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(generated from captions) the Zambrero restaurant chain

foundation and manages a charitable

foundation while working

Narrabundah care advocate Julie full-time. The local here is

Narrabundah care advocate Julie

Tongs who has spent 14 years

working and campaigning for

Indigenous health. Congratulations. Before

a brief recap, clashes between security forces and protesters

in Egypt are continuing for a

fourth day despite the

resignation of the country's

military appointed cabinet. In

the US, Democrats and

Republicans are blaming each

other after they failed to

agree on how to rein agree on how to rein the in

the country's $15 trillion

debt. That's the news for now.

Stay with us for '7:30' with

Leigh Sales and Chris Uhlmann.

From me, goodnight.

There are a

lot of unanswered questions

about the long-term health

effects. I really don't think

there are any risks. But let's

start in Egypt where the country's Cabinet country's Cabinet has offered

to resign in response to mass

protests against the country's

past three military rulers. During the

people have been killed and

hundreds injured in

pro-democracy rallies. The

protesters want Egypt's leadership transferreded from

the military to a government, but the enormous

instability may actually derail

elections schedule for next

week. Rebecca Baillie reports. For For the fourth night,

pro-democracy protesters have

clashed with military forces in

Cairo's Tahrir Square. With

more than 30 people killed, and

more than a thousand injured.

SIREN WAILS

. It is very dangerous. they

fire hundreds of tear cannons every day, maybe fire hundreds of tear gas

thousands. you can hear sound of the rubber bullets

every single minute and you can

see people get shot around you.

EXPLOSION It burns your

lungs. You can feel the gas going through your body.

It It's ominous for the

outlook, not only for Egypt,

but also across the

region. Frustrated and furious

with the slow progression to

democracy, the protesters are calling on the ruling military

council to relinquish power to

a civilian-led government. It

is unbearable, honestly, and

it's not good when someone

gives you a promise like to

deliver power in six months and

then the government does not keep the promise. It is annoying and when you see them

lying. Chemical engineer Saleh

Fekry has been actively

involved in Egypt's revolution since protests earlier this

year led to the ousting of

President Hosni Mubarak's

regime. He is now back in

Tahrir Square where he has

taken these photos of people,

he says, have been injured by

the police and military forces.

They say that there is no live

ammunition, but there is live ammunition.

SIREN WAILS

. They lie about the numbers,

the numbers of people who die.

Why do they lie? Why do they not want democracy?

CHANTING The popular uprising

in Egypt began earlier this year when wide-scale

demonstrations across the

country forced an end to Mubarak's 30-year rule. Back

then, the military stepped in

to protect protesters from

police and pro-Mubarak

militias. Now the crowds which

had welcomed the military's

intervention are demanding it withdraws. Basically the

military who were, in many

ways, the protector of the

initial process have reached

their use-by date in terms of

their political credibility and

that has combined with a

economic outlook for wholesale regression in the

Centre for Arab and Islamic

Studies, Bob Bowker is a former

Australian ambassador to

Egypt. Our greatest concern at this moment is that we could this

well be on the point where a

social insurrection becomes a

real factor on top of the

political protests that we're

seeing, and the answer has to

lie in the restoration of a

credible civilian political

authority. The military rarely in history has acted as agent

of democratic change and the

sooner the military withdraws

to the barracks and engage in

the main function of protect

ing the national independence

and national unity of Egypt and

the passing on of the power,

the better. Professor Amin

Saikal from the Centre of Arab

and Islamic Studies at ANU says the military is doing the many

bidding of the United States

and Israel. Egypt has a past

history of Israel. Many

Egyptians are opposed to that peace treaty but as far as the

United States and its allies

are concerned they would like

to see this peace treaty

remaining in place and

therefore the border between

Israel and Egypt remaining

quiet. I think that the

military have blundered into

this situation. I don't believe

there is some grander scheme at

proven to be politically inept.

They have not understood the

popular mood. The interim

government led by Prime Minister Essam Sharaf has

tendered its resignation. Both

Amin Saikal and Bob Bowker are

adamant this latest unrest is

disastrous for free elections

schedule to begin next

week. When we look at Tunisia

and Egypt, those were the two

best prospects for making the

Arab Spring into something

which was going to produce a

new era of accountability and

empowerment which the region

desperately needs. If Egypt

goes wrong, then we are looking

at a very serious setback for

those prospects. I think the

short-term situation is going

to be very messy. I don't think

we really expect something

solid will emerge over the next

two, three years. Any

transition of this kind takes

quite a long time. What's

certain for Egyptians like

Saleh Fekry, though, is the

longer political and social

chaos rains in Cairo, the

longer and rockier their road

to democracy We want to know

how the process will continue

for something, they give you because sometimes when you ask

something else. For now we're

going to stay until we know exactly what's going to happen. Canberra now where the Federal

Government says it's confident

its $11 billion mining tax will

pass the Lower House, but it

Greens still to sign up to the might not be tonight with the

amendments negotiated with the

Independents. If it does pass,

Julia Gillard will no doubt

claim it as another milestone

in her self-proclaimed year of

decision and delivery. Both the

Prime Minister and the Opposition Leader made their final pitches to their

partyrooms today and needless to

to say, their respective takes

on the year in politics pretty different. Here's political editor Chris Uhlmann.

The last of the The last of the headline

international acts is touring.

Crown Prince Frederik and

Princess Mary of Denmark

received a traditional welcome

in Canberra. And a less

orthodox one And just

word for her highness - Mary,

she has given all the young

women in this land a second

breath that may be out there,

is this amazing Prince

Charming., and he's waiting for her.

her. It's not just a princess

that the two countries share.

There is an eerie echo in the

strains of the anthems. (National anthems play) The tones have heralded Julia

Gillard at Gillard at three weeks of international events which have

shown her in a more flattering prime ministerial prime ministerial light. Opinion polls don't measure

the vibe around the leaders, or that

that most precious of political

commodities, momentum Can I say

to the Opposition that your

relentless negativity and Prime Minister will

resume. With success on the

world stage,-the-carbon tax

passed and a win on the mining

tax looming, the Prime Minister

is finally swimming with is finally swimming with the

political tide, and she appears

to be growing in confidence.

This is how she dealt with the

question of not telling the

Foreign Minister that she would

push to overturn Labor's policy on uranium sales to India. I

made that decision. I viewed

"it" it as a leader's call and

I took it. Julia Gillard

thanksed Caucus today for its

courage and resolution through

a long year. She said it had proved perseverance listed the party's achievements, saying that the

year had lived up to her

declaration that it would be

one of decision and delivery. She pointed to the rude health

of the economy and the jobs

that had been

than 700,000 created since the Government first came to office. The churlish might

argue that the Government's

border protection plans are in

tatters and its polling is

still dire, but there are signs

that Labor is beginning to box the Opposition Leader into a

corner. The facts don't change

no matter how many times you say say no. The facts don't change

no matter how relentlessly

negative you are. Labor today

released a booklet to hammer home its favourite theme with

Tony Abbott. The voters have

come to understand that the

Opposition Leader is a

one-trick Tony, that he says

no, no, no, no, no and no. By

almost any measure, Tony Abbott

has had the better of this

year. He told his joint partyroom today that the

community saw the Government as

wasteful and incompetent and Julia recent improvement was the result of her stalking world

leaders in search of a photo

opportunity. Julia Gillard has

had the benefit of rubbing shoulders with the glitterati

in recent times, but whilst

that has been of benefit to

her, I think the Australian

people are capable of seeing

past that and it is still the policies

policies that are of a problem

to Labor and that's reflected

in the polls. But as the finish

line nears, some of Tony

Abbott's compromises and become evident and some in his

party are getting restless. He was questioned today by two

Liberal Party members over how'

rived at his recent decision to oppose the mining tax, yet

support an increase in the

superannuation levy. Some say

he isn't listening and allowing

the Labor Party too much of a

free reign Maybe it was August

or September. The task Tony

Abbott has set himself is large

and he now clearly feels the

need to address the jibe that

he is relentlessly will deliver personal income

tax cuts and a fairer deal for pensioners without a carbon

tax. We will deliver some

company tax cuts without a

mining tax. This will require significant cuts to government

spending which won't be easy,

but are achievable and will be

spelt out in detail in good

time before the next election. Since becoming

Opposition Leader, I've said no

to a carbon tax because I say

yes to affordable power. I've

said no to a mining tax because I say yes jobs in our strongest industry.

I've said no to mandatory

pre-commitment for poker

machines because I say yes to

more effective counselling and

yes to a less intrusive nanny state. The Opposition Leader's

keen to paint the Government's

mid-year economic statement,

due in the next fortnight, as a sign of poor economic

management. A crisis mini

budget is now necessary, regardless of how the

Government tries to spin it

away, because Labor has turned an inherited surplus into the four largest deficits in our

history, and we're now staring

down the barrel of the fifth substantial deficit in a row. '7:30' understand the Government's

will say that the crisis in

Europe has affected confidence, hiring intentions

hiring intentions and

employment, and that will see a multibillion-dollar hit to

revenue. We are preparing our

materials and forecasts for the mid-year fiscal and economic

outlook and given the

uncertainty, given the hit to

confidence, given all of

confidence, given all of the impacts of the global financial impact on revenues. Making

savings will test the

Government, but its return to

surplus isn't just about

economics because it sees the European disease as European disease as a failure

of politics, and it's

determined not to follow suit.

So the exercise will also test

Tony Abbott. The Government

will find cuts. Will the

Opposition Leader support them,

or just say no? Political editor

editor Chris Uhlmann. Well,

once again, markets around the

world are plummeting due fears over global debt. The United States can't seem to find a way to cut its

borrowings and economic

instability continues to dog

Europe. One person who has

observed the ongoing global

meltdown very closely is

Michael Lewis, one of the

world's most successful

non-fiction authors. Two of his

books, 'The Blind Side' and

'Moneyball' have been turned

into blockbuster films. He has

spent the past few years

travelling to countries hardest

hit by the financial crisis to

find out what caused it and how different people have His new book, 'Boomerang' is a

collection of essays he has

written to 'Vanity Fair'

magazine about the GFC and he

joined me earlier from

California. Michael Lewis, in

'Boomerang', you've taken a

tour through five of the

countries hardest hit by the

global financial crisis. Are

you able to say looking at

those five countries if there are any common factors that

have caused this crisis at its

core? The core of the crisis is

the same everywhere. The core

is an incouldn't nens in the global

enabled all sorts of people and companies and banks and

countries to borrow money that they shouldn't have been

allowed to borrow, at least

under the terms at which they

borrowed the money. The thing

that is so interesting to me,

even though the core is the same everywhere, the

consequences are different

everywhere because people

responded to this temptation depending on where they were. Let's turn our attention to Greece. in Greece without anybody to Greece. How did

saying, "Hang on a minute,

what's going on here? Is this

actually OK?"? Not only did

nobody in Greece say very much about it as it was happening,

but the Greeks actually

disguised their own books. The

Greek Government with the help

of Goldman Sachs cooked its

books to enter the euro back in

2001 and I think the answer to

your question is just in no-one's interest to blow any kind of whistle and

say, "This is unsustainable."

There were a handful of people

who were protesting the

outrages of the Greek

Government. A former finance

minister named Steph know Monos

who did things like calculate

that with the inefficiency with

which the Greek national

railroad was run, it would

actually pay Greece just to put

all the passengers in taxi cabs

and close down the national

railroad, but problem in Greece is that

everybody is kind of in on it.

There were too many - everybody

one way or another benefitted

from this handout operation that the state about the Germans? Why are they

the one whose are going to be

lumped for the bill for what's

going on in Europe? The German

example is riveting because

it's not as if the Germans were

spared this temptation. The

Germans could have done what we in America

in America did, with all these

different European countries

did, they could have used the temptation of very cheap

to create real estate bubbles,

to send their banks out on

conquests of the world or whatever it was that they might

have wanted to do,

German people behaved very,

very, very responsibly. I mean,

to this day, it is a taboo in

Germany to borrow money for

consumption, to borrow money

you can't repay. There are in

place still these social strictures that constrain personal behaviour, and as a relatively very, very sound

footing, and having behaved responsibly, having increased

their productivity, they are -

they are the deep pockets in

Europe. They don't have debts

they can't afford to repay, and

so you've got this very strange

situation in Europe where

you've got one population, one

national population, the German

people, who feel that we behave well, all these other people

have behaved badly, why should we now be on the hook for their

losses?" So it's just a kind of

digging their heels in feeling.

" We're not going there. We're

not going, for example, enable the European Central bank to

bail out these other countries

because we were promised that

we wouldn't have to do it."

And I And I think they feel like they

control their destiny. I think

that there is a feeling that

they're not going to have to do

it if they don't want to do it.

The question is then what what do you think becomes of

the euro? I think it fractures.

I don't know how many countries

leave it, but I don't believe,

for example, five years from now the now the Greek currency will be the euro. I think the euro. I think it will be

something else. I think the

pressures in the markets now -

one of two things has to

happen, either the German

people reverse themselves and

that seems very unlikely

because the German people seem to be becoming hostile to to be becoming more, hostile to the idea of bailouts

and they enable the European

Central bank to essentially buy

up all the Italian and Spanish

and Greek government bonds they

need to, to finance these

countries, or the financial

markets force the issue and

these countries on the

periphery aren't able to fund themselves. The latter looks

more likely to me T looks to me

like what you're going to get

like what you're going to get is the Greek people after

long periods of austerity are

getting frustrated with the euro and probably voluntarily

exiting. How does what's going on

on in the US on in the US economy compare to Europe? You know, it's funny,

the US financial system is in

the way the tallest midget

because we are till in a mess.

We still have these banks that

are too big to fail that are now effectively government

guaranteed and they're still doing speculative kind of things. profits from speculative

activity. If it all goes wrong,

taxpayers get the losses. There

is a lot of outrage about that and I think that mere fact is

at the bottom of the Occupy

Wall Street movement. We don't

look like the look like the problem. Right

now we, improbable as it is,

like a safe haven. You mentioned the Occupy Wall

Street movement, what have you

made of that and do you see it

as anything more than a niche

protest? I think it's a really

big deal, but

parks in various cities may or

may not be a big deal. That's -

not so much that, but there is

a pal panl anger about what has. Palpable anger about what

has happened here, this

grotesque injustice has been

committed. The elites of

society orchestrated a

financial debacle that they were

were then rescued from. The

consequences of that debacle

are now felt by less privileged people, and everybody

two sets of rules. One set of

rules if you happen to work in

this paper shuffling financial

system and other set of rule fs you happen

you happen to be out you happen to be out in the

real world, productive world.

Socialist for capitalism and

capitalism for everybody else

and that outrages people.

America will put up with great

inequalities of wealth, but the

idea that some people, no

matter how badly they perform

are not allowed to fail is outrageous to

that anger is fueling not just

the Occupy Wall Street

movement, but the Tea Party movement, so what you've got here is growing, that will express itself

politically one way or

another. Michael Lewis,

pleasure to have you on the

program. Thank you very much. Thanks for having me. In

every Australian state there

are currently battles under way

to stop the construction of mobile phone towers near

schools. Just this morning a

meeting was held in the Sydney

suburb of Double Bay to plan strategy against a tower that Optus wants to erect about 100m from a primary school. Two bills before Federal Parliament

aim to give communities more

say about where the towers can

be installed. Communities are worried about electromagnetic radiation, even though the science surrounding the

long-term risks from exposure

is hotly contested. Martin

Cuddihy reports.

So many of us use them every

day. Smart phones and tablet computers keep people connected to each endless Streep of news, entertainment and opinion.

After sing more, Australia has

more smart phones per capita than anywhere else in the world In

world In fact, in Australia we

see mobile data traffic doubling

doubling every 9 to 12 months. Growing demand for

network capacity means there is

a swag of infrastructure needed

to keep people on the phone and online. Towers are the spine of

this interconnected web N June,

the World Health Organisation fields could possibly cause

cancer, but conversely, it also

states there is no convincing

scientific evidence that weak

signals from bay stations cause adverse health effects. I

really don't think that there are any risks of the science

can never be 100% sure , of

course, but we don't have any

research pointing to it being a

problem. Charnt

chant. Nevertheless, across

Australia dozens of communities

have been involved in campaigns

to either move mobile phone towers or scrap them altogether, leading one

campaign in Tasmania is Anthea

Hopkins I think the fact that

this is sitting in a high density residential area as

well, a lot of people with

young children that will have

24-hour exposure that there is just a

just a lot of feeling in the

community that there would be a

better place for a tower. Initially, two telcos

wanted to put a tower on top of

a supermarket in the Hobart

suburb of Sandy Bay. Telstra

pulled out after the community

expressed its concern, but

Optus signs are still on the

proposed site, although the telco hold and alternatives are being looked at. We looked at. We mentioned

aesthetics were one of the

reasons why locals were

objecting to the tower. Is this simply a simply a case of not in my

backyard No, I don't think it

is a case of not in my backyard

at all. Anthea Hopkins says she

uses a smart phone herself and

says she couldn't do without

it, but that's not the issue It

is that there is proper community consultation.

The legislation allows

efficient and effective deployment infrastructure.Ist's got the balance right. Under the

telecommunications Act, a telco

has the power to install a

tower on private land if it's

classified as a low impact facility. Telcos do this by

issuing a land activity access

notice, and then following an

industry code of practice. This code, by our estimatation,

results in around five times

more consultation than would normally happen through a

development application in a

council. It is a very important

code, it's just been readvised

and part of the revision consultation There is still a

lot of anger in this community

over the way that Telstra, the

telco at the time conducted

themselves. In the inner Brisbane suburb of Bardon,

Sandra Boland stopped the

installation of a phone tower

about 100m from a local primary

school. The community took

Telstra to court. We know that

the science community is very

much divided and there are a

lot of unanswered questions about the long-term health

effects of this kind of EME. Both Optus and Telstra

were happy to let the industry

representative do the talking

for them Sometimes proposals

are withdrawn based on

community concerns, so thera

a high level of dialogue that

goes on here. Most community concerns centre around long-term health

effects because towers

constantly emit a low level of electromagnetic radiation. The

Australian radiation protection

and nuclear safety agency and nuclear safety agency or

SRPNSA is the Government body that sets the North standard.

One critic is Don Maisch. He recently completed a PhD that

examined the radiation

standards. When you try to

relie upon standards to give an

assurance of safety, it aet not. There He believes the

radiation is affecting people

at a cellular level. Not all

the radiation can be attributed

to this to you ber, - tower, but but when we went up a flight of

stairs,ed readings were as much

as six times higher. The

general thrust of the study is showing that there is an

effect. I mean, we recently had

the international agency for

research on cancer come up and

classify radio frequency as a

possible human carcinogen.

In terms of health we've got

good reason to think there is not a problem. Until July,

Professor Rodney Croft was Professor Rodney Croft was the manage pg Director. Any number

of studies that do show ap I do

have them available that the chronic exposure, that

long-term exposure which is not

in the standards can have

adverse effect on health.

Where there has been a study

suggesting that there may be a

problem, it's then been

followed up. People have tested

it, tried to find the same

results, and they consistently

fail to do that. The towers

typically operate at levels the health standards set by the World Health Organisation, but

with communities still battling

towers in every State, the

issue is unlikely to disappear

any time soon. Martin Cuddihy

reporting. That's the program for tonight. 'Foreign

Correspondent' is next with its

final episode of 2011. The team

goes behind the scenes of some

of the standout stories of the

year and I promise you there

are some great moments. We'll be back at the same time

tomorrow. But for