularly with the

leadership of not just the PM

but Penny Wong we are going to

be making a big impact in the

world. We are not in front of

the pack of a lot of other country, are we, on climate

change? No, but I think you

have to say in 18 weeks the

turn around between our

position then and our position

now has been monumental. We

have got serious challenges in

Australia, we have got a big

dependance on coal. I think

everyone understands that, but

the attitude shift that we have

seen has been substantial. And

Elana is climate change you

think something that could be

built into Australia's image as

a world leader? Yep,

definitely. We can be champion

in that area, because we have

got experts, we have got people

who knows about the detail of

environmental change and the

excellence in everything we do

we could do that. Can I

mention about homeless, in

2020, to have every child or

every homeless to have a roof

on their head is very

important. Some mention about

poverty, free of poverty, in

terms of our education system,

and in terms of our health

system, every Australian in

2020 to be a - to live their

life to the fullest and be

healthy. The Sam the other

point you raised was globag

poverty. Would you like to see

the aid budget lifted

substantially? I would like to

see it to 0.7. Yes. I think

it needs to be. By 2020? Now.

I think this it is the right

time and there is no reason why

we should be taking a

complacent stance at the

moment. Richard, what do you

think on that? Well, I think

the key here is the way in

which we partner foreign aid

with other countries to have

achievable goals. And it is

not just the way we spend, not

just the amount we spend, but

there are natural si