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(generated from captions) Virginia, it's a Hardenbergia

or happy wanderer and I picked

morning. I was being nibbled by it at the Red Hill lookout this

a mob of kangaroos and it looks fantastic with or wout lycra. I don't know all about that lycra Mark, it worries me but thank you very much. A brief recap our top story. Passengers on a

Qantas jumbo jet that's made an emergency landing in Manila have told of a terrifying midair drama after a hole

opened up in the fuselage. And that's ABC News. Stay with us now for 'Stateline' with Catherine Garrett

goodnight. Closed Captions by next. Have a great weekend,

CSI Hello Stateline, I am Catherine Hello and welcome to

Garrett, coming up, gets set to become the Garrett, coming up, Dalgety

capital, another chapter in our gets set to become the nation's

history of Canberra series. First though, improving the standards of teachers and education, always seems good idea and never more so education, always seems like a

than during an We have had promises from both incentives and reducing class sizes. But what do teachers Canberra think of their profession and its current Canberra think of their chosen

I decided to become a teacher because I really working with teacher because I really enjoy I think one of the main reasons is so that I can make a difference to the community and to like the future to like the future society as well. Do you think teaching is as a low end job? Yes. Do you think teaching is seen

straight out of college as a low end job? Yes. Coming

High School they don't advocate straight out of college and

for us to do it because they

am not - doing it for the pay, say the pay is not worth it. I

I am doing it for the say job I know, I can wake up and every day be excited to go for. Teaching is incredibly demanding job, probably more demanding than any other job I can think of because every minute of day you are faced with heaps because every minute of every

decisions you have got to and heaps of different

and you have got to make them instantly. Do you people seeing teaching as a low instantly. Do you get tired of end job? Not really, because enjoy it I don't care end job? Not really, because I

what others think about it, I enjoy it I don't care about

am the one doing it, if it it shouldn't really matter am the one doing it, if I enjoy

what other people think it. Having smaller class what other people think about

benefits student, it benefitses teachers because it allows them to do their effectively. Our job is priority lies in effectively. Our job is the

teaching, it lies in raising the standards of protion. Do you think teaching is a bit of flavour of the month because we have got election looming? I young and I probably election looming? I am on

two or three elections and it young and I probably voted in

comes up and it is a bit is the same time every time it

cynical. A way to win We are going to support teachers because is been harshing on it as end. I am not sure perhaps asked are the people I haven't actually themselves and asked are the teachers

things that we ought themselves and maybe one of the

doing is asking they would really value most and I think it is more just increased I think teachers are paid but what needs to happen I think teachers are under

is there needs to be more room for movement within the scale, not necessarily performance pay but the fact that it it 10 years to get to the top of pay and once The danger with incentive pay is if you have very simplistic measures of how teachers are, such as simplistic measures of how good

results of their students in standardised actually not necessarily to reward best you can have teachers who have to reward best teachers because

got kids who are struggling who maybe don't do quite but actually they do a maybe don't do quite so well

Dalgety gets set the nation's capital or at Dalgety gets set to become

least it did at the century. In this instalment of least it did at the turn of the

our history series, David Headon relates the story of the capital selection. And options began to narrow and focus right here on what we now call Canberra. Stateline a few weeks ago we embarked on of the earlier history of the nation's capital. Stage 1 if you like, in the 1890s multitude of proud towns you like, in the 1890s when a cities across the country aired multitude of proud towns and claim claims to being turn-of-the-century writer put claim claims to being as one it with affection "the treasure house of a nation's heart". This all-in stage lasted just on a decade until federation in 1901 when section 125 of new Australian 1901 when section 125 of the specified that the would be in NSW, though it had specified that the capital

to be at least 100 miles from Sydney. One man destined play an important, if the capital, was long Carruthers. It is a pretty politician, Sir Joseph

safe bet most Australians days would not know anything about him. Well, one fact about Carruthers is outlived virtually all his founders. So on 9 coinciding with the opening of the provisional Parliament House, that elegant John Smith Murdoch building behind The 'Canberra Times' put out a special come emtive issue, this issue in which the editor a politician to write a about the capital, he a politician to write a story

a State politician, Joseph Carruthers. As Carruthers in an Carruthers. As right as ever,

article mediclusly recorded Carruthers in an expensive

what he called the Battle of the Sites. Curiously it neither a jub land nor either particular satisfying recollection for Carruthers. Quite the contrary. At one point he confesses "it is none too pleasant to remember vive these memories of other days and if there has been any change for the better, in last 20 years, one to close the veil". But they have continued from 1901 down to 1927 and will only down to 1927 and will only now cease cease when the Federal Parliament finally meets at Canberra and the real seat of government is in government is in in-August rated there". continued. They will not cease. Who is cease. Who is he talking about? undermining? The answer that question is revealing stories. The Battle of the Sites stage two - that lasts from February 1902 to August 1904 and to be August 1904 and to be sure it ends in a seat of government Act, but not for After the you new nation's sell - you forrus of the - euphoria of the new nations celebrations, the Federal parliamentarians well knew they had been trusted by the nation in as it was put at the time expeditiously finding a permanent capital. To be in NSW, to the south most inland certainly, and with plenty of water. And so began The extraordinary tours of the senators and members of the House of Representatives. By train, by sea, by coach, when the occasion demanded, with the active use of what father used to call, Shank's Pony. Legging out the distances if needed. Walking and

Many a plug of to be - tobacco was pressed into was pressed into the pipes as they saw the ideal city The first group to head out into the Senate s, for three weeks in February 1902. The Reps even more add venrous when at a break neck pace over two weeks in May. Between them, they looked at looked at sites in Armidale, Orange, Lyndhurst near Orange, Bathurst, Goulburn, Yass, Tumut, Tumut, Bombala, Albury, Lake

George and Canberra. Via the Queanbeyan railway one point heading south, jumped on a ferry at Nowra to hasten the trip to the potential capital town of Eden Two Fold Bay, where the town and typical of the time, recollected a federal capital arch to welcome capital arch to welcome the visiting visiting parliamentarians. Eden put its best foot put its best foot forward but the delegation was on a mission and had to keep embarking on the steep Brown Mountain to region locations. It that no long coach climb was complete back then if you didn't have the leg And what looks decidedly like a compulsory group wee route. This distinctive location looks well used. your eyes peeled when you are next on Brown Mountain, halfway down you will halfway down you will see a slightly slightly sheared Battle of the Sites Sites federation rock, this rock, still very visible neatly tucked in against tucked in against the rainforest Ferns. It is a subtly significant, if not geographicly distant bit culture heritage. For the wonderful these site visits we have the photographer Edward Thomas 'Monte' Luke to thank. For accompanied the parliamentarians and parliamentarians and captured them on his elegant silver images, sometimes in formal mode and at other times full of mischief, spoken ten spon aty and as Manning Clark, the historian put it, sheer buffoonary. treasure is now safely housed in the pick torran in the pick torran section of the National Library of Australia. These first tours were orchestrated by were orchestrated by the former NSW Premier, and former

anti-federationist, Sir William Lyne after whom the Canberra suburb of Lyneham was named. suburb of Lyneham was named. A big hulk of a man whom Billy Hughes would describe as one of the most remarkable men the most remarkable men in our history. Here is history. Here is sir William, deep in disconduction of the Commonwealth Parliament, Hughes would many times recall Lyne habit recall Lyne habit when deep in disuks of tweaking on his beard and as you can see, Monte Luke caught the habit for us, and for posterity. While NSW for posterity. While NSW and federal politician, George Reid read, our fourth PM, mentioned in my first Stateline in my first Stateline segment. Sardonically referred to Sardonically referred to these tours as Lyne picnics, we know the canny politician Lyne had a political agenda. He member for the massive southern NSW electorate of Hume Wagga to the Victorian border, and he desperately wanted and he desperately wanted the

capital in his electorate. Lyne lobbied hard for Albury or Tumut but his federal neighbour, Austin Chapman, neighbour, Austin Chapman, a robust federation who has also given his name to a Canberra suburb and was first member of the weather seat weather seat of Eden-Monaro, Chapman determination wanted the capital in his patch, so he prom ited Bombala and the even more remote town of more remote town of Dalgety. Since it always seemed that the federation firm believers in the attive and revitalising qualities of a cold climate would eventually opt for a southern location, for this battle of the sites it was game on. Lyne and Chapman on. Lyne and Chapman engaged in their own battle for in their own battle for the ultimate prize. Nearly three

years of intense debates later, the debates later, the Commonwealth parliament produced a momentous decision, on the 15th of August 1904 the first Labor government lead by the car is mattic Chris Watson went this place - Dalgety. Before 187 4 bucklies crossing south-west of Tumut and with a latitude similar to Thredbo in the rest and Tumut to the Why did it happen and how in heavens name did it finish heavens name did it finish up as a Seat of Goverment Act of Australian parliament. The Dalgety story makes a contribution to the the Australian capital. the Australian capital. This delightful little as the Battle of the Sites raged. In 1902 when many possible locations. 1904, when it 1904, when it had its moment in the federal sun, with the Seat of Goverment Act and of Goverment Act and then having into the years following 1904 it was back again at the business end of 1908 in ferocious competition with Yass Canberra. Canberra. Clearly, Dalgety demands our attention. What demands our attention. What we can say with the benefit of 100 years of hindsight is that Dalgety's Dalgety's plentiful water supply supply inland location and cold, cold winters were for town both the good news and the bad news. The sheer bad news. The sheer abundance of water so engaging to the eye in the then surging waters of the Snowy river running right through the town, through the town, powerfully influenced the two significant surveyors at the time. time. Renowned explorer, former Western Australian Premier and federal politician Sir John Sir John Forrest and Charles Scrivener, a NSW district surveyor but a man surveyor but a man destined to ultimately survey of the Canberra site in 1909 and later to be appointed to the prestigious position to the prestigious position of Director of Commonwealth Lands

and surveys. Forrest and Scrivener why adamant Scrivener why adamant in 1904 that dell dell was the Dalgety was the best site of the nation's capital. Their reputation and status could reputation and status could not easily be ignored, not the NSW politicians to see the capital much to Sydney. But against the considered research of Forrest and Scrivener was the Federal parliamentarians who experienced Dalgety for themselves, most found the site impossibly cold. As we expect of any one expect of any one of his descriptions in dismissed Dalgety as dismissed Dalgety as an outlandish freezing place outlandish freezing place where the the climate, he said, would kill half of the older kill half of the older men. Queensland House of Representatives member Sinclair used to balmy climbs up was utterly intimidated by the stunted timber and howling winds, winds so winds, winds so severe, he declared that you had to hang on for dear life. exertion to Dalgety, delegation in which Billy Hughes was a Hughes was a member, established Blue Legged Pelicans, a very weird society, Hughes would write, formed, as he put it, at a place where the highest flights of nature's beauty are associated with her lowest

temperatures. When ration founders were engaged on these regular visits a century ago, there were two hotels in Crossing Hotel, and Keating's Horse and Jockey Horse and Jockey Inn. The visitor today will find both buildings essentially intact. The Buckley's Crossing Hotel The Buckley's Crossing Hotel is still in business, still in business, while Keatings is now the home local store owner Julie local store owner Julie Pearson

and her husband. kind enough to get the crew get the excellent of the building today. It is heartens that the Pearson are restoring the site, for it seems certain that the visiting parliamentarians stayed in Keatings as their accommodation of choice. A few wonderful stories have survived. When the esteemed members of the Order of the Blue Legged Pelicans weress constabled Pelicans weress constabled in Keatings night, one member was almost the fatality of the Federal tours having suddenly found his trousers alight because he was too close to the fire place. However , dousing the evidently proved than it might otherwise have been. For been. For the reason that the member in question had a wooden leg! They managed to leg! They managed to put him out safely. On another night, with all the visitor imbibes and in garralous mood, it garralous mood, it was decided that a representative of the parliamentarians, the local state member mel gus miller anded leader of anded leader of the parliamentary press gallery, George Cockrell could complete with what was described with what was described as supremacy in Patriotic offererings such as the 'Death of Nelson' and 'Let Me Like a Soldier Fall' filled

the air. Hughes was the competition judge. And astute judge. And astute politician he always was, he gave a popular decision to the local boy, Miller, The next morning Hughes, ever the enthusiast, everyone is going everyone is going for a swim and he gets up all parliamentary colleagues. In policies and patent he takes the story. In less than the story. In less than no time we were all in the porch of the hotel looking of the hotel looking dublusly at the swirling waters of snow ji river flowing snow ji river flowing swiftly down their channel, lit up by the gold rays of the gold rays of the morning sun. We sun. We had a close up view of this historic this historic stream and at that distance there denying it was picturesque but as we stood muscled up in our

overcoat, not unlike the one I am wearing today, the idea of swimming, says Hughes, became at every moment less and less inviting. It was at that moment one of their number, moment one of their number, the local local member, he was well used to it, gus Miller, on the other side of the river decides would leap in. And Hughes takes up the story "We heard the voice of Gus and remarkable man clam bering like a bull seal on a a bull seal on a half submerged lock near the opposite bank". "Come on boys, the water beautiful". He managed to encourage one of the parliamentary reps, a man Hughes new called Edwards, he slipped out of his top coat and kicked off his shoes, "come on, he said to us, there can't be much wrong, there can't be much wrong, look at Gus". Gorge having the waters edge, stood tor a moment ereslut and he half slipped, until he was completely submerged. Then with an agonised howl he clam back on the bank "my God". He said when he recovered his breath ". It is liquid ice I tell you, liquid ice". Hughes recognising this, starts to be a little chagrinned but nevertheless he decides he nevertheless he decides he will sit down on a log like this one, he will take the shoe off and the socks - and he plunged into what he called ice. It ice. It was in 1908, it certainly is in 2008. Most our federation forebears, Australian Britons to the core, revelled in winter weather but it seems with Dalgety they were prepared to

draw a line in the snow. Joseph Carruthers in his Joseph Carruthers in his 1927 'Canberra Times' recalled a meeting with a number of Tasmanian number of Tasmanian and Victorian members of the Federal Parliament where he, Carruthers, mentioned Dalgety's inaccessiblity. of the members said "yes, that is exactly why I voted is exactly why I voted for Dalgety". "What do you mean" asked Carruthers and the reply came, "don't you realise a lot of us deliberately voted for the most impossible site order to destroy the possibility of having a possibility of having a bush captain applicant - inflicted

on Australia". Dalgety's dramatic rise to prominence in later 1904 only later 1904 only emphasised the indecent haste of its fall from grace, twice. The NSW Premier of Carruthers and colleagues in the NSW Legislative Assembly were having nothing to do with Dalgety. By Dalgety. By default, Canberra's emergens and that's what we will on next time. See you then. David Headon David Headon and his co-producer and editor was Stateline's Damien Porombka, the next instalment in four week s' time. Neg Greg Nelson took the pictures of Dalgety,

mof of them at the end of the

program and if you program and if you like history join us next week when Alex Sloean reports Sloean reports on Manning Clark's letters, now Clark's letters, now aclaimed composer Peter Sculthorpe has addressed the issue of reconciliation with Australia in a unique fashion. His music collaboration His music collaboration with Didgeridoo Barton was on show at the CSO at Llewellyn Hall during the week. They spoke to Stateline in rehearsals. William played a piece by the Australian festival at Townsville in and it was the and it was the first classical piece you had played William, played Didgeridoo with? Yes, first piece of yours. We first piece of yours. We became phone friends and then I met him in a year later in 2002 when he played a work of when he played a work of mine, 'Earth Cry', and a bit that we went to Japan and consolidated our friendship and William played two there. They loved William in Japan. They just adored We don't even have to talk about it now, because William in instinctively knows what to do. That's right. It doesn't vary too much. No, but about it, even in notated mutic there is a slight difference every time you have got a different conductor, a different performance base, so essentially I have much essentially I have much more freedom obviously, but I am still telling that story Well, what Memento Mon is this could be Memento Mon is this could be a met for, for our planet if met for, for our planet if we don't take some quick action and being me, I can never end a

piece, on a miserable note. always have to look upwards and be optimistic, so be optimistic, so I use a Catholic clean chant, sere, throughout and then finally after is beautiful, harmonious is beautiful, harmonious and suggesting hope It is about connecting to mother earth essentially, as Peter has already Peter has already explaining in the sense we have to look after the planet and so on, and that really sits home with many indigenous cultures of the world. Because we are indigenous essentially, know. And looking after mother earth, and not so much you earth, and not so much you know taking from it. I am hoping a reviewer would write about that but instead the reviewer just write s about the music and not about the

message I am trying to give. Incidentally it does actually end on a low note because after - in an optimistic - in an optimistic way because after the orkess electoral music finishes, William plays on afterwards and brings it quietly to an end. The concert Hall were between CSO and Australia. That is the program for this week. I look forward to your same time next week. For now, goodbye.

Hi, I'm Andy Muirhead, and this is Collectors. This is my new friend, Ashley-Kate. But where would she fit in to an everyday collection? Stick around and find out. THEME MUSIC We're all getting hammered.

Each hammer I have in my collection is catalogued. They're numbered from one up to 4,500 at this stage. Adrian indulged his passion for Whitefriars glass. It was the toast of the town, it was astonishing, it was astronomically expensive. Gordon goes pre-1850s. Look how wide the wood is. They used to call this 'red gold'.