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Rebels And Redcoats -

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in its American colonies. sailed to crush the rebellion In 1776, a British force

from New York. British Redcoats evicted the Rebels seemed tantalisingly close. Outright victory the British were in trouble. But a year later, to the Rebels at Saratoga. An entire army surrendered against the British. the French to join in the struggle This crucial victory encouraged had been fought at sea, If the American War of Independence it would have been no contest. almost no ships fit to administer. The Americans had an admiralty, but had a huge navy, The British, in contrast, to rule the waves for granted. years, took their ability and, at least in the war's early devised a bold strategy - General Sir Henry Clinton, The new British commander-in-chief, an invasion of the south by sea, hoped-for Loyalist heartlands. intended to penetrate to Britain's a sinister new phase. The war was about to enter

of the south, In the clammy swamplands Americans encountered in Vietnam of terror in a hostile area that British Redcoats faced the kind

200 years later. with brutal savagery. And the war here would be fought white against black, French against British, brother against brother. Just before Christmas 1778, of 3,500 men a British expeditionary force of the Savannah river. towards the mouth moved down the South Carolina coast Loyalist allies amongst Americans, Britain counted on support from eagerly awaiting them on shore. who were believed to be had already been wiped out. Some of them, however, a community of 200 runaway slaves. the Savannah river, there had been On an island at the mouth of as potential agents of the British Georgia's white Rebels saw them

and on March 25 1776, disguised as Indians, a group of Rebels, allies, landed on the island. together with some genuine Indian

Rebels had issued an order to - The ruling council of Georgia's or wherever they may be found." Negroes upon Tybee Island "Destroy all those rebellious posed no military threat. The black community of the wider conflict to come - What happened next was symptomatic a war without mercy. GUNFIRE on Tybee Island was crushed. The black runaway community it sailed past the island. moved closer to Savannah, As the British expedition There was no sign of a welcome. potential allies on the mainland. owners meant there were plenty more But the brutality of the slave on my naked skin, "I have been whipped many a time has run down over my waistband." "sometimes till the blood

war brought the hope of liberation. For slaves like David George, the white southern opposition. used the slaves to undermine And the British the Earl of Dunmore, The Loyalist governor of Virginia, a martial-law proclamation - had issued or others appertaining to Rebels, all indented servants, Negroes "I do hereby further declare

Majesty's troops as soon as may be." to bear arms, they joining His "free that are willing and able # Never, never gonna give up # Never, never gonna give up... # "All men are created equal," of Independence proclaimed in 1776. America's Declaration and rushed to join the British. it was not going to apply to them But thousands of slaves believed join Dunmore's Ethiopian regiment to British ships to Some of the slaves who couldn't get formed runaway communities. the first black Baptist churches - And David George, priest of one of there are better days ahead." my people. I assure you "There will be better days ahead, it had no building to worship in. was founded over 200 years ago, When Sugar Bluff Church whipped slave turned preacher. was David George - The man who helped found it of my people which are in Egypt. I have seen the affliction of their task masters. I have heard their cry by the reason and I come down... For I know their sorrows with aid, increased to 30 or more, Bluff till the church, constituted "I continued preaching at Silver came to the city of Savannah." "and till the British that's flowing with milk and honey. that's right, my people, Come to a land that's flowing, Praise the Lord! Can I get a witness? like wildfire amongst the slaves, was about to reach Savannah spread The news that a British force owners who supported the Rebels. and created alarm among the slave who worships at Silver Bluff I talked to Dr Frank Robertson As I retrace the British route,

David George's role in its origins. and has written a book on was any indication as to what... Well, David George, if his action most individuals felt about the war, it was probably a welcome event. for freedom. He saw it as an opportunity but what would you have made of it? It's an impossible question, what was being said and espoused I would probably have challenged Declaration of Independence. in this great as an African-American? not being extended to me Why were those same things have had on African-Americans? seeing the British fleet here would What effect do you think and some hope It caused some celebration America during the colonial period. for those who had been enslaved in On November 1 1778, on the city of Savannah. to be a frontal attack the British launched what appeared But it was only a diversion. this on the outskirts of Savannah. along paths through swamps like The real attack came from the rear, a brilliantly successful manoeuvre. the way and it was A local slave showed the invaders wounded and another 450 captured. Over 80 Americans were killed or and 10 wounded. The British lost just 3 men killed in simplistic accounts of the war. and nincompoops that we see This was not the army of blunderers now seemed to be unstoppable. The British force It moved north, took Augusta, and on the 3rd of March 1779, South Carolina, at Briar Creek. defeated an American force from Army then headed for Charleston The comparatively small British led them to move back to Savannah. of a larger American force until the threat began to look very vulnerable. trapped over there in the town Suddenly, the British at Saratoga, After the American victory and entered the war. to humiliate the British the French seized the opportunity commanded by Admiral D'estaing, of the line and 10 frigates, Now a huge French fleet, 22 ships

sailed right into the Savannah river, some of its ships anchored just beyond that bend, and began to bombard the town. Other cannon was sent ashore, and opened fire from there. This is just one of the thousands of cannonballs that pounded the British and Loyalist defences. During the siege of Savannah, the British received a hammering from land and sea. But Admiral D'estaing was apprehensive that the British Navy would come to the city's rescue, and he decided on an attack through Savannah's notorious swamps.

David George found himself caught up in the fighting. "A ball came through the stable where we lived and much shattered it." David George's sympathies were with the British, but his main concern now was protecting his family. It was becoming obvious that the French were preparing for a major assault. "This made us remove to Jamacra where we sheltered ourselves under the floor of a house on the ground." For the French and their American allies, the attack was a disaster. In the swamplands, which the British had used to their advantage a year earlier, the French and Americans were mown down.

57 British soldiers were killed or wounded in the battle. The French lost 10 times as many and even their commander was hit. The Americans lost 231 men. One of them, Sergeant William Jasper, was said to have clutched the American flag as he fell down. This was the first real battle between British and French regulars since France had joined the war. One of the bloodiest battles of the American revolution had secured British control of Georgia. The British victory dampened French enthusiasm for the war. It also added to the thousands of escaping slaves, who sought protection and support from the victors. # ..Victory is mine # Victory is mine # Victory today # Victory is mine... # In the south at least, Afro-Americans seemed to have been overwhelmingly on the side of Britain and the Loyalists, and the conquest of Savannah now seemed to hold out the hope of eventual emancipation. In the north, the picture was less clear. Some Afro-Americans fought for the Rebels, but most had first secured a promise that doing so would end their slavery. Washington, a slave owner, had initially opposed the recruitment of black soldiers. But, desperate for volunteers, he changed his mind. "As the General is informed that numbers of freed Negroes are desirous of enlisting "he gives leave to recruiting officers to entertain them "and promises to lay the matter before Congress, he who doubts not will approve of it." Washington and his army had endured two grim winters in the north - one at Valley Forge and now another at Morristown, New Jersey. I assure you, every idea you can form of our distresses will fall short of the reality. There is such a combination of circumstances to exhaust the patience of the soldiery, that it begins at length to be worn out,

and we can see in every line of the army a most serious feature - mutiny. But he had now acquired two key foreign advisors who helped him to turn from despair to hope. The Marquis du Lafayette liased with the French and lobbied hard for continuing French support for Washington, despite the Savannah setback.

Another key recruit was the self-styled Lieutenant General Baron Von Steuben. He was a former Prussian captain who'd failed to find a job with anyone else, yet he turned out to be a superb trainer of infantry. Attention! The Americans, at this stage in the war, really aren't formidable soldiers in the European sense of the word,

but this is a war which is going to be won by the people that keep fighting the longest. And there is an enormous quality of depth to the American performance. Even if they are not as good on the battlefield as the British, they do have the ability to play a long game, and that's what, ultimately, the British can't do.

Encouraged by the capture of Savannah, a larger British expedition moved southwards in 1780. Georgia had been secured, but South Carolina remained in Rebel hands. On New Year's Day 1780, a huge British force was moving down the coast, from New York to Charleston, in appalling weather. General Sir Henry Clinton, the commander-in-chief, was launching the first major British offensive since Saratoga. Despite the weather and rows with the Naval commander, Admiral Arbuthnot, and his own second-in-command, Lord Cornwallis, Clinton knew he had two important advantages. First - 5,000 men aboard these ships. Secondly - potential allies ashore whose support he'd endeavoured to secure long before he set out. "Every Negro who shall desert the Rebel standard

"shall enjoy the full security to follow within these lines any occupation he thinks proper." Unlike Dunmore's proclamation, Clinton did not offer emancipation. But David George was in no position to read the small print. He was now laid low with fever and wanted his family to abandon him and move to safety behind British lines. But there were thousands of other Afro-Americans who now had a glimpse of freedom. To the so-called rice kings of Charleston,

the slave owners who'd built their fortunes on the twin foundations of rice and slave labour, the British offer was an outrage. Some 20,000 South Carolina slaves went over to the British. When the rice kings, the rich Rebels here in Charleston, talked about liberty, they made it clear that this didn't extend to the half of the population which was black. The Rebels weren't only apprehensive about escaping slaves. A British fleet of warships and transports carrying troops was now heading towards Charleston. The city expected a sea attack, but the British had had a bloody nose last time they had tried that. This time they sailed past the city and landed at North Edisto inlet for a small elite force. This detachment then began to hack its way north to Drayton Hall - a plantation home of one of the rice kings. Undeterred by mosquitoes, alligators and a suffocating heat,

its job was to secure a safe landing place for the rest of the British force. Early on the morning of March 29 1780,

22 flatboats with muffled oars slipped up the Ashley river from Charleston harbour. The Rebels guarding it heard nothing at all.

They were met at Drayton's landing place by the cream of the British Army. Under the very noses of the Rebels, they crossed the river without any opposition whatsoever. Drayton Hall had been abandoned - its former owner had died fleeing the British. Many of the rich Rebels in the area had had to abandon their plantation homes and head into Charleston. But they were very far from giving up the besieged city to the enemy. The British decided on a surprise night advance to cut off supplies coming in from the north.

It was led by a charismatic British officer named Banastre Tarleton - "Bloody Ban". He commanded the British Legion, a force of American Loyalists,

and became celebrated for his bravery, and notorious for his brutality. On either side of the road down which they advanced were swamps. When the vanguard reached a bridge at Monck's Corner held by American troops,

Tarleton had no option but a head-on attack.

There used to be a bridge just here and Tarleton took it with that wild dash that became his trademark. British and Loyalist victory here at Monck's Corner was crucial. 76 British and Loyalist soldiers were killed and another 190 wounded

in the fighting for Charleston not far to the south. The Rebels losses were broadly similar, but more importantly, 3,600 of their regulars were taken prisoner when the city surrendered. In addition, 1,800 captured militiamen were sent home on parole and huge quantities of arms fell into the hands of the victors. A 25-year-old American Loyalist officer, Lieutenant Anthony Allaire, rode into the city, following the triumphant British Army. He was seeing Charleston, then the richest city in America, for the first time. "Spent the day in viewing Charleston and found it not a little like New York.

"Displayed the British standard on the ramparts.

"Saw the poor Rebel dogs very much chagrined at not being allowed to wear side arms." The capture of Charleston was arguably the greatest British triumph of the war so far, and seemed likely to ensure control of the south. But the Loyalists weren't winning the hearts-and-minds campaign. Elisa Wilkinson, from a wealthy South Carolina family, increasingly sympathised with the Rebels. "Much as I had admired the former lustre of the British character, "my soul shrank from the thought of having any communication with the people who had left their homes "with a direct intention to imbrue their hands in the blood of my beloved countrymen,

"or deprive them of their birthright, liberty and property." Deciding which side to take, in what is a civil war, is never easy. And I often think that we tend, as historians, to lend far more form to it than was really the case. People made decisions on the basis of family loyalty, loyalty to their friends, sheer luck often.

If you were in an area occupied by the British, then being a Loyalist made sense. I think there were very few people who are politically committed one way or the other. An awful lot join the winning side. As the British Army moved northwards from Charleston,

its commanders began to pick up substantial Loyalist support, mainly from the poor whites, the up countrymen. But the British had two serious problems. Before he handed over command here in the south to Lord Cornwallis, Clinton insisted that paroled American prisoners must be prepared to fight on his side,

and the behaviour of some British and Loyalist troops was beginning to alienate local opinion. Elisa Wilkinson's first encounter was a real shock. "They were up to the house, entered with drawn swords and pistols in their hands. "Indeed, they rushed in in the most furious manner crying out. "The moment they espied us, off went our caps. "And for what, thank you? "Only to get a paltry stone and wax pin, which kept them on our heads. "At the same time, only the most abusive language imaginable "and making as if they'd hue us to pieces with their swords. It was terrible to the last degree. "And what augmented it, they had several armed Negroes with them who threatened and abused us greatly. "They then began to plunder the house of everything they thought valuable or worth taking." Rebel men were even worse treated. At the Waxhaws, Banastre Tarleton caught up with a column of 350 retreating Virginians.

Despite an attempt to surrender, 100 of them were killed. Some called it a massacre, others saw it as the inevitable result of hot blood and cold steel. Whatever the truth, Bloody Ban was earning his nickname. As I followed the route of the British advance, I wanted to find out what ordinary Americans thought about the war. I'm not able to remember a lot of the dates and battles, but it was all about freedom and rights. And that's what we're still having trouble with in the world. I think that's why all wars come about. People feel oppressed. They take it as long as they can and then they fight. What do you think the war was really about? It was about independence and separation from Great Britain to the United States. We declared ourselves independent, you understand? What do you think it was really about? George Washington was the richest landowner in the USA. I think it was a war fought by rich people who didn't wanna pay taxes.

I think that it was probably worth it for the larger landowners. But I don't think most people had much to gain. I was talking about it just last night with a friend of mine. If we hadn't have won, we'd all be British and have socialised medicine and a decriminalised society. The cops wouldn't have guns! And at this stage of the war, it looked as if Britain WOULD win. As the British Army advanced into up-country South Carolina, it expected to uncover further Loyalist support.

Although Anthony Allaire had heard about British excesses, he believed that the locals were coming over to the victors' side. "Took up our ground at 5 o'clock in the morning. "This morning was so cold that we were glad to hover around large fires as soon as we halted. "The poor, deluded people of this province begin to be sensible of their error and come in very fast." But the British and their Loyalist allies were in for a surprise. A substantial American Rebel force was moving southwards. It was led by Horatio Gates, the acclaimed victor of Saratoga. He was seeking a confrontation with Lord Cornwallis, the British Commander,

who had just decided to move northwards. On the 15th of August, Cornwallis decided on a night advance beginning at 10 o'clock. Tarleton's dragoons were in the lead, and by 2am, they'd reached this spot, Saunders Creek. They were in for a nasty shock. By an extraordinary coincidence, the Americans had decided on an advance at precisely the same time.

At this spot, the two advanced guards literally bumped into one another. But neither side wanted a pitched battle in the dark. They separated and waited under arms for the dawn.

The 2,000 British regulars at Camden knew they would have to hold out against far more American soldiers, who were just 250 yards away from them in the darkness. The socket bayonet was very simple. It slotted onto the musket's muzzle with a quarter turn. The soldiers over here on the British right flank, the Royal Welch Fusiliers,

the 33rd regiment, and five companies of light infantry, were thoroughly familiar with the use of the bayonet. The Rebels facing them were not. About 2,500 militia from North Carolina and Virginia were over there where the wood edge now stands. They'd been issued with bayonets, but had no training in their use. Many had never been in battle. For those soldiers, the sight confronting them at dawn on August 16 must have been terrifying. When the raw soldiers of the Virginia militia saw the British regulars advancing with bayonets, they turned tail and fled without firing a shot. On the right flank, a detachment of the continental army, the by now well-trained American regulars, held firm. But the flight of the Virginia amateurs enabled the British cavalry to strike at their vulnerable flank. It was the coup de grace. The battlefield was littered with discarded muskets, abandoned knapsacks, smashed wagons and dead horses, and dead men. 68 British and Loyalist, but 250 Rebels.

But where was the American commander? Scarpered. Mounted on the fastest horse in his army, Horatio Gates had exited the battlefield faster even than the Virginia militia. By the evening of the Battle of Camden, he was 60 miles away. The victor of Saratoga had ridden himself out of the American hall of fame and into ignominy. Victory at Camden moved Britain one step closer to the total conquest of the south and dampened down the growing political opposition to the war. The defeat at Camden rocked the Americans. When Washington arrived at West Point, one of the most formidable American garrisons in the north, there was no sign of Benedict Arnold, the successful American general he'd expected to meet. Arnold, it soon emerged, had gone over to the enemy. Who can we trust now?

Unable to arrest Arnold, Washington insisted on the execution of Major John Andre, the British officer who had negotiated Arnold's defection, and not shot, but ignominiously hanged. "At the present alarming crisis of our affairs, the public safety calls for a solemn and impressive example. "Nothing can satisfy it short of the execution of the prisoner as a common spy." But Washington needn't have felt quite so desperate. Although the British could push on into South Carolina with comparative ease, the Rebels were able to avoid fighting pitched battles. An army marching into country like this was vulnerable to sudden attack, with the defenders able to withdraw into woodland they knew like the back of their hands. The Rebels in the south were gradually realising, like the Vietcong did when fighting the Americans in Vietnam, that guerrilla warfare was a far more effective way of wearing out a powerful well-organised army. Loyalists, like Anthony Allaire, were now sensing that the tide was beginning to turn against them. "This settlement is composed of the most violent Rebels I ever saw. "I can say with propriety, there is not a regiment or detachment of His Majesty's Service

"that ever went through the fatigues or suffered so much as our detachment. "In the first place, we were separated from all the Army acting with the militia.

"We never lay two nights in one place, "frequently making forced marches of 20 and 30 miles in one night, "skirmishing very often, the greatest part of our time without rum or wheat flour. "Rum is a very essential article, "for in marching 10 miles we would ford two or three rivers, "which wet the men up to their waists.

"In this disagreeable situation we remained till October." GUNSHOT To the trees! Allaire was facing the deadly fire of the American long rifle. This is a flintlock rifle. It's ignited in the same way as the musket. It's more expensive, more fragile and won't take a bayonet for hand-to-hand combat. But its barrel is grooved, spinning the ball in flight and making it much more accurate. It's got a killing range of 300 or 400 yards or even further. In countryside like this, the rifle was monarch of all it surveyed. The American rifle took a long time to load and is, of course, nothing like as precise as a modern rifle,

but it's in a different league to the musket. The accuracy of this replica is remarkable. The park ranger at the Cedar Creek Rifle Range, Scott Alexander, has researched the war in this frontier area. I wanted to know if the right to bear arms was an important issue. That was an issue that led to war.

As far as the frontiersmen were concerned, they were fighting for the right of western expansion. For England, the war started because of the illegal encroachment on French and Indian territory.

And the right to bear arms and advance westward were important. And that's why in the constitution the right to bear arms came second in the Bill of Rights, which consists of ten separate rights. It came immediately after freedom of speech. Who do you think people saw the oppressor as being - King George and the Parliament, or rice kings? I think it was such a complicated issue that it was different from one group to another. But you could live in these parts and felt unoppressed by King George who was a long way away. That's true, and then felt very oppressed by the British troops sent by him. Were the Americans right to fight? Unfortunately, it was one of those situations where there was no good answer.

I think it was inevitable, though. And people would simply make their minds up with local influences and local pressures?

And issues in one community that led to the fighting were different than the issues of another community 50 miles away. There were a number of battles, the most famous being Kings Mountain, where there was only one person at the battle who was from overseas. That one person was Major Patrick Ferguson, "Bulldog Ferguson", a courageous Scottish officer, who'd been given the difficult job of recruiting Loyalists and taking on the Rebel guerrillas. But his call to arms for the men of North Carolina showed a lack of tact. You who choose to be pissed upon by a set of mongrels say so at once

and let your women turn their backs upon you and look out for real men to protect them. Ferguson had set up a base at Gilbert Town in North Carolina, but he intended to join the rest of the British Army, moving up from Camden to Charlotte under Cornwallis's command. Then he learned that a Rebel force was gathering in the mountains at Sycamore Shoals. He started to move towards Cornwallis's army, then stopped and made a stand at Kings Mountain. This was going to be an all-American battle. Patrick Ferguson was probably the only British soldier present. The place he chose was here, Kings Mountain, and presumably he chose it on the generally sound military principle

that it's best to hold the high ground. But Kings Mountain, now as then, is heavily wooded, steep and rocky, in fact, ideal terrain for irregulars experienced in guerrilla and Indian fighting. And that precisely describes the over-mountain men who were heading in Ferguson's direction. These were not the rich Rebels of the East Coast. Most were men who scratched a living from land in the west they'd wrenched from Native Americans. Militant Protestants, they resented authority of any kind, especially that of the British King.

For all his bravado, Ferguson knew that he was in for a tough battle.

I should hope for success against them myself, but numbers compared, that must be doubtful. Something must be done soon. Prior to the battle, the eccentric Ferguson donned a distinctive chequered coat.

The trees and rocks at Kings Mountain provided ample cover against the Loyalist volleys.

Eventually, the Loyalists resorted to the battle tactic that had been so effective in the past - the bayonet charge. Anthony Allaire was in the thick of the fighting. "When our detachment charged for the first time, "it fell to my lot to put a Rebel captain to death, which I did with one blow of my sword. "The fellow was at least 6 feet, but I had rather the advantage "as I was mounted on an elegant horse and he on foot. "The Rebels were charged and drove back several times with considerable slaughter." But the Rebels could cope with these Loyalist charges by simply melting away into the trees and reassembling when the charge was over. The Rebels had completely surrounded Kings Mountain, forcing Ferguson to withdraw to this end of the ridge.

That left them free to climb to the end of the ridge he'd abandoned. Ferguson had an elaborate system of whistle signals to communicate his orders.

But as the Rebels came closer, this began to break down and some of the Loyalists attempted to surrender.

Ferguson was determined not to give in to those he regarded with contempt, but by their third assault, the Rebels had got very close to the Loyalists' last enclave.

Aware of the futility of his position, Ferguson attempted to break out.

The Loyalists' plight was now hopeless. They were trapped and their commander had been killed. Ferguson's death did not end the bloodletting. After the Loyalist surrender, the Rebels knifed many prisoners.

In all, 156 Loyalists had been killed compared with just 28 Rebels. News of the defeat spread quickly, undermining Britain's position in the south. The anniversary of the Rebel victory is still commemorated. Those who attend see the victors as patriots, not Rebels. And for some, the Battle of Kings Mountain has strong family associations. I'm here because my great-great- great-great-great-grandfather fought here this day back in 1780. He was part of the over-the-mountain men who came out Wilkes County. He was First Lieutenant Samuel Johnson. That's how I got my name - Sam Johnson. Much like any war, you have to decide which side your heart's behind, and I feel that's what he did. He left home on his wedding night to come here under Colonel Cleveland. Did you have family members on the other side? Not to my knowledge. If so, they were probably erased from our family history! It certainly was a fight for freedom in their hearts, as in our memories. What brings you to Kings Mountain? I have a family member that died in the battle of Kings Mountain. Which side was he on? He was on the patriot side. And was your family all patriots or split? No, he was the only brother who was a patriot. Everybody else remained Loyalist. So the family was very divided. And what happened during the battle? There were two brothers, Preston, my grandfather, and George. They came up to fight in the battle. They saw each other at the same time, fired and killed each other. There are several documents of this happening, and how sad it was that it was brother against brother. And Preston's wife, my grandmother, and a slave, put him on a sled and drug his body about 30 miles to the family burial ground. I'm struck by how this war still resonates today. There's a sense in which the memory of it still defines America, makes it what it is. To the right, face! We commemorate these men, these patriots, this first generation of American veterans. Secure right hand to your firelock! To the right, about! Two steps forward! to win it. Dismissed! For independence and the courage Huzzar! We British, then the enemy, seem to have been forgiven. Elisa Wilkinson, much closer to events, was also prepared to forgive. "A wounded officer was brought. to the house. We could find no rags to dress his wounds - "everything in the house being in such confusion. "But see the native tenderness of an American. "Miss Samuel's took from her neck the only handkerchief the Britons had left her and bound up his arm. "Blush, Britons, and be confounded. "Your delight is cruelty and oppression divested of all humanity, you imitate savages. "The Americans are obliged to commit unavoidable acts of cruelty. "The defence of their country requires it." You seek their lives and liberties and they must either kill or be killed. Yet imitating the all-merciful creator, in the midst of anger, they remember mercy. The victors of Kings Mountain were less inclined to be merciful. After a veneer of judicial proceedings, 36 prisoners were sentenced to hang, 3 at a time. Anthony Allaire was by now a prisoner of the Rebels. Nine fellow Loyalists were hanged before the Rebel commander intervened. Although Allaire escaped, it seemed as if he too might face execution. This is a specimen of Rebel lenity.

You may report it without the least equivocation. For upon the word and honour of a gentleman, this description is not equal to their barbarity. With the defeat at Kings Mountain, it seemed that the British Army had lost the initiative in the south.

Cornwallis and his men headed back southwards. His black allies, well aware of the lynch law they'd receive on the other side, went with him. David George and his family were eventually to find freedom by leaving America altogether. But other liberated slaves were less fortunate. Those who thought their loyalty to Britain would be rewarded would be in for a terrible shock. The great British dream of a powerful alliance with American Loyalists was falling apart, and the guerrilla tactics of the Rebels were proving increasingly effective. But as the War of American Independence moved to its climax, the British Army was determined to prove that it was far from beaten yet. In the next episode, the war reaches its climax. Cornwallis beats the Americans again, but marches to his rendezvous with destiny and French siege guns at Yorktown. Subtitles by Graeme Dibble BBC Broadcast - 2003 E-mail us at